List of American Indian Wars

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American Indian Wars are the numerous armed conflicts between European empires or colonists, and later American settlers or the United States government, and the indigenous peoples of North America. These conflicts occurred across the country beginning with the Tiguex War in 1540 within present-day New Mexico and ending with the Renegade period during the Apache Wars in 1924 within the Southwestern United States.

16th century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Battle of Mabila
(Oct 1540)
Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto Mississippian culture Death of chief Tuskaloosa, over 2000 indians and 100 Spaniards
Tiguex War
(winter 1540–41)
Spanish conquistador Puebloan

17th century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Navajo Wars
(c. 1600–1866)
 Crown of Castile
(c. 1600–1716)
 Spain
(1716–1821)
 Mexico
(1821–48)
 United States
(1849–66)
Navajo
Anglo-Powhatan Wars
(1610–46)
English colonists Powhatan Confederacy
Pequot War
(1636–38)
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Plymouth Colony
Saybrook Colony
Connecticut Colony
Pequot
Beaver Wars
(1642–98)
Iroquois
 England
 Dutch Republic
Huron
Erie
Neutral
Odawa
Ojibwe
Mississaugas
Potawatomi
Algonquin
Shawnee
Wenro
Mahican
Innu
Abenaki
Miami
Illinois Confederation
other nations allied with France
 France
Kieft's War
(1643–45)
New Netherland Lenape
Peach Tree War
(1655)
New Netherland Susquehannock
allied tribes
Esopus Wars
(1659–63)
Prinsenvlag.svg Dutch settlers
Iroquois Confederacy
Esopus tribe of Lenape Indians
King Philip's War
(1675–78)
New England Confederation
Mohegan
Pequot
Wampanoag
Nipmuck
Podunk
Narragansett
Nashaway
  • Colonial victory in southern theatre
  • Native victory in northern theatre
King William's War
(1688–97)
 France
 New France
 Wabanaki Confederacy
 England
New England blank flag.svg Massachusetts Bay Colony
Kingdom of England English America
Iroquois Confederacy

18th century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Queen Anne's War
(1702–13)
 France

Spain Spain

Wabanaki Confederacy
Caughnawaga Mohawk
Choctaw
Timucua
Apalachee
Natchez

 England (until 1707)[1]

 Great Britain (from 1707)[1]

Muscogee (Creek)
Chickasaw
Yamasee

Tuscarora War
(1711–15)
  • Power of Tuscaroras broken
  • Tuscaroras retreat from the coast
  • Southern Tuscaroras migrate to New York
Fox Wars
(1712–33)
Kingdom of France France Fox
  • Meskwaki (Red Earth People)
  • Renards
  • Outagamis
Yamasee War
(1715–17)
Colonial militia of:
  • South Carolina
  • North Carolina
  • Virginia

Catawba (from 1715)
Cherokee (from 1716)

Yamasee
Ochese Creeks
Catawba (until 1715)
Cherokee (until 1716)
Waxhaw
Santee
  • Power of the Yamasee was broken
  • South Carolina colonists establish uncontested control of the coast
  • The Catawba become the dominant tribe in the interior
Chickasaw Wars
(1721–63)
 Great Britain
Chickasaw
 France
Choctaw
Illini
Dummer's War
(1722–25)
New England Colonies
Mohawk
Wabanaki Confederacy
Abenaki
Pequawket
Mi'kmaq
Maliseet
King George's War
(1744–48)
 France

Wabanaki Confederacy

 Great Britain

Iroquois Confederacy

Seven Years' War
(1754–63)
 Great Britain

 Prussia
Portugal Portugal (from 1762)
Province of Hanover Hanover
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Iroquois Confederacy
Hesse-Kassel Schaumburg-Lippe

 France

Habsburg Monarchy Holy Roman Empire

 Russia (until 1762)
Spain Spain (from 1762)
Sweden Sweden (1757–62)
Abenaki Confederacy
Mughal Empire (from 1757)

French and Indian War
(1754–63)
Part of the Seven Years' War
 Great Britain

Iroquois Confederacy
Catawba
Cherokee (until 1758)

 France

Wabanaki Confederacy

Algonquin
Lenape
Ojibwa
Ottawa
Shawnee
Wyandot

Anglo-Cherokee War
(1758–61)
Part of the Seven Years' War
 Great Britain Cherokee
Pontiac's War
(1763–66)
 Great Britain Ottawa
Ojibwe
Potawatomi
Huron
Miami
Wea
Kickapoo
Mascouten
Piankeshaw
Delaware
Shawnee
Wyandot
Mingo
Seneca
  • Native Americans concede British sovereignty, but compel British policy changes
  • Portage around Niagara Falls ceded by Senecas to the British
Lord Dunmore's War
(1774)
Kingdom of Great Britain Colony of Virginia Shawnee
Mingo
American Revolutionary War
(1775–83)
 United States
Kingdom of France France
Spain Spain
Vermont

 Netherlands


Mysore


Oneida
Tuscarora
Watauga Association
Catawba
Lenape
Choctaw

 Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain Loyalists
Holy Roman Empire German Auxiliaries

Iroquois
Onondaga
Mohawk
Cayuga
Seneca
Cherokee Nation Cherokee

Cherokee–American wars
(1776–95)
Part of the American Revolutionary War
 United States Cherokee Nation Cherokee
Second Cherokee War
(1776)
Part of the Cherokee–American wars
Northwest Indian War
(1785–95)
 United States
Western Confederacy
Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain
Oconee War
(1785–)

19th century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Tecumseh's War
(1811–13)
Part of the War of 1812
 United States Tecumseh's Confederacy
  • Peace treaty
War of 1812
(1812–15)
 United States
Choctaw
Cherokee
Creek Allies
British Empire United Kingdom

Tecumseh's Confederacy
Spain Spain (1814)

Peoria War
(1813)
Part of the War of 1812
Creek War
(1813–14)
Part of the War of 1812
 United States
Lower Creeks
Cherokee
Choctaw
Red Stick Creek
First Seminole War
(1817–18)
 United States Seminole
Spain Spanish Florida
Texas–Indian wars
(1820–75)
Part of the Apache Wars
 Republic of Texas
 United States
Comanche
Arikara War
(1823)
 United States Arikara
Winnebago War
(1827)
 United States Prairie La Crosse Ho-Chunks
with a few allies
  • Ho-Chunks cede lead mining region to the United States
Black Hawk War
(1832)
 United States
Ho-Chunk
Menominee
Dakota
Potawatomi
Black Hawks British Band
Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi allies
Second Seminole War
(1835–42)
 United States Seminole
Second Creek War
(1836)
Comanche Wars
(1836–75)
Part of the Texas–Indian wars
 Spain
 Mexico
 Republic of Texas
 United States
Comanche
Osage Indian War
(1837)
Osage Nation
Cayuse War
(1847–55)
 United States Cayuse
Ute Wars
(1849–1923)
 United States Ute
Paiute
Navajo
Apache
  • Utes moved to reservations
Apache Wars
(1849–1924)
Part of the Texas–Indian wars
 United States (1849–1924)
 Confederate States (1861–65)
Apache
Ute
Yavapai
Comanche
Cheyenne
Kiowa
Havasupai
Hopi
Navajos
Papagos
Hualapai
Yuma
Mohave
Jicarilla War
(1849–55)
Part of the Apache, Ute and Texas-Indian Wars
 United States Apache
Ute
Yuma War
(1850–53)
 United States
Cupeno (1852–53)
Cocopah (1853)
Paipai
Halyikwamai
Mountain Cahuilla (1851)
Yuma
Mohave
Cocopah (1850–53)
Cahuilla
Cupeno (1851)
Mariposa War
(1850–51)
Walker War
(1853)
Part of the Ute Wars
Sioux Wars
(1854–91)
United States United States
Crow
Pawnee
Eastern Shoshone
Sioux

Cheyenne
Arapaho
Kiowa
Comanche

First Sioux War
(1854–56)
Part of the Sioux Wars
Klickitat War
(1855)
 United States Klickitat
Cascade
Puget Sound War
(1855–56)
Part of the Yakima War
 United States Nisqually
Muckleshoot
Puyallup
Klickitat
Haida
Tlingit
Rogue River Wars
(1855–56)
 United States Rogue River people
  • Indians relocated to Siletz, Grand Ronde, and Coast Reservations
Third Seminole War
(1855–58)
 United States Seminole
Yakima War
(1855–58)
 United States Yakama
  • Peace treaty
Klamath and Salmon River War
(1855)
Tintic War
(1856)
Part of the Ute Wars
Tule River War
(1856)
 United States
 California
Yokut
Coeur d'Alene War
(1858)
Part of the Yakima War
Mendocino War
(1858)
Part of the Yakima War
Yuki
Bald Hills War
(1858–64)
 United States
 California

"Wintoons"

"Redwoods"

"Mountain tribes"

Mohave War
(1858–59)
 United States
Maricopa
Mohave
Walapai
Paiute War
(1860)
 United States Paiute
Shoshone
Bannock
Yavapai Wars
(1861–75)
 United States Yavapai
Apache
Yuma
Mohave
Owens Valley Indian War
(1862–65)
 United States Owens Valley Paiute
Shoshone
Kawaiisu
Tübatulabal
Dakota War of 1862
(1862)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States Dakota Sioux
Goshute War
(1863)
Colorado War
(1863–65)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Snake War
(1864–68)
 United States Snake Indians
Hualapai War
(1865–70)
Part of the Yavapai Wars
 United States Hualapai
Yavapai
Havasupai
Black Hawk's War
(1865–72)
Part of the Ute, Apache and Navajo Wars
 United States Hualapai
Yavapai
Havasupai
Powder River War
(1865)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States Sioux
Cheyenne
Arapaho
Red Cloud's War
(1866–68)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States Lakota
Cheyenne
Arapaho
Comanche campaign
(1867–75)
Part of the Texas–Indian Wars
 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Comanche
Kiowa
Modoc War
(1872–73)
 United States Modoc
Red River War
(1874–75)
 United States Cheyenne
Arapaho
Comanche
Kiowa
Great Sioux War of 1876
(1876–77)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States Lakota
Northern Cheyenne
Arapaho
  • Legal control of Powder River Country ceded to the United States
Buffalo Hunters' War
(1876–77)
Part of the Apache and Texas–Indian Wars
 United States Comanche
Apache
Nez Perce War
(1877)
 United States Nez Perce
Bannock War
(1878)
 United States Bannock
Shoshone
Cheyenne War
(1878–79)
 United States Cheyenne
Sheepeater Indian War
(1879)
 United States Shoshone
White River War
(1879)
Part of the Ute Wars
 United States Ute
Victorio's War
(1879–81)
Part of the Apache Wars during Renegade period
 United States
 Mexico
Apache
Geronimo's War
(1881–86)
Part of the Apache Wars
 United States Apache
Crow War
(1887)
 United States Crow
Ghost Dance War
(1890–91)
Part of the Sioux Wars
 United States

Sioux

20th century wars[edit]

Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
Crazy Snake Rebellion
(1909)
 United States Creek
New Mexico Navajo War
(1913)
Bluff War
(1914–15)
Part of the Navajo and Ute Wars
 United States Ute
Paiute
Colorado Paiute War
(1915)
Posey War
(1923)
Part of the Ute Wars
 United States Ute
Paiute

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were unified as the Kingdom of Great Britain, sharing a single Parliament at Westminster under the Act of Union 1707. After this, Scottish troops joined their English counterparts in all colonial wars.
  2. ^ Canny, p. 92.
  3. ^ Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.