List of American utopian communities
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A list of American Utopian communities.
|Name||Location||Founder||Founding date||Ending date||Notes|
|Zoar||Ohio||Joseph Bimeler||1817||1898||Founded by German religious separatists who wanted religious freedom in America.|
|Old Economy Village||Pennsylvania||George Rapp||1824||1906||A Harmonites Village. The Harmony Society is a Christian theosophy and pietist society founded in Iptingen, Germany, in 1785.|
|Nashoba||Tennessee||Frances Wright||1825||1828||An abolitionist, free-love community. (LEP)|
|New Harmony||Indiana||Robert Owen||1825||1829||Former Harmonite Village bought by Owen that then became a Owenite colony|
|New Philadelphia Colony||Pennsylvania||Bernhard Müller||1832||1833||A libertarian socialist community|
|Oberlin Colony||Ohio||John J. Shipherd and 8 immigrant families||1833||1843||Community based on Communal ownership of property|
|Brook Farm||Massachusetts||George Ripley
|1841||1846||A Transcendent community. Transcendentalism is a religious and cultural philosophy based in New England.|
|North American Phalanx||New Jersey||Charles Sears||1841||1856||A Fourier Society community. The Fourier Society is based on the ideas of Charles Fourier, a French philosopher.|
|Hopedale Community||Massachusetts||Adin Ballou||1842||1868||A community based on "Practical Christianity", which included ideas such as temperance, abolitionism, Women's rights, spiritualism and education.|
|Fruitlands||Massachusetts||Amos Alcott||1843||1844||A Transcendent community.|
|Skaneateles Community||New York||Society for Universal Inquiry||1843||1846||A Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform community.|
|Sodus Bay Phalanx||New York||Sodus Bay Fourierists||1844||1846||A Fourier Society community.|
|Wisconsin Phalanx||Wisconsin||Albert Brisbane||1844||1850||A Fourier Society community.|
|Clermont Phalanx||Ohio||Followers of Charles Fourier||1844||1845||A Fourier Society community.|
|Prairie Home Community||Ohio||John O. Wattles
|1844||1845||A Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform community.|
|Fruit Hills||Ohio||Orson S. Murray||1845||1852||A community based on Owenism and anarchism. Maintained close contact with the Kristeen and Grand Prairie Communities.|
|Kristeen Community||Indiana||Charles Mowland||1845||1847||Founded by Charles Mowland and others who had previously been associated with the Prairie Home Community. A Society for Universal Inquiry and Reform community.|
|Bishop Hill Colony||Illinois||Eric Jansson||1846||1862||A Swedish Pietist religious commune.|
|Spring Farm Colony||Wisconsin||6 Fourierite Families||1846||1848||A Fourier Society community.|
|Oneida Community||New York||John H. Noyes||1848||1880||A Utopian socialism community. Oneida Community practices included Communalism, Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship.|
Iowa, Missouri, California
|Étienne Cabet||1848||1898||Egalitarian communities based on the French utopian movement founded by Cabet, after his followers emigrated to the US.|
|Amana Colonies||Iowa||Community of True Inspiration||1850s||1932||The Amana villages were built one hour apart when traveling by ox cart. Each village had a church, a farm, multi-family residences, workshops and communal kitchens. The communal system continued until 1932.|
|Modern Times||New York||Josiah Warren and Stephen Pearl Andrews||1851||1864||Founded upon individual sovereignty and equitable commerce.|
|Raritan Bay Union||New Jersey||Marcus Spring
|1853||1858||A Fourier Society community.|
|Aurora Colony||Oregon||William Keil||1853||1883||Christian utopian community|
|Free Lovers at Davis House||Ohio||Francis Barry||1854||1858||A community based on Free love and spiritualism.|
|Reunion Colony||Texas||Victor P. Considerant||1855||1869||A utopian socialism community.|
|Octagon City||Kansas||Henry S. Clubb
|1856||1857||Originally built as a vegetarian colony.|
|Workingmen's Co-operative Colony (Llewellyn Castle)||Kansas||followers of James Bronterre O'Brien||1869||1874||A community based on the political reform philosophy of Chartist James Bronterre O'Brien.|
|Silkville||Kansas||Ernest de Boissière||1869||1892||Sericulture farm in Kansas that was founded on Fourierist principles. Later shifted away from Fourierism before its collapse.|
|Zion Valley||Kansas||William Bickerton||1875||1879||Bickertonite Mormon religious colony that secularized in 1879 to become the town of St. John, Kansas.|
|Danish Socialist Colony||Kansas||Louis Pio||1877||1877||A utopian socialist community|
|Rugby||Tennessee||Thomas Hughes||1880||1887||A community based on Christian socialism.|
|Am Olam||Across the US||Mania Bakl and Moses Herder||1881||Most disbanded by the 1890s||Jewish social movement that sought to create agricultural communities in America.|
|Shalam Colony||New Mexico||John B. Newbrough
|1884||1901||A community in which members would live peaceful, vegetarian lifestyles, and where orphaned urban children were to be raised.|
|Ruskin Colony||Tennessee||Julius Wayland||1894||1899||Attempt to create a co-operative communal movement.|
|Altruria||California||Edward Byron Payne||1894||1896||Christian socialist colony inspired by the novel A Traveler from Altruria.|
|Home, Washington||Washington||George H. Allen
Oliver A. Verity
B. F. O'Dell
|1895||1919||An intentional community based on anarchist philosophy|
|Nucla||Colorado||Colorado Cooperative Company||1896||Established following the Panic of 1893. Originally called Piñon.|
|Name||Location||Founder||Founding date||Ending date||Notes|
|Arden Village||Delaware||Frank Stephens
|1900||Currently Active||An art colony founded as a Georgist single-tax art community.|
|Zion, Illinois||Illinois||John Alexander Dowie||1900||1907||A Utopian Christian religious community, reorganized following fraud allegations and founder's death into modern city.|
|Holy City||California||William E. Riker||1919||1959||Founded by a sect that promoted celibacy, temperance and a segregationist interpretation of Christianity.|
|Druid Heights||California||Elsa Gidlow
|East Wind Community||Ozark County, Missouri||Kat Kinkade||1973||present||A secular and democratic community in which members hold all communities assets in common.|
|Equality Colony||Washington||Norman W. Lermond
|Fairhope Single Tax Corporation, Fairhope, AL||Alabama||Fairhope Industrial Association||1894||currently still in operation||Fairhope was first settled in 1894 by Georgist. The Single tax experiment was incorporated as the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation under Alabama law in 1904. The municipality of Fairhope was incorporated in 1908.|
|The Farm (Tennessee)||Lewis County, Tennessee||Stephen Gaskin||1971||present||Hippie Buddhist-inspired vegetarian community. De-collectivized in 1983.|
|Freeland Association||Washington||Dissident members of the Equality Colony||1900||1906||A socialist commune. The first settlers dissident members of the nearby Equality Colony. While the Freeland Association dissolved in 1906 the census-designated place (CDP) of Freeland, Washington continues to exist.|
|Post||Texas||C.W. Post||1907||now Post, Texas|
|Padanaram Settlement||Indiana||Daniel Wright||1966||currently active||Christian fundamentalist commune in rural Indiana|
|Llano del Rio||California||Job Harriman||1914||1918||Unbuilt project by architect and planner Alice Constance Austin with strong emphasis on shared domestic work|
|New Llano||Louisiana||Job Harriman||1917||1937||Founded by Job Harriman & other members of the California Llano del Rio colony who relocated to Louisiana.|
|Twin Oaks||Virginia||Kat Kinkade, others||1967||currently active||Originally a behaviourist utopian society based on the novel Walden Two; eventually becoming an egalitarian commune.|
|Acorn Community Farm||Virginia||Ira Wallace||1993||currently active||egalitarian commune; branched off of Twin Oaks.|
- List of Finnish utopian communities
- List of Fourierist Associations in the United States
- Federation of Egalitarian Communities
- List of intentional communities
- List of Owenite communities in the United States
- Morris, James M.; Kross, Andrea L. (2009). The A to Z of Utopianism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810863354.
- Spann, Edward K. (1992). Hopedale: From Commune to Company Town, 1840-1920 (Urban life and urban landscape series ed.). Ohio: Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0814205755. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Spann, Edward K. (1992). Hopedale: From Commune to Company Town, 1840-1920 (Urban life and urban landscape series ed.). Ohio: Ohio State University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0814205755. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- McCarville, Colin (2012). "Ceresco: A Utopian Community in Ripon, Wisconsin". Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Morris, James Matthew; Kross, Andrea L. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Utopianism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 108 and 111. ISBN 0810849127. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Entz, Gary R. (2013). Llewellyn Castle: A Worker's Cooperative on the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803245396.
- Entz, Gary R. (2006). "The Bickertonites: Schism and Reunion in a Restoration Church, 1880-1905". Journal of Mormon History: 8.
- Miller, Kenneth E. (1972). Danish Socialism on the Kansas Prairie. Kansas State Historical Society.
- "Am Olam". www.oregonencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2021-02-13.
- "Colorado's Utopian Colonies: Greeley and Nucla". Denver Public Library History. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- "Frontier in Transition: A History of Southwestern Colorado (Chapter 7)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
- Fairhope 1894-1954, The Story of a Single Tax Colony, Paul E. and Blanche R. Alyea, University of Alabama Press 1956
- Charles Pierce LeWarne, Utopias on Puget Sound, 1885–1915, Seattle, University of Washington State Press, 1975; pp. 114-28.