List of Arab scientists and scholars

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This is a list of Arab scientists and scholars from the Muslim World and Spain (Al-Andalus) who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age, consisting primarily of scholars during the Middle Ages. In some cases, their exact ancestry is unclear.

Both the Arabic and Latin names are given. The following Muslim naming articles are not used for indexing:

  • Al - the
  • ibn, bin, banu - son of
  • abu - father of, the one with

To maintain consistency and keep the list easy to navigate, please follow the Entries Format for the List of Arab scientists and scholars on the Talk page when adding names.



  • Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi (980, Baghdad, Iraq–1037), arithmetic
  • Al-Baqillani (?, Basra, Iraq–1013, Basra, Iraq), theologian, scholar, and Maliki lawyer
  • Al-Battani (850, Harran, Turkey–929, Qasr al-Jiss, Iraq), astronomer and mathematician




  • Haly Abenragel (Abû l-Hasan 'Alî ibn Abî l-Rijâl) (?–1037, Kairouan, Tunisia), astrologer, best known for his Kitāb al-bāri' fi ahkām an-nujūm
  • Ibn Hawqal (943, Baghdad,Iraq–969,?), writer, geographer, and chronicler
  • Hassan Hanafi (born 1935 in Cairo, Egypt), professor and chair of philosophy at Cairo University
  • Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar (786–833), mathematician
  • Jabir ibn Hayyan (722–804), chemist
  • Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī (893, Yemen–945, Sanaa, Yemen), geographer, historian and astronomer
  • Ibn Hubal (1122, Baghdad, Iraq–1213), physician, scientist and author of a medical compendium
  • Hayat Sindi (Mecca, SaudiArabia), medical scientist, known for making major contributions to point-of-care medical testing and biotechnology



  • Jabir ibn Aflah (1100, Seville, Spain–1160, ?), influential astronomer and mathematician
  • Al-Jayyani (989, Cordoba, Spain–1079, Jaen, Spain), mathematician and author
  • al-Jazari (1136–1206), described 100 mechanical device
  • Jābir ibn Hayyān (821–915), polymath who is considered the father of chemistry; emphasized systematic experimentation, and did much to free alchemy from superstition and turn it into a science
  • Ibn Al-Jazzar (10th century, Qairwan, Tunis), influential 10th-century physician and author
  • Al-Jahiz (776, Basra, Iraq–869, Basra, Iraq), historian, biologist and author
  • Al-Jawhari, Abu Alabbas (ca. 800–860), mathematician
  • Ibn Jubayr (1145, Valencia, Spain–1217, Egypt), geographer, traveller and poet, known for his detailed travel journals




  • Mostafa El-Sayed
  • Al-Masudi ( ?, Baghdad, Iraq–957, Cairo, Egypt), historian, geographer and philosopher, traveled to Spain, Russia, India, Sri Lanka and China, spent his last years in Syria and Egypt
  • Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti, (d. 1008 or 1007 CE), Arab Muslim scholar and astronomer in Spain
  • Al-Ma'arri (December 26, 973–May 10 or May 21, 1057, Ma'arra (المعرة) in Syria), blind Arab philosopher, poet and writer
  • Al-Mawardi, known in Latin as Alboacen, (972, Basra, Iraq–1058, Iraq), judge, diplomat, and author of influential works on governance and ethics
  • Ma Yize (ca. 910, ?–1005, China), astronomer and astrologist, worked as the chief official of the astronomical observatory of the Song dynasty
  • Muhammad Al-Muqaddasi (946 CE, Jerusalem, Palestine–), medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions)




  • Thābit ibn Qurra (826, Harran, Turkey–902), mathematician, physician, astronomer, and translator


  • Sameera Moussa (March 3, 1917 – August 5, 1952)
  • Ibn al-Shatir (1304, Damascus–1375, Syria, Damascus), astronomer, mathematician, engineer and inventor, worked at the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria, developed an original astronomical model


  • Ibn Al-Thahabi (?, Suhar, Oman–1033 CE, Valencia, Spain), physician and author of an encyclopedia of medicine
  • Ibn Tufail (1105, Granada, Spain–1185, Marrakech, Morocco), Andalusian writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official
  • Muhammad Tamimi, 10th century physician from Palestine


  • Al-Uqlidisi (920, Damascus, Syria–980, Damascus, Syria), wrote two works on arithmetic, may have anticipated the invention of decimals
  • Usamah ibn Munqidh (1095–1188, Damascus, Syria), Arab historian, politician, and diplomat
  • Ibn Abi Usaibia (1203–1270, Damascus, Syria), physician and historian, wrote Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba (Lives of the Physicians)
  • Al-Umawi (1400, Spain–1489, Damascus, Syria), mathematician, wrote works on mensuration and arithmetic


  • Waddah al-Yaman (Yemen,?–Syria,Damscus,709), poet, famous for his erotic and romantic poems


  • Omar M. Yaghi (1965, Amman, Jordan–present), chemistry professor at the University of California, Berkeley
  • Ibn Yunus (c. 950–1009), mathematician and astronomer
  • Yusuf al-Mutamin mathematician, wrote Kitab al-Istikmal (Book of Perfection) in mathematics



See also[edit]