List of Alamo defenders

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Partial scan of the March 24, 1836 Telegraph  and Texas Register with the first Texian list of defenders killed at the Battle of the Alamo
Partial scan of the March 24, 1836 Telegraph and Texas Register with the first Texian list of defenders killed at the Battle of the Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 – March 6, 1836) was a crucial conflict of the Texas Revolution. Months earlier, colonists from the United States joined with Tejanos (Mexicans born in Texas) in putting up armed resistance to the centralization of the Mexican government.[1] President Antonio López de Santa Anna and the government in Mexico City believed the United States had instigated the insurrection with a goal of annexing Texas.[2]

In an effort to tamp down on the unrest, martial law was declared and military governor General Martín Perfecto de Cos established headquarters in San Antonio de Béxar.[3] When Texians forced the surrender of Cos at the Siege of Béxar in December 1835, many saw his expulsion across the Rio Grande as the end of Mexican forces in Texas.[4] Most Texian soldiers at the Alamo left to join a planned invasion of Matamoros, Mexico.[5]

Garrison commander James C. Neill went home on personal leave February 11, 1836, leaving James Bowie and William B. Travis as co-commanders.[6] When Santa Anna arrived in Béxar with 1,500 troops on February 23, the remaining Alamo garrison numbered 150. Over the course of the next several days, new volunteers arrived while others were sent out as couriers, to forage for food, or to buy supplies.[7] A fierce defense was launched, even as Bowie and Travis made unsuccessful attempts to negotiate with the Mexican army.[8] Although Santa Anna refused to consider a proposed conditional surrender, he extended an offer of amnesty for all Tejanos inside the fortress to walk away unharmed. At Bowie's urging, most Tejanos took advantage of the amnesty, leaving about February 25.[Note 1]

Cathedral of San Fernando sarcophagus with pictures of Travis, Bowie and Crockett
Cathedral of San Fernando sarcophagus with pictures of Travis, Bowie and Crockett

Travis repeatedly dispatched couriers with pleas for reinforcements.[9] In response, James Fannin started from Goliad with 320 men, supplies and armaments, yet had to abort a day later due to a wagon breakdown. About 50 reinforcements were able to enter the Alamo during March 1–4. Others who had left intending to return were unable to re-enter.[10] At 5:30 a.m. on March 6, the Mexican army began the final siege. An hour later, all combatants inside the Alamo were dead.[11] The bodies, with the exception of Gregorio Esparza's, were cremated on pyres and abandoned. Esparza's brother Francisco was a soldier in the Mexican army and received permission from Santa Anna for a Christian burial.[12]

Juan Seguín oversaw the 1837 recovery of the abandoned ashes and officiated at the February 25 funeral. The March 28 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register only gave the burial location as where "the principal heap of ashes" had been found.[13] In the following decades, the public wanted to know the location of the burial site, but Seguín gave conflicting statements, perceived as due to age-related memory problems.[14] Remains thought to be those of the Alamo defenders were discovered at the Cathedral of San Fernando during the Texas 1936 centennial, and re-interred in a marble sarcophagus. Purported to hold the ashes of Travis, Bowie and Crockett, some have doubted it can be proven whose remains are entombed there.[14]

Identifying the combatants[edit]

Below are 256 known combatants: 212 who died during the siege, 43 survivors, and one escapee who later died of his wounds. Of the names originally on this list, 6 were removed – 5 of them either for lack of verification, or because they died before or long after the event. Moses Rose, known in Texas lore as "the coward of the Alamo", was removed because historian Thomas Ricks Lindley's research shows this man as a myth who was never inside the fortress.[15]

Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte, Santa Anna's aide-de-camp, recorded the Texian casualty toll as 250 in his March 6 journal entry. He listed the survivors as five women, one Mexican soldier and one slave. Almonte did not record names, and his count was based solely on who was there during the final assault.[16] Santa Anna reported to Mexico's Secretary of War Tornel that Texian casualties exceeded 600. Historians Jack Jackson and John Wheat have attributed that high figure to Santa Anna's playing to his political base.[17]

The first published Texian list of casualties was in the March 24, 1836 issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register. The 115 names were supplied by couriers John Smith and Gerald Navan,[18] whom Lindley believes likely drew from their own memories, as well as from interviews with those who might have left or tried to enter.[19] In an 1860 statement for the Texas Almanac, former San Antonio alcalde (mayor) Francisco Antonio Ruiz set the number at 182.[20]

Some Alamo researchers in the first half of the 20th century relied solely on the military land grants, without checking through the muster lists, thereby producing flawed results.[21] In lieu of service pay, the cash-poor Republic of Texas adopted the system of military land grants. Issuance was dependent upon the military muster lists and either the veterans or their heirs filing a claim, a process that required an upfront fee to complete. Lacking a completed claim, proof of service would appear only on a muster list.[22]

Determining exactly who was inside the Alamo is an ongoing quest for historians. It is likely there will never be a definitive list. More thorough research methods have evolved over the last century. There is no shortage of scholars who are determined to find any overlooked names. Until recent decades, accounts of Tejano participation in the Texas revolution were notably absent. Historians such as Gerald Eugene Poyo and Jesús F. de la Teja are now documenting the Tejano contributions to Texas history.[23]

Key to military rank abbreviations[edit]

Key to military rank abbreviations
COL Colonel LT Lieutenant SGM Sergeant-Major CPL Corporal
LTC Lieutenant Colonel 1LT First Lieutenant 4SG Fourth Sergeant PVT Private
MAJ Major 2LT Second Lieutenant SGT Sergeant QM Quartermaster
CPT Captain CNT Cornet 3CPL Third Corporal AQM Assistant Quartermaster

Defenders[edit]

Main article: Battle of the Alamo
  • Note: There are individuals listed on the Alamo Cenotaph for whom later research has shown were not there.
Name Rank Birth Year Birthplace Status Legacy and notes Ref(s)
Juan Abamillo SGT Texas casualty Entered March 4. [24]
James L. Allen PVT 1815 Kentucky survivor Allen left on March 5 as the final courier sent from the Alamo. At the Battle of San Jacinto, Allen enlisted under Deaf Smith. [25]
Robert Allen PVT Virginia casualty [26]
Horace Alsbury PVT 1805 Kentucky, Hopkinsville survivor When Mexican troops arrived on February 23, Travis sent Alsbury as the first courier. His wife Juana was inside the mission and later provided John Salmon Ford with her account of the battle. [27]
George Andrews casualty Entered March 4. [28]
Miles DeForest Andross PVT 1809 Vermont, Bradford casualty [29]
Jose Maria Arocha survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Simon Arreola survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Micajah Autry PVT 1794 North Carolina, Sampson casualty [30]
Jesse B. Badgett 1807 Texas survivor He and Samuel A. Maverick were elected February 5 to represent the garrison at the Convention of 1836 which convened March 1 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. [31]
Juan A. Badillo SGT Texas casualty Entered March 4. [32]
Peter James Bailey III PVT 1812 Kentucky, Springfield casualty Namesake of Bailey County, Texas. [33]
Isaac G. Baker PVT 1814 Arkansas casualty [34]
William Charles M. Baker CPT Missouri casualty [35]
John Ballard casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
John J. Ballentine PVT Pennsylvania casualty [37]
Richard W. Ballentine PVT 1814 Scotland casualty [38]
Andrew Barcena survivor Also known as Andres Barcinas, he and Anselmo Bergara had been part of Seguín's company. They were the first witnesses of the Alamo's fall to arrive in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Houston denounced them as Mexican spies and had them arrested, but Barcena fought under Seguín at the Battle of San Jacinto. [39]
John J. Baugh CPT 1803 Virginia casualty Adjutant of the garrison, he was next in command after co-commanders Bowie and Travis. [40]
Samuel G. Bastain Louisiana survivor Bastain left February 29 as a courier to reiterate urgency to Gonzales reinforcements, whom he joined en route. On the return trip, they were unable to enter the Alamo. [41]
Joseph Bayliss PVT 1808 Tennessee casualty [40]
John Walker Baylor, Jr. PVT 1813 Kentucky, Stone Creek survivor Baylor was sent as a courier to Goliad, and later fought at both the Battle of Coleto and the Battle of San Jacinto. [42]
Anselmo Bergara Mexico survivor He and Andrew Barcena had been part of Seguín's company. Bergara fled when the Mexican troops arrived. They were the first witnesses of the Alamo's fall to arrive in Houston's camp at Gonzales on March 11. Houston denounced them as Mexican spies and had them arrested. Bergara was sent to attorney general David Thomas in Harrisburg. [43]
John Blair PVT 1803 Tennessee casualty [44]
Samuel Blair CPT 1807 Tennessee casualty Assistant to Master of Ordnance. [45]
William Blazeby CPT 1795 England casualty [45]
James Bonham 2LT 1807 South Carolina, Edgefield County casualty Bonham was sent out as a courier on February 16 to Goliad and Gonzales. He returned to the Alamo on March 3. [46]
Daniel Bourne PVT 1810 England casualty [47]
James Bowie COL c. 1796 Kentucky, Logan County casualty Co-commander of the garrison after the departure of James. C. Neill. [48]
J. B. Bowman casualty Lindley believes this might also be James H. Bowman. [49]
Robert Brown PVT c. 1818 survivor Brown left after February 25, and afterwards served as a baggage guard at the Battle of San Jacinto. [50]
James Buchanan PVT 1813 Alabama casualty [51]
Samuel E. Burns PVT 1810 Ireland casualty [51]
George D. Butler PVT 1813 Missouri casualty [51]
John Cain PVT 1802 Pennsylvania casualty [52]
Robert Campbell LT 1810 Tennessee casualty [52]
William R. Carey CPT 1806 Virginia casualty [52]
Cesario Carmona survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
M.B. Clark PVT Mississippi casualty Entered March 4. [53]
Daniel W. Cloud PVT 1812 Kentucky, Lexington casualty [54]
Robert E. Cochran PVT 1810 New Hampshire, Pembroke casualty Namesake of Cochran County, Texas. [55]
George Washington "Wash" Cottle LT 1811 Missouri, Lincoln County casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [56]
Henry Courtman PVT 1808 Germany casualty Entered March 4. [57]
Lemuel Crawford PVT 1814 South Carolina casualty [58]
David Crockett COL 1786 Tennessee, Greene County casualty [59]
Robert Crossman PVT 1810 Pennsylvania casualty [60]
Antonio Cruz y Arocha PVT Mexico survivor He left as courier with Seguin on February 25, and continued with Seguin through the Battle of San Jacinto. [61]
David P. Cummings PVT 1809 Pennsylvania, Lewiston casualty [62]
Robert Cunningham PVT 1804 New York, Ontario County casualty [63]
Matias Curvier survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Jacob C. Darst LT 1793 Kentucky, Woodford County casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [64]
John Davis PVT 1811 Kentucky casualty [65]
Freeman H.K. Day PVT 1806 casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [64]
Squire Daymon PVT 1808 Tennessee casualty [66]
William Dearduff PVT c. 1811 Tennessee casualty [66]
Alexandro de la Garza PVT Texas survivor Dispatched as a courier. [66]
N. Debichi casualty Entered March 4. [67]
Stephen Dennison PVT 1812 England or Ireland casualty Entered March 4. [68]
Francis L. Desauque CPT Pennsylvania, Philadelphia survivor Left to gather supplies at Goliad. [69]
Charles Despallier PVT 1812 Louisiana casualty [70]
Lewis Dewall PVT 1812 New York casualty [71]
Almaron Dickinson CPT 1810 Tennessee casualty His wife Susanna and daughter were inside the mission during the battle and saved by Mexican Colonel Juan Almonte. Santa Anna sent her to Gonzales with a message about the Alamo's fall. [72]
James Dickson casualty [73]
John Henry Dillard PVT 1805 Tennessee, Smith County casualty [74]
Philip Dimmitt CPT 1801 Kentucky survivor Dimmitt and B. F. Nobles were scouting when the Mexican army arrived on February 23, blocking their return. Dimmitt began recruiting volunteers in Victoria. [75]
James R. Dimpkins SGT England casualty [76]
Andrew Duvalt PVT 1804 Ireland casualty [77]
Samuel M. Edwards casualty Entered March 4. [78]
Conrad Eigenauer casualty Entered March 4. [67]
J.D. Elliott casualty Entered March 4 [67]
Frederick E. Elm casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
Lucio Enriques survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Carlos Espalier PVT 1819 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar casualty Entered March 4. [79]
José Gregorio Esparza PVT 1802 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar casualty His was the only body of a Texian to be buried, after his brother Francisco received special permission from Santa Anna. [80]
Robert Evans MAJ 1800 Ireland casualty Master of Ordnance [81]
Samuel B. Evans PVT 1812 New York, Jefferson County casualty [82]
James L. Ewing PVT 1812 Tennessee casualty [82]
William Keener Faunterloy PVT 1814 Kentucky, Logan County casualty [83]
William Fishbaugh PVT Alabama (possibly) casualty [83]
John Flanders PVT 1800 New Hampshire casualty [83]
Manuel N. Flores c.1801 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Salvador Flores CPT 1806 Texas survivor Flores left with Seguín on February 25. During the Runaway Scrape, he led a part of Seguín's company in guarding fleeing families. [84]
Dolphin Ward Floyd PVT 1804 North Carolina, Nash County casualty Namesake of Floyd County, Texas. [85]
John Hubbard Forsyth CPT 1797 New York, Avon casualty [85]
Antonio Fuentes PVT 1813 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar casualty [86]
Galba Fuqua PVT 1819 Alabama casualty Entered March 1 or 4 . [87]
William Garnett PVT 1812 Virginia casualty [88]
James W. Garrand PVT 1813 Louisiana casualty [88]
James Girard Garrett PVT 1806 Tennessee casualty [89]
John E. Garvin PVT 1809 casualty [90]
John E. Gaston PVT 1819 casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [91]
James George PVT 1802 casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [92]
William George casualty Entered March1 or 4. [78]
James Gibson casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
John C. Goodrich CNT 1809 Virginia casualty [93]
Francis H. Gray casualty Entered March 4. [78]
W.T. Green casualty Entered March 4. [67]
Albert Calvin Grimes PVT 1817 Georgia casualty [94]
Ignacio Gurrea survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Brigido Guerrero PVT Mexico, Tallenango survivor A deserter from Ugartechea's troops, he joined with Bowie. When Mexican troops stormed the mission, Guerrero was spared by convincing them he was a prisoner of war. [95]
James C. Gwin PVT 1804 England casualty aka Gwynne [96]
John Harris PVT 1813 Kentucky casualty [97]
Andrew Jackson Harrison PVT 1809 Tennessee casualty [97]
I.L.K. Harrison casualty [98]
William B. Harrison CPT 1811 Ohio casualty [99]
Joseph M. Hawkins PVT 1799 Ireland casualty [99]
John M. Hays PVT 1814 Tennessee, Nashville casualty [100]
Charles M. Heiskell PVT 1813 Tennessee (possibly) casualty [100]
Patrick Henry Herndon PVT 1802 Virginia casualty [101]
Pedro Herrera survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
William Daniel Hersee SGT 1805 England casualty [102]
Benjamin Franklin Highsmith PVT 1817 Missouri Territory, St. Charles District survivor Highsmith was sent as a courier to Goliad on February 18. He re-entered the Alamo on March 1, and was sent out again as a courier on the same day. He joined Houston as a courier and fought at San Jacinto. [103]
Tapley Holland PVT 1810 Ohio casualty [104]
James Holloway casualty Entered March 4. [105]
Samuel Holloway PVT 1808 Pennsylvania casualty [106]
William D. Howell 1791 Massachusetts casualty Entered March 4. [107]
William Hunter casualty Entered March 4. [67]
Thomas P. Hutchinson casualty Entered March 4. [105]
William A. Irwin casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
Thomas R. Jackson PVT Ireland casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [108]
William Daniel Jackson LT 1807 Kentucky casualty [109]
Green B. Jameson MAJ 1807 Kentucky casualty [110]
Gordon C. Jennings CPL 1780 Connecticut casualty [111]
Damacio Jiménez PVT Texas casualty Entered March 4. [112]
Joe 1813 or 1815 Alabama survivor Slave of Travis, accompanied Susanna Dickinson to Gonzales. [113]
John Louisiana casualty Civilian employee of Desauque. [114]
John Johnson PVT 1800 Missouri survivor Dispatched as courier February 23. [115]
Lewis Johnson PVT Illinois Territory (possibly) casualty [116]
William Johnson PVT Pennsylvania, Philadelphia casualty [117]
William P. Johnson SGT (possibly) survivor Likely dispatched as courier February 23. [117]
John Jones 1LT 1810 New York casualty [117]
James Kenny PVT 1814 Virginia casualty [118]
Andrew Kent PVT 1798 Virginia casualty Namesake of Kent County, Texas. [118]
Joseph Kent casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company.. Entered March 1 or 4. [119]
Joseph Kerr PVT 1814 Louisiana casualty [120]
George C. Kimble LT 1803 Pennsylvania casualty Namesake of Kimble County, Texas. Entered March 1 or 4. [121]
John C. Kin casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
William Philip King PVT 1820 Mississippi, Monroe County casualty Youngest defender casualty; namesake of King County. [122]
William Irvine Lewis PVT 1806 Virginia casualty [123]
William J. Lightfoot 3CPL 1805 Kentucky casualty [123]
Jonathan Lindley PVT 1814 Illinois casualty [123]
William Linn PVT Massachusetts casualty [124]
Byrd Lockhart CPT 1782 Virginia survivor He and Andrew Jackson Sowell left to buy supplies. Namesake of Lockhart, Texas. [125]
Toribio Losoya PVT 1808 Texas casualty [118]
George Washington Main LT 1807 Virginia casualty [126]
William T. Malone PVT 1817 Athens, Georgia casualty [127]
William Marshall PVT 1808 Tennessee casualty [127]
Albert Martin CPT 1808 Rhode Island casualty Martin was dispatched with the Travis letter To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World. In Gonzales, he passed the letter to Launcelot Smither on February 25, and returned to the Alamo with reinforcements. [128]
Samuel Maverick PVT 1803 South Carolina, Pendleton survivor He and Jesse B. Badgett were elected February 5 to represent the garrison at the Convention of 1836 which convened March 1 at Washington-on-the-Brazos. [129]
Edward McCafferty LT casualty Entered March 4. [130]
Ross McClelland casualty Lindley lists him as "a litle Irishman". [131]
Daniel McCoy, Jr. casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
Jesse McCoy PVT 1804 Tennessee casualty [132]
Prospect McCoy casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
William McDowell PVT 1794 Pennsylvania casualty [132]
James McGee PVT Ireland casualty [132]
John McGregor SGT Scotland casualty [133]
Robert McKinney PVT 1809 Ireland casualty [134]
S.W. McNeilly casualty Entered March 4. [67]
Eliel Melton QM, LT 1798 Georgia casualty [135]
Antonio Menchaca 1800 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Thomas R. Miller PVT 1795 Tennessee casualty [136]
William Mills PVT 1815 Tennessee casualty [137]
Isaac Millsaps PVT c. 1795 Mississippi casualty [138]
Edward F. Mitchasson 1806 Virginia casualty Entered March 4. aka Dr. E.F. Mitchusson [139]
Edwin T. Mitchell PVT 1806 casualty Entered March 4. [140]
Napoleon B. Mitchell PVT 1804 casualty [141]
Robert B. Moore PVT 1781 Virginia casualty Entered March 4. [142]
Willis A. Moore PVT 1808 casualty Entered March 4. [142]
John Morman casualty [73]
William Morrison casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
Robert Musselman SGT 1805 Ohio casualty [143]
James Nash casualty Gonzales Mounted Ranger Company. [36]
Andrés Nava SGT 1810 Texas casualty Entered March 4. [144]
Gerald Navan PVT survivor Dispatched as courier March 3. [145]
George Neggan PVT 1808 South Carolina casualty [143]
Andrew M. Nelson PVT 1809 Tennessee casualty [146]
Edward Nelson PVT 1816 South Carolina casualty [146]
George Nelson PVT 1805 South Carolina casualty [147]
Benjamin F. Nobles LT survivor Nobles and Dimmitt were scouting on February 23, and the arrival of the Mexican army prevented them from re-entering the mission. [148]
James Northcross PVT 1804 Virginia casualty [149]
James Nowlan PVT 1809 England casualty [150]
L.R. O'Neil casualty Entered March 4. [67]
George Olamio PVT Ireland casualty Entered March 4. [78]
William Sanders Oury PVT 1817 Virginia, Abingdon survivor Dispatched as a courier February 29. [151]
Jose Sebastian "Luciano" Pacheco survivor Seguín sent Pacheco on February 23 to fetch a trunk from Seguin's home. Pacheco was unable to re-enter Alamo. [152]
George Pagan PVT 1810 casualty [153]
Christopher Adams Parker PVT 1814 casualty [143]
William Parks PVT 1805 North Carolina, Rowan County casualty [143]
William Hester Patton AQM, LT 1808 Kentucky survivor Assumed to be a courier, believed to have left with John William Smith. Led his own company at the Battle of San Jacinto. [154]
Richardson Perry PVT 1817 Mississippi casualty [155]
Adolf Petrasweiz casualty Entered March 4. [156]
Amos Pollard 1803 Massachusetts, Ashburnham casualty Chief surgeon of the garrison, created a hospital in the mission. [157]
Eduardo Ramirez survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
John Purdy Reynolds PVT 1806 Pennsylvania casualty [157]
Thomas H. Roberts PVT casualty Entered March 4. [158]
James Waters Robertson PVT 1812 Tennessee casualty [159]
Ambrosio Rodriguez survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Guadalupe Rodriquez casualty Entered March 4. [78]
James M. Rose PVT 1805 Ohio casualty [155]
Jacob Roth MAJ casualty [98]
Jackson J. Rusk PVT Ireland casualty [160]
Joseph Rutherford PVT 1798 Kentucky casualty [160]
Isaac Ryan PVT 1805 Louisiana casualty [160]
W.H. Sanders casualty Entered March 4. [67]
Mial Scurlock PVT 1809 North Carolina, Chatham County casualty [155]
Juan Seguín CPT 1806 Texas, San Antonio de Béxar survivor Left February 25 to recruit reinforcements. [161]
Marcus L. Sewell PVT 1805 England casualty [155]
Manson Shied PVT 1811 Georgia casualty aka Shudd [155]
Silvero survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]
Cleveland Kinloch Simmons LT 1815 South Carolina, Charleston casualty [162]
Andrew H. Smith PVT 1815 Tennessee casualty [162]
Charles S. Smith PVT 1806 Maryland casualty [163]
John William Smith 1792 Virginia survivor Smith was the final courier sent to Washington-on-the-Brazos, and was unable to return to the Alamo. He scouted for the Texian army at San Jacinto. [164]
Joshua G. Smith SGT 1808 North Carolina casualty [165]
William H. Smith PVT 1811 casualty [166]
Launcelot Smither PVT 1800 survivor Smither left for Gonzales on February 23 to relay news of the Mexican army's approach. On February 25, Smither received the Travis letter from Albert Martin and delivered it to the provisional government at San Felipe. [167]
Andrew Jackson Sowell PVT 1815 Tennessee survivor Left with Byrd Lockhart to buy supplies. [168]
John Spratt casualty Entered March 4. [28]
Richard Starr PVT 1811 England casualty [169]
James E. Stewart PVT 1808 England casualty [169]
Richard L. Stockton PVT 1817 New Jersey casualty [169]
A. Spain Summerlin PVT 1817 Tennessee casualty [170]
William E. Summers PVT 1812 Tennessee casualty [170]
John Sutherland Jr. PVT 1792 Virginia, Danville survivor He served the garrison as a medic and was sent to Gonzales for reinforcements on February 23. [171]
William DePriest Sutherland PVT 1818 Alabama casualty [166]
Edward Taylor PVT 1812 Tennessee casualty Taylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, George and James, who also died in the Alamo. Entered March 1 or 4. [172]
George Taylor PVT 1816 Tennessee casualty Taylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, Edward and James, who also died in the Alamo. [173]
James Taylor PVT 1814 Tennessee casualty Taylor County, Texas is named for him and his brothers, George and Edward, who also died in the Alamo. Entered March 1 or 4. [174]
William Taylor PVT 1799 Tennessee casualty Entered March 1 or 4. [175]
B. Archer M. Thomas PVT 1818 Kentucky casualty [176]
Henry Thomas PVT 1811 Germany casualty Entered March 4. [177]
Thompson casualty [178]
John W. Thomson PVT 1807 North Carolina casualty [179]
John, M. Thurston 2LT 1812 Pennsylvania casualty [180]
Burke Trammel PVT 1810 Ireland casualty [180]
William B. Travis LTC 1809 South Carolina, Edgefield District casualty Co-commander of the garrison after the departure of James. C. Neill. [181]
George W. Tumlinson PVT 1814 Missouri casualty [182]
James Tylee PVT 1795 New York casualty [182]
Asa Walker PVT 1813 Tennessee casualty [183]
Jacob Walker PVT 1799 Tennessee casualty [183]
William B. Ward SGT 1806 Ireland casualty [183]
Henry Warnell PVT 1812 Arkansas escaped Died June 1836 of wounds incurred during the battle or during his escape. [184]
Joseph G. Washington PVT c. 1808 Tennessee casualty possibly aka James Morgan [183]
Thomas Waters PVT 1812 England casualty [183]
William Wells PVT 1798 Georgia, Hall County casualty [183]
Isaac White SGT casualty [185]
Robert White CPT 1806 England casualty [186]
Hiram James Williamson SMA 1810 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia casualty [187]
William Wills casualty [187]
David L. Wilson PVT 1807 Scotland casualty [187]
John Wilson PVT 1804 Pennsylvania casualty [187]
Anthony Wolf PVT 1782 casualty [187]
Claiborne Wright PVT 1810 North Carolina casualty [187]
Charles Zanco LT 1808 Denmark, Randers casualty [187]
Vicente Zepeda survivor Juan Seguin's volunteers. [Note 1]

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tejanos who were not part of the Bexar garrison but were part of Seguin's volunteers and were in the Alamo on Feb 23. Enrique Esparza, who was inside the mission as the son of defender Gregorio Esparza, later recalled that Santa Anna offered a three-day amnesty to all Tejano defenders. According to Esparza, Tejanos discussed the matter with Bowie who advised them to take the amnesty. It is believed most of the Tejanos left when Seguin did, either as couriers or because of the amnesty. Poyo (1996), p. 53, 58 Efficient in the Cause (Stephen L. Harden); Lindley (2003), p. 94, 134

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 2,4,6.
  2. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 137–138
  3. ^ Davis (2004), p. 143;Todish et al. (1998), p. 121.
  4. ^ Poyo (1996), p. 54, Efficient in the Cause (Stephen L. Harden)
  5. ^ Todish et al. (1998), pp. 29, 125
  6. ^ Todish et al. (1998), p.126.; Moore (2004), p. 39
  7. ^ Groneman (2001), p. 1; Lindley (2003), pp. 90, 93
  8. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 92–93; Groneman (2001), pp. 4–5; Jackson, Wheat (2005), p. 367
  9. ^ Green, Michael R. (April 1988). "To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 91 (4): 483–508. JSTOR 30240052. 
  10. ^ Moore (2004), pp. 4, 22
  11. ^ Lord (1961), p. 166
  12. ^ Edmondson (2000), pp. 45–46, 374.
  13. ^ "Telegraph and Texas Register May 28, 1837". The Portal to Texas History. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Sibley, Marilyn McAdams (October 1966). "The Burial Place of the Alamo Heroes". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association) 70 (2): 272–280. JSTOR 30236392. 
  15. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 227
  16. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 148; Jackson, Wheat (2005), pp. 374,377
  17. ^ Jackson, Wheat (2005), p. 389
  18. ^ Chariton (1990), p. 180.
  19. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 226–227
  20. ^ Matovina (1995), pp. 43–44
  21. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 52, 57
  22. ^ "Categories of Land Grants in Texas" (PDF). Texas General Land Office. State of Texas. Retrieved June 22, 2015. 
  23. ^ de la Teja, Jesús F (Spring 1998). "Discovering the Tejano Community in "Early" Texas". Journal of the Early Republic (University of Pennsylvania Press on behalf of the Society for Historians of the Early American Republic). Vol. 18, No. 1: 73–98. JSTOR 3124734. ; Don, Graham (July 1985). "Remembering the Alamo: The Story of the Texas Revolution in Popular Culture". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (Texas State Historical Association). Vol. 89, No. 1: 62–3. JSTOR 30236993. 
  24. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  25. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 1
  26. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 2.
  27. ^ Matovina (1995), pp. 45–48; Lindley (2003), p. 87.
  28. ^ a b Lindley (2003), pp. 54, 143
  29. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 6–7.
  30. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 7.
  31. ^ Kemp, L. W. "Jesse B. Badgett". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 14, 2015. 
  32. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 8; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  33. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 8.
  34. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 9.
  35. ^ Todish (1998), p. 76; Groneman (1990), pp. 9–10.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lindley (2003), p. 98
  37. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 10.
  38. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 10–11.
  39. ^ Moore (2004), pp. 45–46, 451
  40. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 11; Todish (1998), p. 76.
  41. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 131
  42. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 12.
  43. ^ Moore (2004), pp. 45–46, 163, 171
  44. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 13–14.
  45. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 14.
  46. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 15–16.
  47. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 16.
  48. ^ Hopewell (1994), pp. 2–3, 116.
  49. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 62, 79
  50. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 20–21; Moore (2004), p. 457
  51. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 21.
  52. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 22.
  53. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 24.
  54. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 24.
  55. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 24–25
  56. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 25.
  57. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 25.
  58. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 26.
  59. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 26–27; Lindley (2003), p. 202.
  60. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 29.
  61. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 29–30.
  62. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 30.
  63. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 30–31.
  64. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 32.
  65. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 32.
  66. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 33.
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h Lindley (2003), p. 143
  68. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 34.
  69. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 34–35
  70. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 35–36; Todish (1998), p. 78.
  71. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 36
  72. ^ Carrington (1993), pp. 74–75; Groneman (1990), pp. 36–37.
  73. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 54
  74. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 39.
  75. ^ Todish (1998), p. 89; Groneman (1990), pp.40–41;Roell, Craig H. "Philip Dimmitt". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  76. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 41–42.
  77. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 42.
  78. ^ a b c d e Lindley (2003), p. 144
  79. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 79.
  80. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 45–46.
  81. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 47; Edmondson (2000), p. 371.
  82. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 48.
  83. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), pp. 48–49.
  84. ^ de la Teja (1991), pp. 18, 135,182; Lindley (2003), pp. 94, 112; Moore (2004), p. 60
  85. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 50.
  86. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 51.
  87. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 51; Lindley (2003), p. 144
  88. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 52.
  89. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 52–53.
  90. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 53.
  91. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 53; Lindley (2003), p. 144
  92. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 53–54; Lindley (2003), p. 144
  93. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 54–55
  94. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 55.
  95. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 55–56
  96. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 56.
  97. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 57.
  98. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 53.
  99. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 58.
  100. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 59.
  101. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 59–60.
  102. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 60.
  103. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 60–61,66; Todish (1998), p. 89; Lindley (2003), p. 133
  104. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 61–62.
  105. ^ a b Lindley (2003), pp. 54,143
  106. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 62.
  107. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 62; Lindley (2003), p. 143
  108. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 63; Lindley (2003), p. 144
  109. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 63.
  110. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 63–64.
  111. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 64.
  112. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144;Todish (1998), p. 81
  113. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 64–65; Todish (1998), p. 89; Edmondson (2000), p. 369.
  114. ^ Todish (1998), p. 81; Hopewell125 (1994), p. 125.
  115. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 88, 109, 321; Lord (1961), p. 96.
  116. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 66–67.
  117. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 67.
  118. ^ a b c Todish (1998), p. 82.
  119. ^ Lindley (2003), pp. 98,144
  120. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 69
  121. ^ Todish (1998), p. 82.; Lindley (2003), p. 144
  122. ^ Groneman, Bill; Hall, Russell S. "William Philip King". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2014. Leffler, John. "King County, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  123. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 71.
  124. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 72.
  125. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90; Groneman (1990), pp. 72–73; Moore (2004), p. 60
  126. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 74.
  127. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 75.
  128. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 76.; Green (1988), p. 500; Lindley (2003), p. 91
  129. ^ Marks, Paula Mitchell. "Samuel Augustus Maverick". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  130. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 76
  131. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 59
  132. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 77.
  133. ^ Todish (1998), p. 83.
  134. ^ Lord (1961), p. 217; Todish (1998), p. 83.
  135. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 78–79.
  136. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 79; Todish (1998), p. 83
  137. ^ Groneman (1990), pp. 79–80.
  138. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 80.
  139. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 80
  140. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 81
  141. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 81.
  142. ^ a b Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), pp. 81–82.
  143. ^ a b c d Todish (1998), p. 84.
  144. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Todish (1998), p. 84
  145. ^ Chariton (1990), p. 180
  146. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 84.
  147. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 85.
  148. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 85; Roell, Craig H. "Philip Dimmitt". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  149. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 86.
  150. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 87.
  151. ^ Todish (1998), p. 89.
  152. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90
  153. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 88.
  154. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 202; Groneman (1990), pp. 89–90; Moore (2004), pp. 52–54, 100
  155. ^ a b c d e Todish (1998), p. 85.
  156. ^ Lindley (2003). pp. 143,166
  157. ^ a b Groneman (1990), pp. 91–92
  158. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 93.
  159. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 93.
  160. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), pp. 95–96.
  161. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 97; Nofi (1992), pp. 85–86.
  162. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 100.
  163. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 101.
  164. ^ Nofi (1992), p. 79; Myers (1948), p. 202; Groneman, pp. 101–102;Todish (1998), p. 90.
  165. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 103.
  166. ^ a b Todish (1998), p. 86.
  167. ^ Green (1988), pp. 503–504; Groneman (1990), p. 101.
  168. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 90; Groneman (1990), pp. 72–73, 105
  169. ^ a b c Groneman (1990), p. 106
  170. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 107
  171. ^ McCaslin, Richard B. "John Sutherland Jr.". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved June 9, 2015. 
  172. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 109
  173. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 110
  174. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 110
  175. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 144; Groneman (1990), p. 111
  176. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 111
  177. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 143; Groneman (1990), p. 111
  178. ^ Lindley (2003), p. 63
  179. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 112
  180. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 113
  181. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 115
  182. ^ a b Groneman (1990), p. 116
  183. ^ a b c d e f Todish (1998), p. 87.
  184. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 119.
  185. ^ Todish (1998), p. 87-88.
  186. ^ Groneman (1990), p. 120
  187. ^ a b c d e f g Todish (1998), p. 88.

References[edit]

  • Carrington, Evelyn M. (1993). Women in Early Texas. Denton, TX: Texas State Historical Association. OCLC 651721302. 
  • Chariton, Wallace O. (1990). Exploring the Alamo Legends. Dallas, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-55622-255-9. 
  • de la Teja, Jesús (1991). A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. Seguin. Austin, TX: State House Press. ISBN 0-938349-68-6. 
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-678-0. 
  • Groneman, Bill (1990). Alamo Defenders: A Genealogy, the People and Their Words. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-0-89015-757-2. 
  • Groneman, Bill (2001). Eyewitness to the Alamo. Lanham, Md: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 9781556228469. 
  • Hopewell, Clifford (1994). James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 0-89015-881-9. 
  • Jackson, Jack; Wheat, John (2005). Almonte's Texas: Juan N. Almonte's 1834 Inspection, Secret Report & Role in the 1836 Campaign. Denton, TX: Texas State Historical Association. ISBN 9780876112076. 
  • Lindley, Thomas Ricks (2003). Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions. Plano, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-983-6. 
  • Lord, Walter (1961). A Time to Stand. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7902-7. 
  • Matovina, Timothy M. (1995). The Alamo Remembered: Tejano Accounts and Perspectives. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0292751866. 
  • Moore, Stephen L. (2004). Eighteen Minutes: The Battle of San Jacinto and the Texas Independence Campaign. Dallas, TX: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 9781589070097. 
  • Myers, John Myers (1948). The Alamo. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-5779-1. 
  • Nofi, Albert A. (1992). The Alamo and the Texas War of Independence, September 30, 1835 to April 21, 1836: Heroes, Myths, and History. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, Inc. ISBN 0-938289-10-1. 
  • Poyo, Gerald Eugene (1996). Tejano Journey, 1770–1850. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292765702. 
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. ISBN 978-1-57168-152-2. 

External links[edit]