List of African-American United States presidential and vice presidential candidates

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In 1848, Frederick Douglass became the first African-American presidential candidate. His candidacy preceded black suffrage in the U.S.
In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African-American presidential candidate nominated by a major party, namely the Democrats. He is the first African American to be elected and re-elected President of the United States.

The following is a list of African-American United States presidential and vice-presidential nominees and candidates for nomination. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed are those African Americans who achieved ballot access for the national election in at least one state. They may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the major parties, or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.

Not included in the first two tables are African Americans who lost campaigns in nominating conventions or primary elections for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates.

The third table includes African Americans who ran for their party's presidential nomination but who were not nominated, as well as those who are currently pursuing their party's presidential nomination (when applicable).

Barack Obama became the first African-American candidate to be nominated by a major party, and the first to win, for either president or vice president when he became the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 2008 election and was elected. He was re-elected in the 2012 election.

U.S. Presidential candidates: Party nominees[edit]

Denotes winning candidate.

Candidates receiving electoral votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Electoral
Votes
Total
Electoral
Votes
2008 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 365 538
2012 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 332 538
2016 Colin Powell Not applicable[1] Not applicable 3 538

Candidates receiving popular votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1904 George Edwin Taylor[2] National Liberty Party W.C. Payne scattering[3]
1960 Clennon King Independent Afro-American Party Reginald Carter 1,485
1964 Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Ed Shaw 32,706
1968 Eldridge Cleaver Peace and Freedom Party Various candidates 36,623[4]
1968 Dick Gregory Freedom and Peace Party Various candidates 47,097
1968 Charlene Mitchell Communist Party Michael Zagarell 1,076
1976 Margaret Wright People's Party Benjamin Spock 49,013
1980 Clifton DeBerry Socialist Workers Party Matilde Zimmermann 38,738
1980 Andrew Pulley Socialist Workers Party Matilde Zimmermann 6,264[5]
1984 Larry Holmes Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 17,985
1984 Dennis L. Serrette New Alliance Party Nancy Ross 46,853
1984 Edward Winn Socialist Equality Party Helen Halyard 10,801
1988 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Joyce Dattner 217,219
1988 Larry Holmes Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 7,846
1988 James Warren Socialist Workers Party Kathleen Mickells 15,602
1988 Edward Winn Socialist Equality Party Helen Halyard 18,693
1992 Ronald Daniels Peace and Freedom Party Asiba Tupahache 27,949
1992 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Maria Elizabeth Muñoz 73,714
1992 Helen Halyard Workers League Fred Mazelis 3,050
1992 Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Walter Masters 327
1992 James Warren Socialist Workers Party Various candidates 23,533
1996 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Laura Garza 8,476
1996 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 29,083
1996 Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Shirley Jean Masters 752
2000 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Margaret Trowe 7,038
2000 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 4,795
2000 Randall A. Venson Independent Gene Kelly 547
2004 James Harris[6] Socialist Workers Party Margaret Trowe 7,102
2004 John Parker Workers World Party Teresa Gutierrez 1,646
2008 James Harris[6] Socialist Workers Party Alyson Kennedy 2,424
2008 Alan Keyes America's Independent Party Brian Rohrbough 47,756[7]
2008 Cynthia McKinney Green Party Rosa Clemente 150,061
2008 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 69,498,215
2012 Stewart Alexander Socialist Party Alejandro Mendoza 4,405[8]
2012 Andre Barnett Reform Party Ken Cross 956[8]
2012 James Harris Socialist Workers Party Maura DeLuca 4,117[8]
2012 Peta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Yari Osorio 7,791[8]
2012 Barack Obama Democratic Party Joe Biden 65,915,796[8]
2016 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Lamont Lilly 4,314
2016 Clifton Roberts[9] Humane Party Breeze Harper[10] 86[11]

U.S. Vice-Presidential candidates: Party nominees[edit]

Through the 2016 presidential election, no African-American candidates have received electoral votes for vice president.

Candidates receiving popular votes[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1872 Frederick Douglass[12] Equal Rights Party Victoria Woodhull Unreported
1928 Simon P. Drew Interracial Independent Party[13] Jacob S. Coxey[14][15]
1932 James W. Ford Communist Party William Z. Foster 102,991
1936 James W. Ford Communist Party Earl Browder 80,195
1940 James W. Ford Communist Party Earl Browder
1952 Charlotta Bass Progressive Party Vincent Hallinan 140,023
1968 Paul Boutelle Socialist Workers Party Fred Halstead
1972 Julius Hobson People's Party Benjamin Spock 78,759
1972 Jarvis Tyner Communist Party Gus Hall
1976 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Peter Camejo 90,986
1976 Jarvis Tyner Communist Party Gus Hall
1980 Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 43,871
1984 Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 36,386
1984 Helen Halyard[16] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 10,801
1988 Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 18,693
1992 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
1996 Shirley Jean Masters Looking Back Party Isabell Masters 752
2000 Ezola B. Foster Reform Party Pat Buchanan 449,225
2004 Arrin Hawkins Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 3,689
2004 Jim Lawrence Socialist Equality Party Bill Van Auken 1,857
2008 Stewart Alexander Socialist Party Brian Moore 7,315
2008 Eugene Puryear Party for Socialism and Liberation Gloria La Riva 7,478
2016 Ajamu Baraka Green Party Jill Stein 1,457,044
2016 Osborne Hart Socialist Workers Party Alyson Kennedy 11,667
2016 Lamont Lilly Workers World Party Monica Moorehead 4,003
2016 Eugene Puryear Peace and Freedom Party Gloria La Riva 43,445
2016 Angela Nicole Walker Socialist Party USA Mimi Soltysik 2,579
2016 Breeze Harper[10] Humane Party Clifton Roberts[9] 86[11]

U.S. President: Other candidates for party nomination[edit]

Candidates who failed to receive their party's nomination (or who are currently campaigning for their party's nomination). Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1848 Frederick Douglass Liberty Party 1 vote at national convention[17] Gerrit Smith
1888 Frederick Douglass Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Benjamin Harrison
1968 Channing E. Phillips Democratic Party 67.5 votes at national convention Hubert Humphrey
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 152 votes at national convention George McGovern
1972 Walter Fauntroy Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention; 21,217 votes (71.78%) and winner of Washington, D.C. primary George McGovern
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Jimmy Carter
1976 Walter Fauntroy Democratic Party 10,149 votes (30.49%) (2nd place) in Washington, D.C. primary Jimmy Carter
1984 Jesse Jackson Democratic Party 466 votes at national convention Walter Mondale
1988 Jesse Jackson Democratic Party 1218.5 votes at national convention Michael Dukakis
1992 Douglas Wilder Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses Bill Clinton
1992 Alan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention. Keyes was the Republican candidate in the U.S. Senate election in Maryland at the time, and was not actively seeking the presidency in 1992. George H.W. Bush
1996 Alan Keyes Republican Party 1 vote at national convention Bob Dole
1996 Isabell Masters Republican Party 1052 votes (7th place) in Oklahoma primary[18] Bob Dole
2000 Alan Keyes Republican Party 6 votes at national convention George W. Bush
2000 Angel Joy Rocker[19] Republican Party 6 votes in Alabama straw poll[20] George W. Bush
2004 Carol Moseley Braun Democratic Party Withdrew before Iowa caucuses John Kerry
2004 Al Sharpton Democratic Party Earned 26 delegates in 5 primaries and caucuses John Kerry
2008 Alan Keyes Republican Party Keyes withdrew from Republican Party on April 15, 2008, but remained on the Republican ballot in several states. John McCain
2008 Alan Keyes Constitution Party 125.7 votes (24.36%) (2nd place) at national convention. Chuck Baldwin
2012 Herman Cain Republican Party Withdrew on December 3, 2011.

Mitt Romney

2016 Ben Carson Republican Party Announced candidacy on May 3, 2015. Withdrew on March 4. Earned 9 delegates. Donald Trump
2016 Willie Wilson Democratic Party Announced candidacy on June 1, 2015. Hillary Clinton
2016 John Fitzgerald Johnson Democratic Party Announced candidacy on August 23, 2015.
2016 Monica Moorehead Peace and Freedom Party 1,369 votes (30%) (2nd place) in California primary[21] Gloria La Riva

U.S. Vice-President: Other candidates for party nomination[edit]

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1856 Frederick Douglass Political Abolitionist[13] Samuel T. McFarland[22]
1880 Blanche Bruce Republican Party 8 votes at national convention[23] Chester A. Arthur
1888 Blanche Bruce Republican Party 11 votes at national convention[23] Levi P. Morton
1968 Julian Bond Democratic Party 48.5 votes at national convention Edmund Muskie
1972 Julian Bond Democratic Party 1 vote at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 20 votes at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1972 Ron Dellums Democratic Party 4 votes at national convention Thomas Eagleton
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 17 votes in national convention Walter Mondale
1980 Mel Boozer Democratic Party 49 votes in national convention[24] Walter Mondale
2016 Larry Sharpe Libertarian Party 264 votes in national convention (1st ballot); 409 votes in national convention (2nd ballot) William Weld
Derrick Grayson 48 votes in national convention (1st ballot); 9 votes in national convention (2nd ballot)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Colin Powell did not run for president in 2016. He received the votes of 3 faithless electors from Washington. Powell, a Republican, had endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election and received his electoral votes from Democratic electors.
  2. ^ Wisconsin Labor Advocate, La Crosse, Wis. : Geo. E. Taylor, 1886- Archived 2009-09-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ The World Almanac & Encyclopedia. 1908. p. 268.  "they received only a few scattering votes of which there is no exact record."
  4. ^ Does not include 27,887 votes cast for the party's ticket in California and Utah, where Cleaver's name did not appear on the ballot because he was under 35 years old.
  5. ^ Leip, David (2005). "1980 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  6. ^ a b In 2004 and 2008, Harris served as a stand-in nominee for the Socialist Workers Party in states where the party's main presidential nominee, Róger Calero, was ineligible because he was not a natural-born citizen.
  7. ^ Winger, Richard (2009-01-06). "2008 Presidential Vote (not final)". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Federal Elections 2012 (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Federal Election Commission. 2013. p. 5. 
  9. ^ a b Gunzburger, Ron (2016). "2016 Presidential Candidates". Politics1. Retrieved 2017-03-20. 
  10. ^ a b "Breaking: Humane Party announces Dr. Breeze Harper as Vice Presidential nominee". The Onion Knight Show. June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "2016 Presidential Election by State". The Green Papers. February 5, 2017. Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  12. ^ Douglass did not acknowledge the nomination or participate in the campaign.
  13. ^ a b Walton, Hanes. Invisible politics: Black political behavior. p.92.
  14. ^ Guzman, Jessie Parkhurst. Negro Year Book - An Annual Encyclopedia of the Negro 1931-1932 p.87.
  15. ^ "National Affairs: Fifth Party". Time. June 18, 1928. 
  16. ^ Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
  17. ^ "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y., June..." 1848. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  19. ^ "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
  20. ^ "Republican Party". Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. 
  21. ^ "President Peace and Freedom - Statewide Results". Office of the Secretary of State of California. Government of California. 8 June 2016. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. 
  22. ^ Wesley, Dr. Charles H. (March 14, 1953). "The Greatest American". The Afro-American. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  23. ^ a b Ragsdale, Bruce; Joel D. Treese (1990). Black Americans in Congress, 1870-1989. Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives. p. 8. 
  24. ^ Sears, p. 389

References[edit]

  • Sears, Thomas James (2001). Rebels, Rubyfruit, and Rhinestones: Queering Space in the Stonewall South. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2964-6.