List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of African countries)
Jump to: navigation, search
Africa (orthographic projection).svg

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa. It includes both fully recognized states, states with limited recognition, and dependent territories of both African and non-African states. It lists 54 sovereign states and 10 non-sovereign territories.

Malta and parts of France, Italy, Portugal and Spain are located on the African continental plate, some considerably closer to the African than European mainland, but politically are generally considered European by convention. Similarly, the island of Socotra is also on the African plate and much closer to Africa, but is politically part of the Asian state of Yemen. Egypt, although extending into Asia through the Sinai Peninsula, is considered an African state.

Sovereign states[edit]

Recognised states[edit]

The following 54 fully recognised states are all members of the United Nations,[1] and as of 2015, all except Morocco and the Central African Republic are members of the African Union.[2][3][4]

* = Membership Withdrawn[n 1]
* = Membership Suspended[n 2]
Flag Map English short and formal names
[5][6][7]
Domestic short and formal names[5][6] Capital
[7][8][9]
Population[a][b]
[10]
Area[a][b]
[11]
Flag of Algeria
Location Algeria AU Africa.svg Algeria

People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Arabic: الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية — الجزائر (al-Jazāʼir — al Jumhū̄rī̄yah al Jazā̄ʼirī̄yah ad Dī̄muqrāţ̧īyah ash Sha‘bī̄yah) Algiers

Arabic: الجزائر (al-Jazā’er)
33,333,267 2,381,740 km2 (919,595 sq mi)
Flag of Angola.svg
Location Angola AU Africa.svg Angola

Republic of Angola
Portuguese: Angola — República de Angola Luanda

Portuguese: Luanda
16,941,000 1,246,700 km2 (481,354 sq mi)
Flag of Benin.svg
Location Benin AU Africa.svg Benin

Republic of Benin
French: Bénin — République du Bénin Porto-Novo

French: Porto-Novo
8,439,000 112,622 km2 (43,484 sq mi)
Flag of Botswana.svg
Location Botswana AU Africa.svg Botswana

Republic of Botswana
English: Botswana — Republic of Botswana

Tswana: Botswana — Lefatshe la Botswana
Gaborone

English: Gaborone

Tswana: Gaborone
1,839,833 581,726 km2 (224,606 sq mi)
Flag of Burkina Faso.svg
Location Burkina Faso AU Africa.svg Burkina Faso French: Burkina Faso Ouagadougou

French: Ouagadougou
13,228,000 274,000 km2 (105,792 sq mi)
Flag of Burundi.svg
Location Burundi AU Africa.svg Burundi

Republic of Burundi
Kirundi: Burundi — Republika y'u Burundi

French: Burundi— République du Burundi
Bujumbura

Kirundi: Bujumbura

French: Bujumbura
7,548,000 27,830 km2 (10,745 sq mi)
Flag of Cameroon.svg
Location Cameroon AU Africa.svg Cameroon

Republic of Cameroon
English: Cameroon — Republic of Cameroon

French: Cameroun — République du Cameroun
Yaoundé

English: Yaoundé

French: Yaoundé
17,795,000 475,442 km2 (183,569 sq mi)
Flag of Cape Verde.svg
Location Cape Verde AU Africa.svg Cape Verde

Republic of Cabo Verde
Portuguese: Cabo Verde — República de Cabo Verde Praia

Portuguese: Praia
420,979 4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg
Location Central African Republic AU Africa.svg Central African Republic Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka

French: République centrafricaine
Bangui

French: Bangui
4,216,666 622,984 km2 (240,535 sq mi)
Flag of Chad.svg
Location Chad AU Africa.svg Chad

Republic of Chad
Arabic: تشاد — جمهورية تشاد (Tshā̄d — Jumhū̄rī̄yat Tshā̄d)

French: Tchad — République du Tchad
N'Djamena

Arabic: نجامينا (Nijāmīnā)

French: Ndjamena
10,146,000 1,284,000 km2 (495,755 sq mi)
Flag of the Comoros.svg
Location Comoros AU Africa.svg Comoros

Union of the Comoros
Arabic: جمهورية القمر المتحدة — جزر القمر (Juzur al Qamar — Jumhūrīyat al Qamar al Muttaḩidah)

Comorian: Komori — Udzima wa Komori

French: Comores — Union des Comores
Moroni

Arabic: موروني (Mūrūnī)

French: Moroni
798,000 2,235 km2 (863 sq mi)
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
Location DR Congo AU Africa.svg Democratic Republic of the Congo[n 3] French: République démocratique du Congo Kinshasa

French: Léopoldville
75,507,308 2,344,858 km2 (905,355 sq mi)
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg
Location Republic of the Congo AU Africa.svg Republic of the Congo[n 4] French: République du Congo Brazzaville

French: Brazzaville
4,012,809 342,000 km2 (132,047 sq mi)
Flag of Djibouti.svg
Location Djibouti AU Africa.svg Djibouti

Republic of Djibouti
Arabic: جمهُوِ َّرية بوت — جي ُ ِ بوت (Jī̄bū̄tī̄ — Jumhū̄rī̄yat Jī̄bū̄tī̄)

French: Djibouti — République de Djibouti
Djibouti City

Arabic: (مدينة جيبوتي)

French: Ville de Djibouti
906,000 23,200 km2 (8,958 sq mi)
Flag of Egypt.svg
Location Egypt AU Africa.svg Egypt

Arab Republic of Egypt[n 5]
Arabic: جمهُوِ َّرية مص — مص (Miş̧r — Jumhū̄rī̄yat Miş̧r al ‘Arabī̄yah) Cairo

Arabic: القاهرة (al-Qāhirah)
84,550,000 1,001,449 km2 (386,662 sq mi)
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg
Location Equatorial Guinea AU Africa.svg Equatorial Guinea

Republic of Equatorial Guinea
French: Guinée équatoriale — République de Guinée équatoriale

Portuguese: Guiné Equatorial — República da Guiné Equatorial

Spanish: Guinea Ecuatorial — República de Guinea Ecuatorial
Malabo[n 6]

French: Malabo

Portuguese: Malabo

Spanish: Malabo
504,000 28,051 km2 (10,831 sq mi)
Flag of Eritrea.svg
Location Eritrea AU Africa.svg Eritrea

State of Eritrea
Arabic: دولة إرتريا — إريتريا (Irī̄trī̄yā — Dawlat Irī̄trī̄yā)

English: Eritrea — State of Eritrea

Tigrinya: ኤርትራ — ሃገረ ኤርትራ (Ertra — Hagere Ertra)
Asmara

5,880,000 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi)
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Location Ethiopia AU Africa.svg Ethiopia

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Amharic: Iትዮጵያ — የIትዮጵያ ፈደራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ (Ītyōṗṗyā — Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dēmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk) Addis Ababa

85,237,338 1,104,300 km2 (426,373 sq mi)
Flag of Gabon.svg
Location Gabon AU Africa.svg Gabon

Gabonese Republic
French: Gabon — République gabonaise Libreville

French: Libreville
1,384,000 267,668 km2 (103,347 sq mi)
Flag of The Gambia.svg
Location Gambia AU Africa.svg Gambia

Republic of the Gambia
English: Gambia — Republic of the Gambia Banjul

English: Banjul
1,517,000 10,380 km2 (4,008 sq mi)
Flag of Ghana.svg
Location Ghana AU Africa.svg Ghana

Republic of Ghana
English: Ghana — Republic of Ghana Accra

English: Accra
23,000,000 238,534 km2 (92,098 sq mi)
Flag of Guinea.svg
Location Guinea AU Africa.svg Guinea[n 7]

Republic of Guinea
French: Guinée — République de Guinée Conakry

French: Conakry
10,057,975 245,857 km2 (94,926 sq mi)
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg
Location Guinea Bissau AU Africa.svg Guinea-Bissau

Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Portuguese: Guiné-Bissau — República da Guiné-Bissau Bissau

Portuguese: Bissau
1,586,000 36,125 km2 (13,948 sq mi)
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg
Location Côte d'Ivoire AU Africa.svg Ivory Coast

Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
French: Côte d'Ivoire — République de Côte d'Ivoire Yamoussoukro

French: Yamoussoukro
17,654,843 322,460 km2 (124,503 sq mi)
Flag of Kenya.svg
Location Kenya AU Africa.svg Kenya

Republic of Kenya
English: Kenya — Republic of Kenya

Swahili: Kenya — Jamhuri ya Kenya
Nairobi

English: Nairobi

Swahili: Nairobi
34,707,817 580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi)
Flag of Lesotho.svg
Location Lesotho AU Africa.svg Lesotho

Kingdom of Lesotho
English: Lesotho — Kingdom of Lesotho

Sotho: Lesotho— Muso oa Lesotho
Maseru

English: Maseru

Sotho: Maseru
2,067,000 30,355 km2 (11,720 sq mi)
Flag of Liberia.svg
Location Liberia AU Africa.svg Liberia

Republic of Liberia
English: Liberia — Republic of Liberia Monrovia

English: Monrovia
4,128,572 111,369 km2 (43,000 sq mi)
Flag of Libya.svg
Location Libya AU Africa.svg Libya

State of Libya
Arabic: Tripoli

Arabic:
6,036,914 1,759,540 km2 (679,362 sq mi)
Flag of Madagascar.svg
Location Madagascar AU Africa.svg Madagascar

Republic of Madagascar
French: Madagascar — République de Madagascar

Malagasy:
Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
Antananarivo

French: Antananarivo

Malagasy: Antananarivo
18,606,000 587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi)
Flag of Malawi.svg
Location Malawi AU Africa.svg Malawi

Republic of Malawi
Chichewa: Malaŵi — Dziko la Malaŵi
English: Malawi — Republic of Malawi
Lilongwe

Chichewa: Lilongwe
English: Lilongwe
12,884,000 118,484 km2 (45,747 sq mi)
Flag of Mali.svg
Location Mali AU Africa.svg Mali

Republic of Mali
French: Mali — République du Mali Bamako

French: Bamako
13,518,000 1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi)
Flag of Mauritania.svg
Location Mauritania AU Africa.svg Mauritania

Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Arabic: Nouakchott

Arabic:
3,069,000 1,030,700 km2 (397,955 sq mi)
Flag of Mauritius.svg
Location Mauritius AU Africa.svg Mauritius

Republic of Mauritius
English: Mauritius — Republic of Mauritius

French: Maurice — République de Maurice

Mauritian Creole Moris — Republik Moris
Port Louis

English: Port Louis

French: Port-Louis

Mauritian Creole Port Louis
1,219,220 2,040 km2 (788 sq mi)
Flag of Morocco.svg
Location Morocco Africa.svg Morocco

Kingdom of Morocco
Arabic:

Berber:
Rabat

Arabic:

Berber:
35,757,175 446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi)[n 8]
Flag of Mozambique.svg
Location Mozambique AU Africa.svg Mozambique

Republic of Mozambique
Portuguese: Moçambique — República de Moçambique Maputo

Portuguese: Maputo
20,366,795 801,590 km2 (309,496 sq mi)
Flag of Namibia.svg
Location Namibia AU Africa.svg Namibia

Republic of Namibia
English: Namibia — Republic of Namibia Windhoek

English: Windhoek
2,031,000 825,418 km2 (318,696 sq mi)
Flag of Niger.svg
Location Niger AU Africa.svg Niger

Republic of Niger
French: Niger — République du Niger Niamey

French: Niamey
13,957,000 1,267,000 km2 (489,191 sq mi)
Flag of Nigeria.svg
Location Nigeria AU Africa.svg Nigeria

Federal Republic of Nigeria
English: Nigeria — Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja

English: Abuja
174,507,539 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi)
Flag of Rwanda.svg
Location Rwanda AU Africa.svg Rwanda

Republic of Rwanda
English: Rwanda — Republic of Rwanda

French: Rwanda — République du Rwanda

Kinyarwanda Rwanda — Repubulika y'u Rwanda
Kigali

English: Kigali

French: Kigali

Kinyarwanda Kigali
7,600,000 26,798 km2 (10,347 sq mi)
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg
Location São Tomé and Príncipe AU Africa.svg São Tomé and Príncipe

Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese: São Tomé e Príncipe — República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé

Portuguese: São Tomé
183,176 964 km2 (372 sq mi)
Flag of Senegal.svg
Location Senegal AU Africa.svg Senegal

Republic of Senegal
French: Sénégal — République du Sénégal Dakar

French: Dakar
11,658,000 196,723 km2 (75,955 sq mi)
Flag of Seychelles.svg
Location Seychelles AU Africa.svg Seychelles

Republic of Seychelles
English: Seychelles — Republic of Seychelles

French: Seychelles — République des Seychelles

Seychellois Creole Sesel— Repiblik Sesel
Victoria

English: Victoria

French: Victoria

Seychellois Creole Victoria
80,654 451 km2 (174 sq mi)
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg
Location Sierra Leone AU Africa.svg Sierra Leone

Republic of Sierra Leone
English: Sierra Leone — Republic of Sierra Leone Freetown

English: Freetown
6,144,562 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi)
Flag of Somalia.svg
Location Somalia AU Africa.svg Somalia

Federal Republic of Somalia
Arabic:(Jumhūrīyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fidirālīyah)جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية

Somali:Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
Mogadishu

Somali: Xamar
Arabic: مقديشو
9,832,017 637,657 km2 (246,201 sq mi)
Flag of South Africa.svg
Location South Africa AU Africa.svg South Africa

Republic of South Africa
Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika — Republiek van Suid-Afrika
Bloemfontein (judicial),
Cape Town (legislative),
and Pretoria (executive)
52,981,991 1,221,037 km2 (471,445 sq mi)
Flag of South Sudan.svg
Location South Sudan AU Africa.svg South Sudan

Republic of South Sudan
English: South Sudan — Republic of South Sudan Juba

English: Juba
8,260,490 644,329 km2 (248,777 sq mi)
Flag of Sudan.svg
Location Sudan before 2011 AU Africa.svg Sudan

Republic of Sudan
Arabic:

English:
Khartoum

36,787,012 1,861,484 km2 (718,723 sq mi)
Flag of Swaziland.svg
Location Swaziland AU Africa.svg Swaziland

Kingdom of Swaziland
English: Swaziland — Kingdom of Swaziland

Swati: eSwatini — Umbuso weSwatini
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Mbabane (administrative)

English:

Swati:
1,032,000 17,364 km2 (6,704 sq mi)
Flag of Tanzania.svg
Location Tanzania AU Africa.svg Tanzania

United Republic of Tanzania
English: Tanzania — United Republic of Tanzania

Swahili: Tanzania — Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
Dodoma

English: Dodoma

Swahili: Dodoma
44,929,002 945,203 km2 (364,945 sq mi)
Flag of Togo.svg
Location Togo AU Africa.svg Togo

Togolese Republic
French: Togo — République Togolaise Lomé

French: Lomé
7,154,237 56,785 km2 (21,925 sq mi)
Flag of Tunisia.svg
Location Tunisia AU Africa.svg Tunisia

Tunisian Republic
Arabic: Tunis

Arabic:
10,102,000 163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi)
Flag of Uganda.svg
Location Uganda AU Africa.svg Uganda

Republic of Uganda
English: Uganda — Republic of Uganda

Swahili: Uganda — Jamhuri ya Uganda
Kampala

English: Kampala

Swahili: Kampala
27,616,000 236,040 km2 (91,136 sq mi)
Flag of Zambia.svg
Location Zambia AU Africa.svg Zambia

Republic of Zambia
English: Zambia — Republic of Zambia Lusaka

English: Lusaka
14,668,000 752,614 km2 (290,586 sq mi)
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg
Location Zimbabwe AU Africa.svg Zimbabwe

Republic of Zimbabwe
English: Zimbabwe — Republic of Zimbabwe Harare

English: Harare
13,010,000 390,757 km2 (150,872 sq mi)

States with limited recognition[edit]

The following are states that have established themselves in Africa as sovereign states, but remain limited in official recognition and are not members of the United Nations. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic however, is a member of the African Union.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg
Location Western Sahara AU Africa.svg Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[n 9] Claimed as the southernmost provinces of Morocco. Recognized by the African Union and 84 UN members as the representative government of Western Sahara. Arabic: الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية (al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah aṣ-Ṣaḥrāwīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah)

Spanish: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática
El Aaiún (proclaimed)[n 10]

Arabic: العيون (al-ʿuyūn)

Spanish: El Aaiún
266,000 267,405 km2 (103,246 sq mi)
Flag of Somaliland.svg
Location Somaliland AU Africa.svg Somaliland

Republic of Somaliland[12][13]
State within the Federal regions of Somalia.[14] Recognized by no UN member.[15][16] Arabic: جمهورية أرض الصومال — أرض الصومال (Jumhūrīyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl)

Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland
Hargeisa

Arabic: هرجيسا

Somali: Hargeysa
4,000,000 137,600 km2 (53,128 sq mi)

Non-sovereign territories[edit]

There are 10 non-sovereign territories currently located in Africa.

Dependent territories[edit]

Further information: Dependent territory

This list contains territories that are politically administered as external dependencies of other nations.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status[17] Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[11]
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg
French Southern and Antarctic Lands in its region (Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean only) (small islands magnified).svg French Southern and Antarctic Lands[n 11] French overseas territory Saint-Pierre[n 12] No permanent population[18] 38.60 km2 (15 sq mi)
Flag of the United Kingdom, as used in Akrotiri and Dhekelia
LocationStHelena.png Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha British overseas territory Jamestown 5,661 420 km2 (162 sq mi)

Other areas[edit]

This list contains territories that are administered as incorporated parts of a primarily non-African state.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status[17] Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area[11]
Flag of the Canary Islands.svg
Location Canary Islands Africa.svg Canary Islands Spanish autonomous community Spanish: Islas Canarias Santa Cruz and Las Palmas[19]

Spanish: Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
2,205,247 7,447 km2 (2,875 sq mi)
Flag Ceuta.svg
Ceuta-melilla.png Ceuta

Autonomous City of Ceuta
Spanish autonomous city Spanish: Ceuta — Ciudad autónoma de Ceuta Ceuta

Spanish: Ceuta
76,861 28 km2 (11 sq mi)
Flag of Madeira.svg
Location Madeira Africa.svg Madeira

Autonomous Region of Madeira
Portuguese autonomous region Portuguese: Maderia — Região Autónoma da Madeira Funchal

Portuguese: Funchal
245,806 828 km2 (320 sq mi)
Flag of France.svg
Location Mayotte Africa.svg Mayotte

Department of Mayotte
French overseas department French: Mayotte — Département de Mayotte Mamoudzou

French: Mamoudzou
186,452 374 km2 (144 sq mi)
Flag of Melilla.svg
Ceuta-melilla.png Melilla

Autonomous City of Melilla
Spanish autonomous city Spanish: Melilla — Ciudad autónoma de Melilla Melilla

Spanish: Melilla
72,000 20 km2 (8 sq mi)
Flag of Spain.svg
Mapa del sur de España neutral.png Plazas de soberanía Spanish overseas territory Spanish: Plazas de soberanía N/A 74
Flag of France.svg
Location Réunion Africa.svg Réunion

Réunion Island
French overseas region French: Réunion — Îles Réunion Saint-Denis

French: Saint-Denis
793,000 2,512 km2 (970 sq mi)
Flag of Italy.svg
Pelagie Islands map.png Pelagie Islands Italian territory Italian: Isole Pelagie

Sicilian: Ìsuli Pilaggî
Lampedusa e Linosa[n 13]

Italian: Lampedusa e Linosa

Sicilian: Lampidusa e Linusa
6,304 21.4 km2 (8 sq mi)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Morocco withdrew its membership from the preceding Organization of African Unity in 1984 due to the OAU's recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as the government of Western Sahara. Morocco remains withdrawn from the African Union for the same reason.
  2. ^ Central African Republic was suspended from the African Union on 25 March 2013 due to the ongoing Central African Republic conflict.
  3. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa and formerly as Zaire.
  4. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  5. ^ Some territory could be argued to be a part of Asia or Africa.
  6. ^ Oyala is to be the future capital of Equatorial Guinea; currently under construction.
  7. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from neighboring Guinea-Bissau.
  8. ^ The area 446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories, while 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) includes the Moroccan-administered parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front).
  9. ^ Occupies part of the territory of Western Sahara, disputed with Morocco.
  10. ^ Currently under Moroccan administration. Tifariti is the factual temporary capital, but Tindouf located in Algeria is tha place of some government and military facilities.
  11. ^ Only the Îles Éparses are considered part of the African continent. The remaining four districts lie outside the continental shelf in the Indian Ocean or Antarctica.
  12. ^ The main station on the Îles Éparses is on Tromelin. The headquarters of the district chief, however, is Saint-Pierre, in Réunion.
  13. ^ Geographically part of the archipelago (Lampedusa and Lampione) belongs to the African continent; politically and administratively, the islands fall within the Province of Agrigento in Sicily

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Member States". African Union. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  3. ^ "African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union". StarAfrica.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  4. ^ "African Union suspends Central African Republic after coup". Los Angeles Times. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Names". CIA. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "Field Listing :: Capital". CIA. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  9. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  10. ^ "Country Comparison :: Population". CIA. July 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Area". CIA. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Name used in The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland
  13. ^ Susan M. Hassig, Zawiah Abdul Latif, Somalia, (Marshall Cavendish: 2007), p.10.
  14. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). University of Pretoria. 1 February 2004. Retrieved 2 February 2010.  "The Somali Republic shall have the following boundaries. (a) North; Gulf of Aden. (b) North West; Djibouti. (c) West; Ethiopia. (d) South south-west; Kenya. (e) East; Indian Ocean."
  15. ^ Lacey, Marc (5 June 2006). The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia. The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  16. ^ "UN in Action: Reforming Somaliland's Judiciary" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-29. 
  17. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Dependency Status". CIA. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  18. ^ "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias en la Página Web Oficial del Gobierno de Canarias". .gobiernodecanarias.org. Retrieved 2010-09-20.