List of Araceae genera

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This is a list of genera in the plant family Araceae. As currently circumscribed, the family contains over 3700 species into approximately a hundred genera. The family's taxonomy remains in flux, and a full taxonomic treatment integrating the mass of phylogenetic datat that has become available in the last 10 years remain to be produced. The classification presented here is informed by the review of Mayo et al. (2013).[1]

Genera[edit]

Genus
Authority
Year
[N 1]
Classification Type species # of species Distribution
Gymnostachys
R.Br.[2]
1810 Gymnostachydoideae Gymnostachys anceps
R.Br.
1 Eastern Australia
Lysichiton[N 2]
Schott[3]
1857 Orontioideae Lysichiton camtschatcensis
(L.) Schott
2 Temperate East Asia
to Western United States
Orontium
L.[4]
1753 Orontioideae Orontium aquaticum
L.
1 Eastern United States to Texas
Symplocarpus
Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton[5][N 3]
1817 Orontioideae Symplocarpus foetidus
(L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton
5 Temperate East Asia and North America
Landoltia
Les & D.J.Crawford[6]
2000
("1999")
Lemnoideae Landoltia punctata
(G.Mey.) Les & D.J.Crawford
1 South and Central America
Lemna
L.[4]
1753 Lemnoideae Lemna minor
L.
c. 13 Cosmopolitan
Spirodela
Schleid.[7]
1839 Lemnoideae Spirodela polyrrhiza
(L.) Schleid.
3 Cosmopolitan
Wolffia
Horkel ex Schleid.[8][N 4]
1844 Lemnoideae Wolffia michelii[N 5]
Schleid.
ca. 10 Cosmopolitan
Wolffiella
(Hegelm.) Hegelm.[9]
1895
("1896")
Lemnoideae Wolffiella oblonga
(Phil.) Hegelm.
ca. 10 New World, Africa, Arabian Peninsula
Anthurium
Schott[10]
1829 Pothoideae Anthurium acaule
(Jacq.) Schott
over 1000 Central and South America, Caribbean
Pedicellarum
M.Hotta[11]
1976 Pothoideae Pedicellarum paiei
M.Hotta
1 Indomalaya
Pothoidium
Schott[12]
1857 Pothoideae Pothoidium lobbianum
Schott
1 Taiwan, Moluccas, Sulawesi, Philippines
Pothos
L.[4]
1753 Pothoideae Pothos scandems
L.
55+ Tropical Asia and Pacific
Alloschemone
Schott[13]
1858 Monsteroideae Alloschemone poeppigiana[N 6]
Schott
2 Bolivia and Northern Brazil
Amydrium
Schott[14]
1863 Monsteroideae Amydrium humile
Schott
5 Indochina to New Guinea
Anadendrum
Schott[15]
1857 Monsteroideae Anadendrum montanum[N 7]
Schott
12 Southern China to Malesia
Epipremnum
Schott[15]
1857 Monsteroideae Epipremnum mirabile
Schott
ca. 15 Tropical and subtropical Asia
to Pacific Islands
Heteropsis
Kunth[16]
1841 Monsteroideae Heteropsis salicifolia
Kunth
17 Costa Rica to tropical South America
Holochlamys
Engl.[17]
1883
("1882")
Monsteroideae Holochlamys beccarii
(Engl.) Engl.
1 New Guinea
Monstera
Adans.[18]
1763 Monsteroideae Monstera adansonii[N 8]
Schott
ca. 60 Continental Neotropics
Rhaphidophora
Hassk.[19]
1842 Monsteroideae Rhaphidophora pertusa
(Roxb.) Schott)
ca. 100 Africa to Australasia
Rhodospatha
Poepp.[20]
1845 Monsteroideae Rhodospatha latifolia
Poepp.
15 Continental Neotropics
Scindapsus
Schott[21]
1832 Monsteroideae Scindapsus officinalis
(Roxb.) Schott
35 Subtropical Asia to northern Australia
Spathiphyllum
Schott[21]
1832 Monsteroideae Spathiphyllum lanceifolium
(Jacq.) Schott
40 Malesia, Central and South America
Stenospermation
Schott[13]
1858 Monsteroideae Stenospermation mathewsii
Schott
50+ Continental Neotropics
Anaphyllopsis
A.Hay[22]
1989
("1988")
Lasioideae Anaphyllopsis americana
(Engler) A.Hay
3 Tropical South America
Anaphyllum
Schott[23]
1857[N 9] Lasioideae Anaphyllum wightii
Schott
2 India
Cyrtosperma
Griff.[24]
1851 Lasioideae Cyrtosperma lasioides[N 10]
Griff.
ca. 12 Malesia and Pacific islands
Dracontioides
Engl.[25]
1911 Lasioideae Dracontioides desciscens
Engl.
2 Eastern Brazil
Dracontium
L.[4]
1753 Lasioideae Dracontium polyphyllum
L.
24 Neotropical
Lasia
Lour.[26]
1790 Lasioideae Lasia aculeata[N 11]
Lour.
2 Tropical Asia to New Guinea
Lasimorpha
Schott[23]
1857 Lasioideae Lasimorpha senegalensis
Schott
1 Western and West-Central Africa
Podolasia
N.E.Br.[27]
1882 Lasioideae Podolasia stipitata
N.E.Br.
1 Malay Archipelago
Pycnospatha
Thorel ex Gagnep.[28]
1941 Lasioideae Pycnospatha palmata
Gagnep.
2 Indochina
Urospatha
Schott[29]
1853
("1857")[N 12]
Lasioideae Urospatha sagittifolia
(Rudge) Schott
10+ Central and Southern America
Aglaodorum
Schott[13]
1858 Aglaodorum griffithii
(Schott) Schott
1 Sundaland, southern Indochina
Gonatopus
Hook.f. ex Engl.[30]
1879 Zamioculcadoideae Gonatopus boivinii
(Decne.) Engl.
5 Africa
Zamioculcas
Schott[31]
Zamioculcadoideae Zamioculcas loddigesii[N 13]
Schott
1 Tropical Eastern
and Southern Africa.
Aglaonema
Schott[10]
1829 Aglaonema oblongifolium[N 14]
Schott
ca. 40 Southeast Asia
Alocasia
(Schott) G.Don[32]
1839 Alocasia cucullata
(Lour.) G.Don
79 tropical Asia to Australia
Amorphophallus
Blume ex Decne.[33]
1834 Amorphophallus campanulatus[N 15]
Blume ex Decne.
ca. 200 Paleotropical
Ambrosina
Bassi[34]
1763
Ambrosina bassii
L.
1 Tunisia, Algeria, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Anchomanes
Schott[35]
1853 Anchomanes hookeri[N 16]
(Kunth) Schott
7 or 8 Tropical Africa
Anubias
Schott[36]
1857
Anubias afzelii
Schott
8 West Africa
Apoballis
Schott[37]
2010 Apoballis neglecta[N 17]
Schott
12 Thailand to Malesia
Aridarum
Ridl.[38]
1913 Aridarum montanum
Ridl.
7 Borneo
Ariopsis
Nimmo[39]
1839 Ariopsis peltata
Nimmo
2 Western Ghats, southeastern Himalaya
Arisaema
Mart.[40]
1831 Unclear[N 18] ca. 150 Eastern and Central Africa,
Asia and eastern North America
Arisarum
Mill.[41]
1754 Arisarum vulgare
Targ.Tozz.
3 Mediterranean area East to Caucasus
Arophyton
Jum.[42]
1928 Arophyton tripartitum
Jum.
7 Northern Madagascar
Arum
L.[4]
1753 Arum maculatum
L.
ca. 25 Western Palearctic
Asterostigma
Fisch. & C.A.Mey.[43]
1845 Asterostigma langsdorffianum[N 19]
Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
7 Northern South America
Bakoa
P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong[44]
2008 Bakoa lucens
(Bogner) P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong
1 Borneo
Biarum
Schott[21]
1832 Biarum tenuifolium
(L.) Schott
ca. 23 Mediterranean
Bognera
Mayo & Nicolson[45]
1984 Bognera recondita
(Madison) Mayo & Nicolson
1 Brazil
Bucephalandra
Schott[13]
1858 Bucephalandra motleyana
Scott
5[N 20] Borneo
Caladium
Vent.[46]
1801
("1800")
Caladium bicolor
(Aiton Vent.)
7 Tropical South America
Calla
L.[4]
1753 Calla palustris
L.
1 Temperate Northern Hemisphere
Callopsis
Engl.[47]
1895 Callopsis volkensii
Endl.
1 Tanzania and Kenya
Carlephyton
Jum.[48]
1919 Carlephyton madagascariense
Jum.
3 Madagascar
Cercestis
Schott[49]
1857 Cercestis afzelii
Schott
10 Tropical Africa
Chlorospatha
Engl.[50]
1878 Chlorospatha kolbii
Engl.
ca. 16 Costa Rica to Peru
Colletogyne
Buchet[51]
1939 Colletogyne perrieri
Buchet
1 Madagascar
Colocasia
Schott[21]
1832 Colocasia antiquorum
Schott
at least 25 tropical Polynesia and Southeast Asia
Croatiella
E.G.Gonç.[52]
2005 Croatiella integrifolia
(Madison) E.G.Gonç.
1 Eastern Ecuador
Cryptocoryne
Fisch. ex Wydler[53]
1830 Cryptocoryne spiralis
(Retz.) Fisch. ex Wydler
50 to 60 Tropical Asia and New Guinea
Culcasia
P.Beauv.[54]
1803[N 22]
("1805")
Culcasia scandens
P.Beauv.
ca. 30 Africa
Dieffenbachia
Schott[10]
1829 Dieffenbachia seguine
(Jacq.) Schott
56 Neotropical
Dracunculus
Mill.[41]
1754 Dracunculus vulgaris
Schott
3 Circummediterranean
Eminium
(Blume) Schott[31]
1856[N 23] Eminium spiculatum
(Blume) Schott
9 Turkey and Middle East to Central Asia
Filarum
Nicolson[55]
1968 Filarum manserichense
Nicolson
1 Peru
Furtadoa
M. Hotta[56]
1981 Furtadoa sumatrensis
M.Hotta
2 Sumatra and Malaysia
Gearum
N.E.Br.[57]
1882 Gearum brasiliense
N.E.Br.
1 or 2 Western Brazil
Gorgonidium
Schott[14]
1864
("1863-1864")
Gorgonidium mirabile
Schott
8 Peru to Argentina
Hapaline
Schott[13][N 24]
1858 Hapaline benthamiana
(Schott) Schott
8 Southeast Asia to Malesia
Helicodiceros
Schott[58]
1855[N 25] Helicodiceros muscivorus
(L.f.) Engl.
1 Balearic islands, Corsica, Sardinia
Hestia
S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce[59]
2010 Hestia longifolia
(Ridl.) S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce
1 Borneo
Homalomena
Schott[21]
1832 Homalomena cordata
Schott
80+ Tropical Asia, Malesia,
Papuasia, parts of the Neotropics
Incarum
E.G.Gonç.[52]
2005 Incarum pavonii
(Schott) E.G.Gonç.
1 Central Andes
Jasarum
G.S.Bunting[60]
1977
("1975")
Jasarum steyermarkii
G.S.Bunting
1 Guyana and Venezuela
Lagenandra
Dalzell[61]
1852 Lagenandra toxicaria
Dalzell
16 India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
Lorenzia
E.G.Gonç.[62]
2012 Lorenzia umbrosa
E.G.Gonç.
1 Amapá, Brazil
Mangonia
Schott[63]
1857 Mangonia tweedieana
Schott
2 southern Brazil to Uruguay
Montrichardia
Crueg.[64]
1854
Montrichardia aculeatum[N 26]
(G.Mey.) Crueg.
2+1 fossil Neotropical
Nephthytis
Schott[65]
1857 Nephthytis afzellii
Schott
6 tropical western Africa
Ooia
S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce[66]
2010 Ooia grabowskii
(Engl.) S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce
2 Borneo
Peltandra
Raf.[67]
1819 Peltandra undulata[N 27]
Schott
2 Eastern North America and Cuba
Philodendron
Schott[10]
1829 Philodendron grandifolium
(Jacq.) Schott
at least 350 Tropical Americas
Philonotion
Schott[68]
1829
Philonotion spruceanum
(Schott
3 Neotropics
Phymatarum
M.Hotta[69]
1965 Phymatarum borneense]
M.Hotta
1 Borneo
Pinellia
Ten.[70]
1839 Pinellia tuberifera[N 28]
Ten.
9 East Asia
Piptospatha
N.E.Br.[71]
1879 Piptospatha insignis
N.E.Br.
12 Thailand to Borneo
Pistia
L.[4]
1753 Pistia stratiotes
L.
1 Likely pantropical
Protarum
Engl.[72]
1901 Protarum sechellarum
Engl.
1 Seychelles
Pseudohydrosme
Engl.[73]
1892
("1893")
Pseudrohydrosme gabunensis
2 Gabon
Remusatia
Schott[21]
1832 Remusatia vivipara
(Roxb.) Schott
4 Tropical and Subtropical Old World
Sauromatum
Schott[21]
1832 Sauromatum guttatum[N 29]
(Wall.) Schott
9 Tropical Eurasia to North China
Scaphispatha
Brongn. ex Schott[74]
1860 Scaphispatha gracilis
Brongn. ex Schott
2 Bolivia and Brazil
Schismatoglottis
Zoll. & Moritzi[75]
1846[N 30] Schismatoglottis calyptrata
(Roxb.) Zoll. & Moritzi
100-120 Subtropical Asia to Pacific islands
Schottarum
P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong[44]
2008 Schottarum sarikeense
(Bogner & M.Hotta) P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong
1 Borneo
Spathantheum
Schott[76]
1859 Spathantheum orbignyanum
Schott
2 Andes from Peru to Northern Argentina
Spathicarpa
Hook.[77]
1831 Spathicarpa hastifolia
Hook.
4 Southern tropical America
Steudnera
K.Koch[78]
1862 Steudnera colocasiifolia
K.Koch
10 Assam, Indochina, South China
Stylochaeton
Lepr.[79]
1834 Stylochaeton hypogeum
Lepr.
ca. 20 Africa
Synandrospadix
Engl.[80]
1883 Synandrospadix vermitoxicus
(Griseb.) Engl.
1 Peru to northern Argentina
Syngonium
Schott[10]
1829 Syngonium auritum
(L.) Schott
ca. 35 Neotropical
Taccarum
Brongn.[81][N 31]
1858
("1857")
Taccarum weddellianum
Brongn.
6 South America
Theriophonum
Blume[82]
1837
("1835")
Theriophonum crenatum[N 32]
(Wight) Schott
7
Typhonium
Schott[10]
1829 Typhonium trilobatum
(L.) Schott
ca. 50 Mongolia to Australia
Typhonodorum
Schott[12]
1857 Typhonodorum lindleyanum
Schott
1 Madagascar, Zanzibar,
Mauritius and Comoros
Ulearum
Engl.[83]
1905
("1906")
Ulearum sagittatum
Engl.
2 Peru, northern Brazil
Xanthosoma
Schott[21]
1832 Xanthosoma sagittifolium
(L.) Schott
ca. 50 Neotropical
Zantedeschia
Spreng.[84]
1826 Zantedeschia aethiopica
(L.) Spreng.
8 Southern Africa
Zomicarpa
Schott[31]
1856 Zomicarpa pythonium
(Mart.) Schott
2 North-eastern Brazil
Zomicarpella
N.E.Br.[85]
1881 Zomicarpella maculata
N.E.Br.
2 Colombia

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A second date given in parentheses indicate the printed date on the work, when that date differs from the actual date of publication. This may occur because the work was distributed at a different date, or because a book was printed in multiple issues bound together at a later date.
  2. ^ Although Schott's original publication used both Lysichiton and Lysichitum his later publications used only the former name.
  3. ^ Since Barton himself credits Nuttall in following Salisbury's (1812, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1:267) invalid name, some attribute authorship to that author instead (either in Barton or in Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1:105, 1818)
  4. ^ Although Schleiden originally published the genus in an earlier version[7] of that paper, he originally only included one species, W. delilei (≡ Wolffiella hyalina (Delile) Monod). That species was later moved out of Wolffia and into Wolffiella, overlooking that it was already the type of the former name. By the time the problem was noticed in the mid-20th century, Wolffia would have replaced Wolffiella, and the former Wolffia would have had to become Grantia (den Hartog, 1969, Taxon 18(5):591-592), which would have resulted in "intolerable confusion" (McVaugh, 1971, Taxon 20(2-3):384-389) as most of the species of the then Lemnaceae changed genera (two of which similar in name), and so the name was conserved (McVaugh, 1971) with a later date of publication allowing for a valid lectotype to be chosen.[7]
  5. ^ Schleiden's species is an illegitimate renaming of Linnaeus' Lemna arrhiza and is properly called Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Horkel ex Wimm.
  6. ^ An illegitimate new name for Eduard Poeppig's Scindapsus occidentalis. The species' correct name is Alloschemone occidentalis (Poepp.) Engl. & K.Krause.
  7. ^ The species is properly known as Anadendrum microstachyum (de Vriese & Miq.) Backer & Alderw.
  8. ^ Although Adanson originally called the species Dracontium pertusum, the combination Monstera pertusa was assigned by Schott (1830, Wiener Z. Kunst 4:1028), the first author to accept Adanson's genus and create combinations in it, to Pothos pertusum Roxb. (currently known as Rhaphidophora pertusa (Roxb.) Schott).
  9. ^ Some sources cite Gen. Aroid.:pl. 83 (1858), but there is no reason to believe that the May issue of Bonplandia , which Schott himself cite as the place of publication in Genera Aroidearum Exposita was published with that much delay.
  10. ^ Treated now as Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott.
  11. ^ The species is now known at Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites.
  12. ^ The year when the work was completed.
  13. ^ The species, which is an illegitimate renaming of Loddiges' Calladium zamiifolium, is correctly known as Zamioculcas zamiifolia (G.Lodd.) Schott.
  14. ^ The correct name is Aglaonema nitida (Jack) Kunth. Schott's original type species may have been meant to be a renaming of William Roxburgh's Calla oblongifolia (=Aglaonema marantifolia Blume), but Schott mistakenly cited only Heinrich Friedrich Link's Arum integrifolium as a synonym, rendering the type species' new name illegitimate; he would later (1832, Melet. Bot. 1:20) rename it Aglaonema integrifolium. (Nicolson, 1969, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 1:5)
  15. ^ The species' name is illegitimate as it is based on the same type as Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson, which is the correct name.
  16. ^ This species is now treated as a synonym of Anchomanes difformis (Blume) Engl.
  17. ^ Properly treated as Apoballis rupestris (Zoll. & Moritzi ex Zoll.) S.Y.Wong & P.C.Boyce.
  18. ^ If the designation by Pfeiffer (1872, Nomencl. Bot. 1:265) is valid, the type is Arisaema speciosum, otherwise, the designation by Britton and Brown (1913, Ill. Fl. N.U.S., ed. 2. 1:442) of A. nepenthoideshas priority.
  19. ^ Although the original description included only this species, which is listed as type in Index Nominum Genericorum, the name is not included in any standard databases for unknown reasons.
  20. ^ This number does not account for many more species that remain undescribed or untransferred from original placement in the discredited Microcasia (Boyce & Yeng 2013; Webbia 67(2):139-146).
  21. ^ This species was until recently placed in its own subfamily, which was found (Cabrera et al. 2008; Am. J. Bot. 95(9)1153-1165:1160) to be nested within Aroideae. A new, comprehensive taxonomy of the family remains to be published, but Cabrera and al. characterized the demoting of the subfamily back to tribal status as the most sensible option.
  22. ^ A first part comprising 10 pages and 6 plates was issued in quarto format in 1803, but this edition was abandoned, and the more common folio edition began publication 2 years later.
  23. ^ IPNI and ING gives a part of Schott's Aroideae issued in 1855 as the place of publication, but the premier monograph gives the 1856 publication, which is the only one that could be verified.
  24. ^ Schott originally published the genus the year before(Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7:85) as Hapale, but then chose to alter the name as it was homonymous with a now disused genus of marmosets. This new name was later conserved (Brummitt 1984; Taxon 33(4):707) over the original form.
  25. ^ Multiple sources give the year of publication as 1853 (Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3:369), but Schott merely notes after describing his Dracunculus crinita that "a genus Helicodiceros will probably be justified" ("Eine Gattung «Helicodiceros» dürfte hierdurch begründet werden."), which fails to satisfy the requirement of the ICN's article 36.1 (see also Rickett and Stafleu, 1959, Taxon 8(7):231).
  26. ^ The species' correct name is Montrichardia arborescens (L.) Schott
  27. ^ Treated as a synonym of Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott
  28. ^ Tenore's name was an unnecessary renaming of Thunberg's earlier Arum ternatum. The correct name for the species is Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino.
  29. ^ Now known as Sauromatum venosum (Dryand. ex Aiton) Kunth.
  30. ^ Due to confusion with a later, similarly titled work by Zollinger which has the same standardised abbreviation, some sources erroneously give 1854 as the date of publication.
  31. ^ Properly attributed to Brongniart in Schott (who says he is quoting Brongniart's description from a letter without adding any details of his own: "Wir bringen nachstehend den uns vom Autor überlassenen Gattungskarakter dar, indem wir uns nicht erlauben, demselben Eigenes anzufügen."), not Brongniart ex Schott, and not cited to Gen. Aroid.:pl. 65 (1858).
  32. ^ Now known as Theriophonum minutum (Willd.) Baill.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mayo, Simon J.; Bogner, Josef; Cusimano, Nathalie (2013). "Recent Progress in the Phylogenetics and Classification of the Araceae". In Paul Wilkin and Simon J. Mayo. Early Events in Monocot Evolution. Systematics Association Special Volume Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 208–242. ISBN 978-1-107-01276-9. 
  2. ^ Brown, Robert (1810). Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen. London: R.Taylor. p. 337. 
  3. ^ Schott (1857). "Aroideae". Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt 7 (8): 61–62. doi:10.1007/BF02059440. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Linnaeus (1753). Species Plantarum (in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. 
  5. ^ Barton, William P. C. (1817). Vegetable Materia Medica of the United States 1. Carey & Sons=. p. 124. 
  6. ^ Les, Donald H.; Crawford, Daniel J. (1999). "Landoltia, a new genus of duckweed". Novon 9 (4): 530–533. doi:10.2307/3392157. 
  7. ^ a b c Schleiden, M.J. (1829). "Prodromus Monographiae Lemnacearum oder Conspectus Generum Atque Specierum". Linnaea (in German) 13: 385–392. 
  8. ^ Schleiden, M.J. (1844). "Prodromus Monographiae Lemnacearum oder Conspectus Generum Atque Specierum". Beitrage zur Botanik, Erste Band (in German). Wilh. Engelmann. pp. 229–236;233. 
  9. ^ Hegelmaier, F. (1896). "Systematische Übersicht der Lemnaceen". Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (in German) 21 (3): 268–305;303. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Schott, H.W. (1829). "Für Liebhaber der Botanik" [For Botanical Amateurs]. Wiener Zeitschrift fur Kunst, Litteratur, Theater und Mode (in German) 1829 (3): 732,779–780,803, 828, 892, 1180, 1280. 
  11. ^ Hotta, Mitsuru (1976). "Notes on Bornean Plants III. : Pedicellarum and Heteroaridarum, two new genera of the aroids". Acta Phytotaxa et Geobotanica 27 (3-4): 61–65. 
  12. ^ a b Schott, H. (1857). "Aroideae". Oesterreichisches Botanisches Wochenblatt 7 (9): 69–70. doi:10.1007/BF02059776. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Schott, Heinrich Wilhelm (1858). Genera Aroidearum exposita (in Latin). Vienna: Caroli Ueberreuter. 
  14. ^ a b Schott, H.W. (1863). "Araceae, pars prior, nova genera et species". Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi 1 (10): 122–131;221;278–286. 
  15. ^ a b Schott, H.M. (1857). "Aroideae Honkongense". Bonplandia (in German) 5 (3): 44–45. 
  16. ^ Kunth, Karl Sigismund (1841). Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum 3. Stuttgart: J.G. Cott. p. 59. 
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