List of Arabic star names

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars. In Western astronomy, most of the accepted star names are Arabic, a few are Greek and some are of unknown origin. Typically only bright stars have names.[1]

History of Arabic star names[edit]

Very old star names originated among people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula more than a thousand years ago, before the rise of Islam. However, many Arabic language star names sprang up later in history, as translations of ancient Greek language descriptions.

The astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in his Almagest (2nd century) tabulated the celestial position and brightness (visual magnitude) of 1,025 stars. Ptolemy's book was translated into Arabic in the 8th and 9th centuries and became famous in Europe as a 12th-century Latin translation. Many of the Arabic-language star descriptions in the Almagest came to be widely used as names for stars.

Ptolemy used a strategy of "figure reference" to identify stars according to their position within a familiar constellation or asterism (e.g., "in the right shoulder of The Hunter"). Muslim astronomers adopted some of these as proper names for stars, and added names from traditional Arabic star lore, which they recorded in various Zij treatises. The most notable of these is the Book of Fixed Stars written by the Muslim astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (known as Azophi in the West), who thoroughly illustrated all the stars known to him along with their observations, descriptions, positions, magnitudes, brightness, and color.

In Europe, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, many ancient star names were copied or translated incorrectly by various writers, some of whom did not know the Arabic language very well. As a result, the history of a star's name can be complicated.[2]

A[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Acamar Ākhir an-Nahr End of the river آخر النهر
Achernar Ākhir an-Nahr End of the river آخر النهر
Acrab al-ʿAqrab the Scorpion عقرب
Açubens az-Zubanāh the Claw الزبانى
Adhafera ad-Dhafīrah the Braid or Curl (of the lion's mane) الضفيرة
Adhara Al-ʿAdhara The maidens "Virgins" العذارى
Adhil ad-Dhayl the Tail الذيل
Adib Al-dhi'b The wolf الذئب
Ain ʿAin the "eye" of the Bull "Eye" عين
Albali al-Bāliʿ the Swallower البالع
Alchibah al-Khibā the Tent الخباء
Aldebaran al-Dabarān the Follower (of the Pleiades) الدبران
Alderamin ad-Dhirāʿ al-Yamīn the Right Arm (of Cepheus) الذراع الأيمن
Alfirk al-Firqah the Flock of sheep الفرق
Algebar (Rijl) al-Jabbār (Foot of) the Giant رجل الجبار
Algedi al-Jady the Goat الجدي
Algenib Al-Janb The flank "Side" الجنب
Algieba al-Jabhah the Forehead (of the Lion) الجبهة
Algol (Ra's) al-Ghūl (Head of) the Ghoul رأس الغول
Algorab al-Ghurāb the Crow الغراب
Alhena al-Hanʿah the Brand (on the neck of the camel) الهنعة
Alioth Al-Jawn The black horse "John" الجون
Alkaid al-Qā'id (bināt naʿsh) the Leader (of the mourning maidens) القائد بنات نعش
Alkes al-Ka's the Cup الكأس
Almak ʿAnaq al-Ard The caracal "Hug the Ground" عناق الأرض
Almeisan al-Maisān the Shining one الميسان
Alnair an-Nayyir the Bright one النّيّر
Alnasl al-Naşl the Arrowhead النصل
Alnilam an-Niżām the String of Pearls النّظم
Alnitak an-Niṭāq the Girdle (Orion's Belt) النطاق
Alphard al-Fard the Solitary one الفرد
Alphecca (Nayyir) al-Fakka (the Bright one of) the Broken (Ring) نير الفكّة
Alpheratz (Surrat) al-Faras (Navel of) the Mare سُرَّة الفرس
Alrescha al-Rišā’ the Well-Rope الرشاء
Alsafi al-Athāfiyy the Tripods الأثافي
Alsuhail Suhail Glorious سهيل
Altair (an-Nasr) aṭ-Ṭā’ir the Flying (Eagle) النّسر الطّائر
Altais at-Tāis the Goat التيس
Alterf aṭ-Ṭarf the View (of the Lion) الطرف
Aludra al-ʿUdhrah the Virgin العذرة
Alula Australis, Alula Borealis (al-Qafzah) al-Ūla the First (Leap) القفزة الأولى
Alya al-Alyah the fatty Tail of a sheep الألية
Angetenar ʿArjat an-Nahr Curve of the River عرجة النهر
Ankaa al-ʿAnqā’ Phoenix العنقاء
Arkab al-ʿArqūb the Hamstring العرقوب
Arneb al-Arnab the Hare الأرنب
Arrakis ar-Raqis the Dancer الراقص
Atik Al-ʿAtiq "The shoulder" of the Pleiades "Responsibility Chandelier" عاتق الثّريّا
Auva al-ʿAwwā' the Barking (Dog) العوّاء
Azha (Persian) Āšiyāne (Ostrich) Nest

B[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Baham Al-Biham The livestock سعد البهام
Baten Kaitos Batn Qaytus Belly of Cetus بطن قيطس
Beid Baiḍ Eggs بيض
Benetnash Banat Naʿsh Daughters of the bier بنات النعش
Betelgeuse Ibet al-Jauza' Armpit of the Central One إبط الجوزاء
Botein Al-Butayn The little belly بطين

C[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Caph Al-Kaff "The palm" of the Pleiades الكـــف الخضيب
Celbalrai Kalb ar-Raʿi The shepherd's dog كلب الراعي
Chort Al-Kharat The rib الخرت
Cursa Al-Kursi The chair الكرسي

D[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Dabih Saʿd adh-dhabih The lucky star of "the slaughterer" سّعد الذّابح
Deneb Dhanab ad-Dajajah Tail of the fowl ذنب الدجاجة
Deneb Algedi Dhanab al-Jady Tail of the goat ذنب الجدي
Deneb Dulfim Dhanab ad-Dulfin Tail of the Dolphin ذنب الدّلفين
Deneb Kaitos al-Dhanab al-Qaiṭos (al-Janūbīyy) (Southern) Tail of Cetus ألذنب ألقيتوس ألجنوب
Denebola Dhanab al-Asad Tail of the lion ذنب الاسد
Diphda aḍ-Ḍifdaʿ (al-Awwal) the (First) Frog الضّفدع الأوّل
Dschubba Al-Jabhah "The forehead" of the scorpion الجبهة
Dubhe Kahil Ad-Dubb The back of the bear كاهل الدّب
Dziban Adh-Dhi'ban The two wolves الذئبان

E[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Edasich Adh-Dhikh The hyena الذّيخ
El Nath An-Nath The butting النطح
Eltanin At-Tinnin The great serpent التنين
Enif Al-Anf The nose الأنف
Errai Ar-Raʿi The shepherd الراعي

F[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Fomalhaut Fum al-Hut Mouth of the whale فم الحوت
Furud Al-Furud "Individual" stars الفرد

G[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Gienah Al-Janah The wing الجناح
Gomeisa Al-Ghumaisa' The bleary-eyed one الغميصاء

H[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Hadar Hadar Settlement حضار
Hamal Al-Hamal The ram نيّر الحمل
Heka Al-Haqʿah The white spot الهقعة
Homam Saʿd al-humam The lucky star of "the high-minded سعد الهمام

I[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Izar Al-Izar The girdle, or, The loin-cloth الإزار

J[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Jabbah Al-Jabhah "The forehead" of the scorpion الجبهة

K[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Kabdhilinan Kaab-Dhil-Eʿnan The rein hold كعب ذي العنان
Kaffaljidhma Al-Kaff al-Jadhma' The cut-short hand الكف الجذماء
Kaus Australis, Kaus Borealis, Kaus Media Al-Qaus the bow القوس
Keid Al-Qaid The broken egg-shells القيض
Kitalpha Qitʿat al-Faras Part of the horse قطعة الفرس
Kochab Al-Kaukab Planet كوكب
Kurhah Al-Qurhah "The blaze" on a horse's brow القرحة

L[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Lesath al-Lasʿah The sting اللسعة
Luh-Denebola / Denebola Dhanab al-Asad/al-Layth the lion's tail ذنب الاسد/الليث

M[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Maasym Al-Miʿsam The wrist معصم الثّريّا
Maaz Al-Maʿz The he-goat المعز
Mankib Mankib (al-Faras) the Shoulder (of the Horse) منكب الفرس
Marfik Al-Mirfaq The elbow المرفق
Markab Markab (al-Faras) the Saddle (of the Horse) منكب الفرس
Matar Saʿd Matar The lucky star of "the rain" سعد مطر
Mebsuta Al-Mabsutah "The outstretched" paw الذّراع المبسوطه
Megrez Al-Maghriz "The insertion-point" of the Bear's مغرز
Meissa Al-Maisan The shining one الميسان
Mekbuda Al-Maqbudah "The pulled-in" paw الذّراع المقبوضة
Menkalinan Mankib Dhi-al-ʿInan Shoulder of the rein-holder منكب ذي العنان
Menkar Al-Minkhar The nostril المنخر
Menkent Mankib Kentaurus The nostril منكب قنطورس
Menkib Al-Mankib "The shoulder" of the Pleiades منكب الثّريّا
Merak Al-Maraqq The loins المراق
Mintaka Al-Mintaqah The belt المنطقة
Mirak Al-Mirāq The loin-cloth المراق
Mirfak Al-Mirfaq "The elbow" of the Pleiades مرفق الثّريّا
Mizar mi'zar apron المئزر
Mothallah Al-Muthallath The triangle المثلث
Muphrid Al-Mufrid The solitary one المفرد
Murzim Al-Murzim The roarer المرزم

N[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Nashira Saʿd Nashirah Lucky star of Nashirah سعد ناشرة
Nekkar al-Baqqar The cattleman البقار
Nihal an-Nihal (camels) Quenching their thirst النهال
Nusakan an-Nusaqan The two series النسقان
Nushaba / Alnasl an-Nasl The arrowhead النصل / نشابة

O[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Okda al-ʿUqdah the Knot العقدة

P[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Phact Al-Fakhitah The dove فاخثة
Phad Al-Fakhidh The thigh فخذ
Pherkad Al-Farqad The calf فرقد
Pleiades Ath-Thuraya The height and brightness الثريا

R[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Rasalased Ra's al-Assad Head of the lion رأس الأسد
Rasalgethi Ra's al-Jathi Head of the kneeling one رأس الجاثي
Rasalhague Ra's al-Hawwa' Head of the snake-man رأس الحوّاء
Rastaban Ra's ath-Thuʿban Head of the snake رأس الثعبان
Rigel Rijl al-Jabbar Foot of the giant رجل الجبّار
Rigilkent Rijl Qanṭūris Foot of the Centaur رجل القنطورس
Risha al-Rišā’ the Well-Rope الرشاء
Rukbah Ar-Rukbah The knee الركبة
Rukbat Rukbat al-Rami Knee of the archer ركبة الرامي

S[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Sabik as-Sabiq The preceding السابق
Sadachbia Saʿd al-Akhbiyah Lucky star of the tents سعد الاخبية
Sadalbari Saʿd al-Bariʿ Lucky star of the excellent one سعد البارع
Sadalmelik Saʿd al-Malik Lucky star of the king سعد الملك
Sadalsuud Saʿd as-Suʿud Luck of lucks سعد السعود
Sadr as-Sadr The breast الصدر
Saiph as-Saif The sword السيف
Scheat as-Saʿid The shoulder الساعد
Shaula ash-Shaulah The raised tail of the scorpion الشولة
Shedir as-Sadr The breast الصدر
Sheliak al-Shelaiyak - الشلياق
Sheratan ash-Sharatan The two signs الشرطان
Sirrah Surrah Navel (of the Mare) سُرَّة الفرس
Skat as-Saq The leg الساق
Sulafat as-Sulhafat The tortoise/turtle السلحفاة

T[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Talitha Australis, Talitha Borealis Ath-Thalithah the third (leap) القفزة الثّالثة
Tania Australis, Tania Borealis Ath-Thaniyah the second (leap) القفزة الثّانية
Tarf At-Tarf "The glance" of the lion الطرف
Thuban ath-Thuʿbān the Snake الثعبان

U[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Unukalhai ʿUnuq al-Hayyah Neck of the snake عنق الحية

V[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Vega Al-Waqiʿ "The stooping" eagle النسر الواقع

W[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Wasat Wasat as-Sama' "Middle" of the sky وسط السماء
Wezen al-Wazen The weight الوزن

Y[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Yed Posterior Al-Yad The succeeding one of the Snake Man's hand مؤخّر يدالحوّاء
Yed Prior Al-Yad The preceding one of the Snake Man's hand مقدّم يدالحوّاء

Z[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Zaurac Az-Zawraq The boat الزورق
Zavijava Zawiyat al-ʿAwwa' The angle of al ʿawa' زاوية العواء
Zawiah Az-Zawiyah The angle الزاوية
Zubenelgenubi Az-Zuban al-Janubi "Southern Claw" زبانى/الزبان الجنوبي
Zubeneshamali Az-Zuban ash-Shamali "Northern Claw" زبانى/الزبان الشمالي

Others[edit]

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Milky Way Darb Al-Tabanah The Milky Road درب التبانة
Andromeda Galaxy "small cloud"[3][4] "little cloud" was the Arabic name for the Andromeda Galaxy, which was first mentioned by Al-Sufi in his Book of Fixed Stars السحابة الصغيرة

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stargazing Network". Stargazing.net. Retrieved 2011-10-05. 
  2. ^ "Star Names: Where Do They Come From? And Can You Buy One?", RMSC Strasenburgh Planetarium Information Bulletin #19 December 1996, (archived 2007)
  3. ^ Henbest, N.; Couper, H. (1994). The guide to the galaxy. p. 31. ISBN 0-521-45882-X. 
  4. ^ Kepple, G. R.; Sanner, G. W. (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. Vol. 1. Willmann-Bell. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1. 

External links[edit]