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List of Alamo defenders

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Partial scan of the March 24, 1836 Telegraph  and Texas Register with the first Texian list of defenders killed at the Battle of the Alamo
Partial scan of the March 24, 1836 Telegraph and Texas Register with the first Texian list of defenders killed at the Battle of the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a crucial conflict of the Texas Revolution. In 1835, colonists from the United States joined with Tejanos (Mexicans born in Texas) in putting up armed resistance to the centralization of the Mexican government.[1] President Antonio López de Santa Anna and the government in Mexico City believed the United States had instigated the insurrection with a goal of annexing Texas.[2]

In an effort to tamp down on the unrest, martial law was declared and military governor General Martín Perfecto de Cos established headquarters in San Antonio de Béxar, stationing his troops at the Alamo.[3] When the Texian volunteer soldiers gained control of the fortress at the Siege of Béxar, compelling Cos to surrender on December 9, many saw his expulsion to the other side of the Rio Grande as the end of Mexican forces in Texas.[4] Most Texian soldiers in Béxar left to join a planned invasion of Matamoros, Mexico.[5]

Garrison commander James C. Neill went home on family matters February 11, 1836, leaving James Bowie and William B. Travis as co-commanders over the predominantly volunteer force.[6] When the Mexican Army of Operations under the command of Santa Anna arrived in Béxar with 1,500 troops on February 23, the remaining Alamo garrison numbered 150.[Note 1] Over the course of the next several days, new volunteers arrived inside the fortress while others were sent out as couriers, to forage for food, or to buy supplies.[7]

A fierce defense was launched from within the walls, even as Bowie and Travis made unsuccessful attempts to negotiate with the Mexican army.[8] Travis repeatedly dispatched couriers with pleas for reinforcements.[9] Although Santa Anna refused to consider a proposed conditional surrender, he extended an offer of amnesty for all Tejanos inside the fortress to walk away unharmed. Most Tejanos evacuated from the fortress about February 25, either as part of the amnesty, or as a part of Juan Seguín's company of courier scouts on their last run.[Note 2]

Cathedral of San Fernando sarcophagus with images of Travis, Bowie and Crockett
Cathedral of San Fernando sarcophagus with images of Travis, Bowie and Crockett

In response to pleas from Travis, James Fannin started from Goliad with 320 men, supplies and armaments, yet had to abort a day later due to a wagon breakdown. Final reinforcements were able to enter the Alamo during March 1–4, most of them from Gonzales which had become a recruitment camp.[Note 3] Others who had left intending to return were unable to re-enter.[10] At 5:30 a.m. on March 6, the Mexican army began the final siege. An hour later, all combatants inside the Alamo were dead.[11] The bodies, with the exception of Gregorio Esparza's, were cremated on pyres and abandoned. Esparza's brother Francisco was a soldier in the Mexican army and received permission from Santa Anna for a Christian burial.[12]

Juan Seguín oversaw the 1837 recovery of the abandoned ashes and officiated at the February 25 funeral. The March 28 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register only gave the burial location as where "the principal heap of ashes" had been found.[13] In the following decades, the public wanted to know the location of the burial site, but Seguín gave conflicting statements, perceived as due to age-related memory problems.[14] Remains thought to be those of the Alamo defenders were discovered at the Cathedral of San Fernando during the Texas 1936 centennial, and re-interred in a marble sarcophagus. Purported to hold the ashes of Travis, Bowie and Crockett, some have doubted it can be proven whose remains are entombed there.[14]

Identifying the combatants[edit]

Below are 256 known combatants: 212 who died during the siege, 43 survivors, and one escapee who later died of his wounds.

Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte, Santa Anna's aide-de-camp, recorded the Texian fatality toll as 250 in his March 6 journal entry. He listed the survivors as five women, one Mexican soldier and one slave. Almonte did not record names, and his count was based solely on who was there during the final assault.[15] Santa Anna reported to Mexico's Secretary of War Tornel that Texian fatalities exceeded 600. Historians Jack Jackson and John Wheat attributed that high figure to Santa Anna's playing to his political base.[16]

Research into the battle, and exactly who was inside the fortress, began when the Alamo fell and has continued with no signs of abatement. The first published Texian list of casualties was in the March 24, 1836 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register. The 115 names were supplied by couriers John Smith and Gerald Navan,[17] whom historian Thomas Ricks Lindley believed likely drew from their own memories, as well as from interviews with those who might have left or tried to enter.[18] In an 1860 statement for the Texas Almanac, former San Antonio alcalde (mayor) Francisco Antonio Ruiz set the number at 182.[19]

When the Alamo Cenotaph was created by Pompeo Coppini in 1939, the 187 defender names on the monument came from the research of Amelia Williams,[20] considered the leading Alamo authority of her day.[21] Her work is still used by some as a benchmark, although skepticism has been voiced. Lindley's 2003 Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions is the result of his 15-year study of the battle, and upended much of what was previously accepted as fact.[22] He devoted a chapter to deconstructing Williams' research as "misrepresentation, alteration, and fabrication of data",[23] criticizing her sole reliance on the military land grants without checking through the muster lists to identify the combatants.[24] In lieu of service pay, the cash-poor Republic of Texas adopted the system of military land grants. Issuance was dependent upon the military muster lists and either the veterans or their heirs filing a claim, a process that required an upfront fee to complete. Lacking a completed claim, proof of service would appear only on a muster list.[25]

In the pursuit of uncovering every infinitesimal piece of evidence about what happened during the battle, more thorough research methods continue to evolve and Tejanos have begun to add their voices. Until recent decades, accounts of Tejano participation in the Texas revolution were notably absent, but historians such as Timothy M. Matovina[26] and Jesús F. de la Teja[27] have helped add that missing perspective to the battle's events.

Key to military rank abbreviations[edit]

Key to military rank abbreviations
COL Colonel LT Lieutenant SGM Sergeant-Major CPL Corporal
LTC Lieutenant Colonel 1LT First Lieutenant 4SG Fourth Sergeant PVT Private
MAJ Major 2LT Second Lieutenant SGT Sergeant QM Quartermaster
CPT Captain CNT Cornet 3CPL Third Corporal AQM Assistant Quartermaster

Defenders[edit]

Name Rank Birth Year Birthplace Status Legacy and notes Ref(s)
Abamillo, JuanJuan Abamillo SGT Texas fatality Entered March 4 [28]
Allen, James L.James L. Allen PVT 1815 Kentucky survivor Left on March 5 as the final courier sent from the Alamo [29]
Allen, RobertRobert Allen PVT Virginia fatality [30]
Alsbury, HoraceHorace Alsbury PVT 1805 Kentucky survivor First courier sent out after arrival of Mexican troops on February 23 [31]
Andrews, GeorgeGeorge Andrews fatality Entered March 4 [32]
Andross, Miles DeForestMiles DeForest Andross PVT 1809 Vermont fatality [33]
Arocha, José MaríaJosé María Arocha survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Arreola, SimonSimon Arreola survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Autry, MicajahMicajah Autry PVT 1793[34] North Carolina fatality [35]
Badgett, Jesse B.Jesse B. Badgett 1807 Texas survivor Garrison delegate to the March 1 Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos [36]
Badillo, Juan A.Juan A. Badillo SGT Texas fatality Entered March 4 [37]
Bailey III, Peter JamesPeter James Bailey III PVT 1812 Kentucky fatality Namesake of Bailey County, Texas [38]
Baker, Isaac G.Isaac G. Baker PVT 1814 Arkansas fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [39]
Baker, William Charles M.William Charles M. Baker CPT Missouri fatality [40]
Ballard, JohnJohn Ballard fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Ballentine, John J.John J. Ballentine PVT Pennsylvania fatality [42]
Ballentine, Richard W.Richard W. Ballentine PVT 1814 Scotland fatality [43]
Barcena, AndrewAndrew Barcena survivor [Note 4]
Baugh, John J.John J. Baugh CPT 1803 Virginia fatality Adjutant of the garrison, next in command after co-commanders Bowie and Travis [44]
Bastain, Samuel G.Samuel G. Bastain Louisiana survivor Left February 29 as a courier to Gonzales, unable to enter the Alamo [45]
Bayliss, JosephJoseph Bayliss PVT 1808 Tennessee fatality [44]
Baylor Jr., John WalkerJohn Walker Baylor Jr. PVT 1813 Kentucky survivor Sent as a courier to Goliad [46]
Bergara, AnselmoAnselmo Bergara Mexico survivor [Note 4]
Blair, JohnJohn Blair PVT 1803 Tennessee fatality [47]
Blair, SamuelSamuel Blair CPT 1807 Tennessee fatality Assistant to Master of Ordnance [48]
Blazeby, WilliamWilliam Blazeby CPT 1795 England fatality [48]
Bonham, JamesJames Bonham 2LT 1807 South Carolina fatality Courier to Goliad and Gonzales, returned March 3 [49]
Bourne, DanielDaniel Bourne PVT 1810 England fatality [50]
Bowie, JamesJames Bowie COL c. 1796 Kentucky fatality Co-commander of the garrison after the departure of James. C. Neill [51]
Bowman, J. B.J. B. Bowman fatality Possibly aka James H. Bowman [52]
Brown, RobertRobert Brown PVT c. 1818 survivor Left after February 25, later served as a baggage guard at the Battle of San Jacinto [53]
Buchanan, JamesJames Buchanan PVT 1813 Alabama fatality [54]
Burns, Samuel E.Samuel E. Burns PVT 1810 Ireland fatality [54]
Butler, George D.George D. Butler PVT 1813 Missouri fatality [54]
Cain, JohnJohn Cain PVT 1802 Pennsylvania fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [55]
Campbell, RobertRobert Campbell LT 1810 Tennessee fatality [56]
Carey, William R.William R. Carey CPT 1806 Virginia fatality [56]
Carmona, CesarioCesario Carmona survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Clark, M.B.M.B. Clark PVT Mississippi fatality Entered March 4 [57]
Cloud, Daniel W.Daniel W. Cloud PVT 1812 Kentucky fatality [58]
Cochran, Robert E.Robert E. Cochran PVT 1810 New Hampshire fatality Namesake of Cochran County, Texas [59]
Cottle, George WashingtonGeorge Washington Cottle LT 1811 Missouri fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company; namesake of Cottle County, Texas [60]
Courtman, HenryHenry Courtman PVT 1808 Germany fatality Entered March 4 [61]
Crawford, LemuelLemuel Crawford PVT 1814 South Carolina fatality [62]
Crockett, DavidDavid Crockett COL 1786 Tennessee fatality [63]
Crossman, RobertRobert Crossman PVT 1810 Pennsylvania fatality [64]
Cruz y Arocha, AntonioAntonio Cruz y Arocha PVT Mexico survivor Left as courier with Seguin on February 25 [65]
Cummings, David P.David P. Cummings PVT 1809 Pennsylvania fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [66]
Cunningham, RobertRobert Cunningham PVT 1804 New York fatality [67]
Curvier, MatiasMatias Curvier survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Darst, Jacob C.Jacob C. Darst LT 1793 Kentucky fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [68]
Davis, JohnJohn Davis PVT 1811 Kentucky fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [69]
Day, Freeman H.K.Freeman H.K. Day PVT 1806 fatality Entered March 1 or 4 [70]
Daymon, SquireSquire Daymon PVT 1808 Tennessee fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [71]
Dearduff, WilliamWilliam Dearduff PVT c. 1811 Tennessee fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [71]
De la Garza, AlexandroAlexandro De la Garza PVT Texas survivor Dispatched as a courier [72]
Debichi, N.N. Debichi fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Dennison, StephenStephen Dennison PVT 1812 England or Ireland fatality Entered March 4 [74]
DeSauque, Francis L.Francis L. DeSauque CPT Pennsylvania survivor Left to gather supplies at Goliad [75]
Desauque, JohnJohn Desauque Louisiana fatality Slave of Desauque, served as a combatant (Slaves identified by last names of their masters) [76]
Despallier, CharlesCharles Despallier PVT 1812 Louisiana fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [77]
Dewall, LewisLewis Dewall PVT 1812 New York fatality [78]
Dickinson, AlmaronAlmaron Dickinson CPT 1810 Tennessee fatality [79]
Dickson, JamesJames Dickson fatality [80]
Dillard, John HenryJohn Henry Dillard PVT 1805 Tennessee fatality [81]
Dimmitt, PhilipPhilip Dimmitt CPT 1801 Kentucky survivor On a scouting run when the Mexican troops arrived on February 23 [82]
Dimpkins, James R.James R. Dimpkins SGT England fatality [83]
Duvalt, AndrewAndrew Duvalt PVT 1804 Ireland fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [84]
Edwards, Samuel M.Samuel M. Edwards fatality Entered March 4 [85]
Eigenauer, ConradConrad Eigenauer fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Elliott, J.D.J.D. Elliott fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Elm, Frederick E.Frederick E. Elm fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Enriques, LucioLucio Enriques survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Espalier, CarlosCarlos Espalier PVT 1819 Texas fatality Entered March 4 [86]
Esparza, José GregorioJosé Gregorio Esparza PVT 1802 Texas fatality [87]
Evans, Robert Robert Evans MAJ 1800 Ireland fatality Master of Ordnance [88]
Evans, Samuel B.Samuel B. Evans PVT 1812 New York fatality [89]
Ewing, James L.James L. Ewing PVT 1812 Tennessee fatality [89]
Faunterloy, William KeenerWilliam Keener Faunterloy PVT 1814 Kentucky fatality [90]
Fishbaugh, WilliamWilliam Fishbaugh PVT Alabama fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [91]
Flanders, JohnJohn Flanders PVT 1800 New Hampshire fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [91]
Flores, Manuel N.Manuel N. Flores c.1801 Texas survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Flores, SalvadorSalvador Flores CPT 1806 Texas survivor Left with Seguín on February 25 [92]
Floyd, WardWard Floyd PVT 1804 North Carolina fatality Namesake of Floyd County, Texas; Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [93]
Forsyth, John HubbardJohn Hubbard Forsyth CPT 1797 New York fatality [94]
Fuentes, AntonioAntonio Fuentes PVT 1813 Texas fatality [95]
Fuqua, GalbaGalba Fuqua PVT 1819 Alabama fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [96]
Garnett, WilliamWilliam Garnett PVT 1812 Virginia fatality [97]
Garrand, James W.James W. Garrand PVT 1813 Louisiana fatality [97]
Garrett, James GirardJames Girard Garrett PVT 1806 Tennessee fatality [98]
Garvin, John E.John E. Garvin PVT 1809 fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [99]
Gaston, John E.John E. Gaston PVT 1819 fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [100]
George, JamesJames George PVT 1802 fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [101]
George, WilliamWilliam George fatality Entered March1 or 4 [85]
Gibson, JamesJames Gibson fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Goodrich, John C.John C. Goodrich CNT 1809 Virginia fatality [102]
Gray, Francis H.Francis H. Gray fatality Entered March 4 [85]
Green, W.T.W.T. Green fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Grimes, Albert CalvinAlbert Calvin Grimes PVT 1817 Georgia fatality [103]
Gurrea, IgnacioIgnacio Gurrea survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Guerrero, BrigidoBrigido Guerrero PVT Mexico survivor A deserter from Ugartechea's troops, convinced the Mexican troops he was a prisoner of war [104]
Gwin, James C.James C. Gwin PVT 1804 England fatality aka Gwynne [105]
Harris, JohnJohn Harris PVT 1813 Kentucky fatality [106]
Harrison, Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson Harrison PVT 1809 Tennessee fatality [106]
Harrison, I.L.K.I.L.K. Harrison fatality [107]
Harrison, William B.William B. Harrison CPT 1811 Ohio fatality [108]
Hawkins, Joseph M.Joseph M. Hawkins PVT 1799 Ireland fatality [108]
Hays, John M.John M. Hays PVT 1814 Tennessee fatality [109]
Heiskell, Charles M.Charles M. Heiskell PVT 1813 Tennessee fatality [109]
Herndon, Patrick HenryPatrick Henry Herndon PVT 1802 Virginia fatality [110]
Herrera, PedroPedro Herrera survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Hersee, William DanielWilliam Daniel Hersee SGT 1805 England fatality [111]
Highsmith, Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin Highsmith PVT 1817 Missouri Territory survivor Left as a courier March 1 [112]
Holland, TapleyTapley Holland PVT 1810 Ohio fatality [113]
Holloway, JamesJames Holloway fatality Entered March 4 [32]
Holloway, SamuelSamuel Holloway PVT 1808 Pennsylvania fatality [114]
Howell, William D.William D. Howell 1791 Massachusetts fatality Entered March 4 [115]
Hunter, WilliamWilliam Hunter fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Hutchinson, Thomas P.Thomas P. Hutchinson fatality Entered March 4 [32]
Irwin, William A.William A. Irwin fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Jackson, Thomas R.Thomas R. Jackson PVT Ireland fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [116]
Jackson, William DanielWilliam Daniel Jackson LT 1807 Kentucky fatality [117]
Jameson, Green B. Green B. Jameson MAJ 1807 Kentucky fatality [118]
Jennings, Gordon C.Gordon C. Jennings CPL 1780 Connecticut fatality [119]
Jiménez, DamacioDamacio Jiménez PVT Texas fatality Entered March 4 [120]
Johnson, JohnJohn Johnson PVT 1800 Missouri survivor Dispatched as courier February 23 [121]
Johnson, LewisLewis Johnson PVT Illinois Territory fatality [122]
Johnson, WilliamWilliam Johnson PVT Pennsylvania fatality [123]
Johnson, William P.William P. Johnson SGT survivor Likely dispatched as courier February 23 [123]
Jones, JohnJohn Jones 1LT 1810 New York fatality [123]
Kenny, JamesJames Kenny PVT 1814 Virginia fatality [124]
Kent, AndrewAndrew Kent PVT 1798 Virginia fatality Namesake of Kent County, Texas, Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [125]
Kent, JosephJoseph Kent fatality Entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [126]
Kerr, JosephJoseph Kerr PVT 1814 Louisiana fatality [127]
Kimble, George C.George C. Kimble LT 1803 Pennsylvania fatality Namesake of Kimble County, Texas; entered March 1 or 4 Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [128]
Kin, John C.John C. Kin fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
King, William PhilipWilliam Philip King PVT 1820 Mississippi fatality Youngest defender fatality; namesake of King County; Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [129]
Lewis, William IrvineWilliam Irvine Lewis PVT 1806 Virginia fatality [130]
Lightfoot, William J.William J. Lightfoot 3CPL 1805 Kentucky fatality [130]
Lindley, JonathanJonathan Lindley PVT 1814 Illinois fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [131]
William Linn William Linn PVT Massachusetts fatality [132]
Lockhart, ByrdByrd Lockhart CPT 1782 Virginia survivor Left with Andrew Jackson Sowell left to buy supplies; namesake of Lockhart, Texas [133]
Losoya, ToribioToribio Losoya PVT 1808 Texas fatality [124]
Main, George WashingtonGeorge Washington Main LT 1807 Virginia fatality [134]
Malone, William T.William T. Malone PVT 1817 Georgia fatality [135]
Marshall, WilliamWilliam Marshall PVT 1808 Tennessee fatality [135]
Martin, AlbertAlbert Martin CPT 1808 Rhode Island fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company dispatched with the Travis letter To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World; returned to the Alamo [136]
Maverick, Samuel AugustusSamuel Augustus Maverick PVT 1803 South Carolina survivor Garrison delegate to the March 1 Convention of 1836 at Washington-on-the-Brazos [137]
McCafferty, EdwardEdward McCafferty LT fatality Entered March 4 [138]
McClelland, RossRoss McClelland fatality [139]
McCoy Jr., DanielDaniel McCoy Jr. fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
McCoy, JesseJesse McCoy PVT 1804 Tennessee fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [140]
McCoy, ProspectProspect McCoy fatality [41]
McDowell, WilliamWilliam McDowell PVT 1794 Pennsylvania fatality [141]
McGee, JamesJames McGee PVT Ireland fatality [141]
McGregor, JohnJohn McGregor SGT Scotland fatality [142]
McKinney, RobertRobert McKinney PVT 1809 Ireland fatality [143]
McNeilly, S.W.S.W. McNeilly fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Melton, ElielEliel Melton QM, LT 1798 Georgia fatality [144]
Menchaca, AntonioAntonio Menchaca 1800 Texas survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Miller, Thomas R.Thomas R. Miller PVT 1795 Tennessee fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [145]
Mills, WilliamWilliam Mills PVT 1815 Tennessee fatality [146]
Millsaps, IsaacIsaac Millsaps PVT c. 1795 Mississippi fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [147]
Mitchasson, Edward F.Edward F. Mitchasson 1806 Virginia fatality Entered March 4 aka Dr. E.F. Mitchusson [148]
Mitchell, Edwin T.Edwin T. Mitchell PVT 1806 fatality Entered March 4 [149]
Mitchell, Napoleon B.Napoleon B. Mitchell PVT 1804 fatality [150]
Moore, Robert B.Robert B. Moore PVT 1781 Virginia fatality Entered March 4 [151]
Moore, Willis A.Willis A. Moore PVT 1808 fatality Entered March 4 [151]
Morman, JohnJohn Morman fatality [80]
Morrison, WilliamWilliam Morrison fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Musselman, RobertRobert Musselman SGT 1805 Ohio fatality [152]
Nash, JamesJames Nash fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [41]
Nava, AndrésAndrés Nava SGT 1810 Texas fatality Entered March 4 [153]
Navan, GeraldGerald Navan PVT survivor Dispatched as courier March 3 [17]
Neggan, GeorgeGeorge Neggan PVT 1808 South Carolina fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [154]
Nelson, Andrew M.Andrew M. Nelson PVT 1809 Tennessee fatality [155]
Nelson, EdwardEdward Nelson PVT 1816 South Carolina fatality [155]
Nelson, GeorgeGeorge Nelson PVT 1805 South Carolina fatality [156]
Nobles, Benjamin F.Benjamin F. Nobles LT survivor On a scouting run when the Mexican troops arrived on February 23 [157]
Northcross, JamesJames Northcross PVT 1804 Virginia fatality [158]
Nowlan, JamesJames Nowlan PVT 1809 England fatality [159]
O'Neil, L.R.L.R. O'Neil fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Olamio, GeorgeGeorge Olamio PVT Ireland fatality Entered March 4 [85]
Oury, William SandersWilliam Sanders Oury PVT 1817 Virginia survivor Dispatched as a courier February 29 [160]
Pacheco, Jose Sebastian "Luciano"Jose Sebastian "Luciano" Pacheco survivor Dispatched on a personal errand for Seguín February 23 [161]
Pagan, GeorgeGeorge Pagan PVT 1810 fatality [162]
Parker, Christopher AdamsChristopher Adams Parker PVT 1814 fatality [152]
Parks, WilliamWilliam Parks PVT 1805 North Carolina fatality [152]
Patton, WilliamWilliam Patton AQM, LT 1808 Kentucky survivor Assumed to be a courier, who left with John William Smith [163]
Perry, RichardsonRichardson Perry PVT 1817 Mississippi fatality [164]
Petrasweiz, AdolfAdolf Petrasweiz fatality Entered March 4 [165]
Pollard, AmosAmos Pollard 1803 Massachusetts fatality Chief surgeon of the garrison, created a hospital in the fortress [166]
Ramirez, EduardoEduardo Ramirez survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Reynolds, John Purdy John Purdy Reynolds PVT 1806 Pennsylvania fatality [167]
Roberts, Thomas H.Thomas H. Roberts PVT fatality Entered March 4 [168]
Robertson, James WatersJames Waters Robertson PVT 1812 Tennessee fatality [169]
Rodriguez, AmbrosioAmbrosio Rodriguez survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Rodriquez, GuadalupeGuadalupe Rodriquez fatality Entered March 4 [85]
Rose, James M.James M. Rose PVT 1805 Ohio fatality With Crockett; not to be confused with Louis Moses Rose, the individual purported to have chosen not to stay and defend the Alamo (but who cannot definitely be proven to have been there) [170]
Roth, JacobJacob Roth MAJ fatality [107]
Rusk, Jackson J.Jackson J. Rusk PVT Ireland fatality [171]
Rutherford, JosephJoseph Rutherford PVT 1798 Kentucky fatality [172]
Ryan, IsaacIsaac Ryan PVT 1805 Louisiana fatality [171]
Sanders, W.H.W.H. Sanders fatality Entered March 4 [73]
Scurlock, MialMial Scurlock PVT 1809 North Carolina fatality [164]
Seguín, JuanJuan Seguín CPT 1806 Texas survivor Left February 25 to recruit reinforcements [173]
Sewell, Marcus L.Marcus L. Sewell PVT 1805 England fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [Note 5]
Shied, MansonManson Shied PVT 1811 Georgia fatality aka Shudd [164]
Silvero survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]
Simmons, Cleveland KinlochCleveland Kinloch Simmons LT 1815 South Carolina fatality [174]
Smith, Andrew H.Andrew H. Smith PVT 1815 Tennessee fatality [174]
Smith, Charles S.Charles S. Smith PVT 1806 Maryland fatality [175]
Smith, John WilliamJohn William Smith 1792 Virginia survivor The final courier sent to Washington-on-the-Brazos, unable to return [176]
Smith, Joshua G.Joshua G. Smith SGT 1808 North Carolina fatality [177]
Smith, William H.William H. Smith PVT 1811 fatality [178]
Smither, LauncelotLauncelot Smither PVT 1800 survivor Left for Gonzales as a courier on February 23; relayed the Travis letter from Albert Martin to the provisional government at San Felipe [179]
Sowell, Andrew JacksonAndrew Jackson Sowell PVT 1815 Tennessee survivor Left with Byrd Lockhart to buy supplies [180]
Spratt, JohnJohn Spratt fatality Entered March 4 [32]
Starr, RichardRichard Starr PVT 1811 England fatality [181]
Stewart, James E.James E. Stewart PVT 1808 England fatality [181]
Stockton, Richard L.Richard L. Stockton PVT 1817 New Jersey fatality [181]
Summerlin, A. SpainA. Spain Summerlin PVT 1817 Tennessee fatality [182]
Summers, William E.William E. Summers PVT 1812 Tennessee fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [183]
Sutherland, JohnJohn Sutherland PVT 1792 Virginia survivor Sent to Gonzales for reinforcements on February 23 [184]
Sutherland, William DePriestWilliam DePriest Sutherland PVT 1818 Alabama fatality [178]
Taylor, EdwardEdward Taylor PVT 1812 Tennessee fatality Namesake of Taylor County, Texas, brother of James and George, entered March 1 or 4 [185]
Taylor, GeorgeGeorge Taylor PVT 1816 Tennessee fatality Namesake of Taylor County, brother of Edward and James, entered March 1 or 4 [186]
Taylor, JamesJames Taylor PVT 1814 Tennessee fatality Namesake of Taylor County, Texas, brother of George and Edward, entered March 1 or 4 [187]
Taylor, WilliamWilliam Taylor PVT 1799 Tennessee fatality Entered March 1 or 4 [188]
Thomas, B. Archer M. B. Archer M. Thomas PVT 1818 Kentucky fatality [189]
Thomas, HenryHenry Thomas PVT 1811 Germany fatality Entered March 4 [190]
Thompson fatality Per historian Lindley, no first name on the muster rolls [191]
Thomson, John W.John W. Thomson PVT 1807 North Carolina fatality [192]
Thurston, John, M.John, M. Thurston 2LT 1812 Pennsylvania fatality [193]
Trammel, BurkeBurke Trammel PVT 1810 Ireland fatality [193]
Travis, JoeJoe Travis 1813 or 1815 Alabama survivor Slave of William B. Travis, fought beside him in the battle; accompanied Susanna Dickinson to Gonzales. (Slaves identified by last names of their masters) [194]
Travis, William B.William B. Travis LTC 1809 South Carolina fatality Co-commander of the garrison after the departure of James. C. Neill [195]
Tumlinson, George W.George W. Tumlinson PVT 1814 Missouri fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [196]
Tylee, James, JamesJames Tylee, James PVT 1795 New York fatality [197]
Walker, AsaAsa Walker PVT 1813 Tennessee fatality [198]
Walker, JacobJacob Walker PVT 1799 Tennessee fatality [198]
Ward, William B.William B. Ward SGT 1806 Ireland fatality [198]
Warnell, HenryHenry Warnell PVT 1812 Arkansas escaped Died June 1836 of wounds incurred during the battle or during his escape [199]
Washington, Joseph G.Joseph G. Washington PVT c. 1808 Tennessee fatality Possibly aka James Morgan [198]
Waters, ThomasThomas Waters PVT 1812 England fatality [198]
Wells, WilliamWilliam Wells PVT 1798 Georgia fatality [198]
White, IsaacIsaac White SGT fatality [200]
White, RobertRobert White CPT 1806 England fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [201]
Williamson, Hiram JamesHiram James Williamson SMA 1810 Pennsylvania fatality [202]
Wills, WilliamWilliam Wills fatality [202]
Wilson, David L.David L. Wilson PVT 1807 Scotland fatality [202]
Wilson, JohnJohn Wilson PVT 1804 Pennsylvania fatality [202]
Wolf, AnthonyAnthony Wolf PVT 1782 fatality [202]
Wright, ClaiborneClaiborne Wright PVT 1810 North Carolina fatality Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company [203]
Zanco, CharlesCharles Zanco LT 1808 Denmark fatality [202]
Zepeda, VicenteVicente Zepeda survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers [Note 2]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The enemy in large force is in sight. We want men and provisions. Send them to us. We have 150 men and are determined to defend the Alamo to the last. Give us assistance. (signed) William Barret Travis, February 23, 1836" Letter to Gonzales alcalde Andrew Ponton. Groneman (2001), p. 1; The Alamo was under Sam Houston's authority as commander-in-chief of the paid army, which included Neill, Bowie, Travis and Crockett. Until March 4, Houston's authority did not extend to volunteers and local militias, which were the majority of the fighting force inside the Alamo. Hatch (1999), p. 188.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Some Tejanos were part of the Bexar military garrison, but others were part of Seguin's volunteer scout company and were in the Alamo on or before Feb 23. Enrique Esparza, who was inside the fortress as the son of defender Gregorio Esparza, later recalled that Santa Anna offered a three-day amnesty to all Tejano defenders. According to Esparza, Tejanos discussed the matter with Bowie who advised them to take the amnesty. It is believed most of the Tejanos left when Seguin did, either as couriers or because of the amnesty. Poyo (1996), p. 53, 58 "Efficient in the Cause" (Stephen L. Harden); Lindley (2003), p. 94, 134.
  3. ^ The most notable group from Gonzales in the final days was the Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company, nicknamed the Immortal 32 in later decades, although the exact head count of that company varies by source. Moore (2004), pp. 28–29, 39–43, 46, 51; Moore (2007), p. 100; Lindley (2003), p. 98.
  4. ^ a b Andrew Barcena (aka Andres Barcinas) and Anselmo Bergara had been part of Seguín's company. They were the first witnesses of the Alamo's fall to arrive in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Houston denounced them as Mexican spies and had them arrested, but Barcena fought under Seguín at the Battle of San Jacinto. Moore (2004), pp. 45–46, 451.
  5. ^ Some lore give the birthplace of Sewell as Tennessee but have no definitive source; however, scholars and other sourcicng, including the Alamo, say he was born in England. Todish (1998), p. 85; Moore (2007), p. 100.; "Marcus L.Sewell". Alamo Mission in San Antonio. Retrieved March 30, 2016. "Who Was Marcus Sewell?". Sons of DeWitt Colony Texas. TAMU. Retrieved March 30, 2016. Groneman, Bill. "Marcus Sewell". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved March 30, 2016. 

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 2, 4, 6.
  2. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 137–138.
  3. ^ Davis (2004), p. 143; Todish et al. (1998), p. 121.
  4. ^ Poyo (1996), p. 54, "Efficient in the Cause" (Stephen L. Harden).
  5. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 29, 125.
  6. ^ Todish et al. (1998), p.126; Moore (2004), p. 39.
  7. ^ Groneman (2001), p. 1; Lindley (2003), pp. 90, 93.
  8. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 92–93; Groneman (2001), pp. 4–5; Jackson, Wheat (2005), p. 367.
  9. ^ Green, Michael R. (April 1988). "To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 91 (4): 483–508. JSTOR 30240052. (subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ Moore (2004), pp. 4, 22.
  11. ^ Lord (1961), p. 166.
  12. ^ Edmondson (2000), pp. 45–46, 374.
  13. ^ "Telegraph and Texas Register May 28, 1837". The Portal to Texas History. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Sibley, Marilyn McAdams (October 1966). "The Burial Place of the Alamo Heroes". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 70 (2): 272–280. JSTOR 30236392. (subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 148; Jackson, Wheat (2005), pp. 374, 377.
  16. ^ Jackson, Wheat (2005), p. 389.
  17. ^ a b Chariton (1990), p. 180.
  18. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 226–227.
  19. ^ Matovina (1995), pp. 43–44.
  20. ^ Williams, Amelia (January 1934). "Reviewed Work: A Critical Study of the Siege of the Alamo and of the Personnel of Its Defenders: IV. Historical Problems Relating to the Alamo". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 37 (3): 157–184. JSTOR 30235477. (subscription required (help)). 
  21. ^ Smoot, Jane. "Amelia Worthington Williams". Texas Handbook Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved September 3, 2015. 
  22. ^ Roell, Craig H. (July 2004). "Reviewed Work: Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions by Thomas Ricks Lindley". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 108 (1): 105–106. JSTOR 30239499. (subscription required (help)). 
  23. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 37, 39–41, 67–68.
  24. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 52, 57.
  25. ^ "Categories of Land Grants in Texas" (PDF). Texas General Land Office. State of Texas. Retrieved June 22, 2015. 
  26. ^ Flores, Richard R (February 1999). "Reviewed Work: The Alamo Remembered: Tejano Accounts and Perspectives by Timothy M. Matovina". American Ethnologist (American Anthropological Association) 26 (1): 265. doi:10.1525/ae.1999.26.1.265. JSTOR 647542. (subscription required (help)). 
  27. ^ de la Teja, Jesús F (Spring 1998). "Discovering the Tejano Community in "Early" Texas". Journal of the Early Republic (University of Pennsylvania Press on behalf of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic) 18 (1): 73–98. doi:10.2307/3124734. JSTOR 3124734. (subscription required (help)). 
  28. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  29. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 1.
  30. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 2.
  31. ^ Matovina (1995), pp. 45–48; Lindley (2003), p. 87.
  32. ^ a b c d Lindley (2003), pp. 54, 143.
  33. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 6–7.
  34. ^ Photo of cemetery monument at Hillcrest Cemetery in northern Mississippi, accessed December 8, 2015.
  35. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 7.
  36. ^ Kemp, L. W. "Jesse B. Badgett". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 
  37. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 8; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  38. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 8.
  39. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 9; Moore (2007), p. 100
  40. ^ Todish (1998), p. 76; Groneman (1990), pp. 9–10.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lindley (2003), p. 98.
  42. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 10.
  43. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 10–11.
  44. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 11; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  45. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 131.
  46. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 12.
  47. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 13–14.
  48. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 14.
  49. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 15–16.
  50. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 16.
  51. ^ Hopewell (1994), pp. 2–3, 116.
  52. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 62, 79.
  53. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 20–21; Moore (2004), p. 457.
  54. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 21.
  55. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 22; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  56. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 22.
  57. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 24.
  58. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 24.
  59. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 24–25.
  60. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 25; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  61. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 25.
  62. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 26.
  63. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 26–27; Lindley (2003), p. 202.
  64. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 29.
  65. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 29–30.
  66. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 30; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  67. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 30–31.
  68. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 32; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  69. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 32; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  70. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 32.
  71. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 33; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  72. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 33.
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h Lindley (2003), p. 143.
  74. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 34.
  75. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 34–35.
  76. ^ Todish (1998), p. 81; Hopewell (1994), p. 125; Nofi (1992), p. 131.
  77. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 35–36; Todish (1998), p. 78; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  78. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 36.
  79. ^ Carrington (1993), pp. 74–75; Groneman (1990), pp. 36–37.
  80. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 54.
  81. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 39.
  82. ^ Todish (1998), p. 89; Groneman (1990), pp.40–41;Roell, Craig H. "Philip Dimmitt". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  83. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 41–42.
  84. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 42; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  85. ^ a b c d e Lindley (2003), p. 144.
  86. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 79.
  87. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 45–46.
  88. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 47; Edmondson (2000), p. 371.
  89. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 48.
  90. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 48–49.
  91. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 49; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  92. ^ de la Teja (1991), pp. 18, 135, 182; Lindley (2003), pp. 94, 112; Moore (2004), p. 60.
  93. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 50; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  94. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 50.
  95. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 51.
  96. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 51; Lindley (2003), p. 144; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  97. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 52.
  98. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 52–53.
  99. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 53; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  100. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 53; Lindley (2003), p. 144; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  101. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 53–54; Lindley (2003), p. 144; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  102. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 54–55.
  103. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 55.
  104. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 55–56.
  105. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 56.
  106. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 57.
  107. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 53.
  108. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 58.
  109. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 59.
  110. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 59–60.
  111. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 60.
  112. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 60–61, 66; Todish (1998), p. 89; Lindley (2003), p. 133.
  113. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 61–62.
  114. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 62.
  115. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 62; Lindley (2003), p. 143.
  116. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 63; Lindley (2003), p. 144; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  117. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 63.
  118. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 63–64.
  119. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 64.
  120. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 81.
  121. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 88, 109, 321; Lord (1961), p. 96.
  122. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 66–67.
  123. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 67.
  124. ^ a b Todish (1998), p. 82.
  125. ^ Todish (1998), p. 82; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  126. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 98, 144.
  127. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 69.
  128. ^ Todish (1998), p. 82; Lindley (2003), p. 144; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  129. ^ Groneman, Bill; Hall, Russell S. "William Philip King". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2014. ; Leffler, John. "King County, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2015. ; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  130. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 71.
  131. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 71; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  132. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 72.
  133. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90; Groneman (1990), pp. 72–73; Moore (2004), p. 60.
  134. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 74.
  135. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 75.
  136. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 76; Green (1988), p. 500; Lindley (2003), p. 91; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  137. ^ Marks, Paula Mitchell. "Samuel Augustus Maverick". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  138. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 76.
  139. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 59.
  140. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 77; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  141. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 77.
  142. ^ Todish (1998), p. 83.
  143. ^ Lord (1961), p. 217; Todish (1998), p. 83.
  144. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 78–79.
  145. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 79; Todish (1998), p. 83; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  146. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 79–80.
  147. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 80; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  148. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 80.
  149. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 81.
  150. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 81.
  151. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), pp. 81–82.
  152. ^ a b c Todish (1998), p. 84.
  153. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 84.
  154. ^ Todish (1998), p. 84; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  155. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 84.
  156. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 85.
  157. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 85; Roell, Craig H. "Philip Dimmitt". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  158. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 86.
  159. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 87.
  160. ^ Todish (1998), p. 89.
  161. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90.
  162. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 88.
  163. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 202; Groneman (1990), pp. 89–90; Moore (2004), pp. 52–54, 100.
  164. ^ a b c Todish (1998), p. 85.
  165. ^ Lindley (2003). pp. 143, 166.
  166. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 91–92.
  167. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 92.
  168. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 93.
  169. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 93.
  170. ^ Lindley (2003). p. 236; Todish (1998), p. 85.
  171. ^ a b Groneman (1990), pp. 95–96.
  172. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 96.
  173. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 97; Nofi (1992), pp. 85–86.
  174. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 100.
  175. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 101.
  176. ^ Nofi (1992), p. 79; Myers (1948), p. 202; Groneman (1990), pp. 101–102; Todish (1998), p. 90.
  177. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 103.
  178. ^ a b Todish (1998), p. 86.
  179. ^ Green (1988), pp. 503–504; Groneman (1990), p. 101.
  180. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90; Groneman (1990), pp. 72–73, 105.
  181. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 106.
  182. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 107.
  183. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 107; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  184. ^ McCaslin, Richard B. "John Sutherland Jr.". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 9, 2015. 
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  186. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 110.
  187. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 110.
  188. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 111.
  189. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 111.
  190. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 111.
  191. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 63.
  192. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 112.
  193. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 113.
  194. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 64–65; Todish (1998), p. 89; Edmondson (2000), p. 369; Lindley (2003), p. 44.
  195. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 115.
  196. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 116; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  197. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 116.
  198. ^ a b c d e f Todish (1998), p. 87.
  199. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 119.
  200. ^ Todish (1998), pp. 87–88.
  201. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 120; Moore (2007), p. 100.
  202. ^ a b c d e f Todish (1998), p. 88.
  203. ^ Todish (1998), p. 88; Moore (2007), p. 100.

References[edit]

  • Carrington, Evelyn M. (1993). Women in Early Texas. Denton, TX: Texas State Historical Association. OCLC 651721302. 
  • Chariton, Wallace O. (1990). Exploring the Alamo Legends. Dallas, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-55622-255-9. 
  • de la Teja, Jesús (1991). A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. Seguin. Austin, Texas: State House Press. ISBN 0-938349-68-6. 
  • Edmondson, J. R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-678-0. 
  • Groneman, Bill (1990). Alamo Defenders: A Genealogy, the People and Their Words. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-0-89015-757-2. 
  • Groneman, Bill (2001). Eyewitness to the Alamo. Lanham, MD: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-55622-846-9. 
  • Hatch, Thom (1999). Encyclopedia of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-0593-0. 
  • Hopewell, Clifford (1994). James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. ISBN 0-89015-881-9. 
  • Jackson, Jack; Wheat, John (2005). Almonte's Texas: Juan N. Almonte's 1834 Inspection, Secret Report & Role in the 1836 Campaign. Denton, Texas: Texas State Historical Association. ISBN 978-0-87611-207-6. 
  • Lindley, Thomas Ricks (2003). Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-983-6. 
  • Lord, Walter (1961). A Time to Stand. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7902-7. 
  • Matovina, Timothy M. (1995). The Alamo Remembered: Tejano Accounts and Perspectives. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-75186-6. 
  • Moore, Stephen L. (2004). Eighteen Minutes: The Battle of San Jacinto and the Texas Independence Campaign. Dallas, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-58907-009-7. 
  • Moore, Stephen L. (2007). Savage Frontier: Rangers, Riflemen, and Indian Wars in Texas, Volume I, 1835–1837. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-57441-235-2. 
  • Myers, John Myers (1948). The Alamo. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5779-1. 
  • Nofi, Albert A. (1992). The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Combined Books, Inc. ISBN 0-938289-10-1. 
  • Poyo, Gerald Eugene (1996). Tejano Journey, 1770–1850. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-76570-2. 
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-1-57168-152-2. 

External links[edit]