List of Armenian kings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of the kings and queens of Armenia, for more information on ancient Armenia and Armenians, please see History of Armenia. For information on the medieval Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia, please see the separate page Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

See List of Kings of Urartu for kings of Urartu (Ararat), the predecessor state of Greater Armenia.

Greater Armenia[edit]

This is the historical designation of the largest and longest-lasting Armenian kingdom.

Orontid Kings and Satraps[edit]

In Armenian tradition[edit]

Early kings in traditional Armenian chronology according to Moses of Chorene.

Note that the early dates are traditional and of uncertain accuracy.

Attested satraps[edit]

Yervandian (Yervanduni or Orontid) Dynasty[edit]

Artashesian (Artaxiad) Dynasty[edit]

Roman and Parthian non-dynastic candidates[edit]

Arshakuni (Arsacid) Kings of Armenia[edit]

Marzpanate[edit]

Vasak, king of Siunik 442–451

Vartan Mamikonian [AKA Vartan Zoravar, legendary Armenian general killed in battle but preserved Armenia as first Christian nation in the world]

Military occupation by General Mihran 482

Presiding Princes of Armenia[edit]

Bagratuni Kings[edit]

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia[edit]

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees, who were fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.[1] It was initially founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. While the Rubenian rulers were initially regional princes, their close ties with the Western world after the First Crusade saw the principality recognised as a kingdom under Leo I by the Holy Roman Empire in 1198.[2] The Rubenid dynasty fell in 1252 after the death of the last Rubenid monarch Isabella, and her husband Hethum I became sole ruler, beginning the Hethumid dynasty. After the death of Leo IV in 1341 his cousin was elected to succeed him as Constantine II, the first king of the Lusignan dynasty. The kingdom fell at the beginning of Leo V's reign to the Mamluks,[3] and henceforth title holders were only claimants to the throne. Charlotte of Cyprus ceded the throne to the House of Savoy in 1485,[4] and the title fell out of use until after 1861.

  Lords and Princes of Cilician Armenia   Kings of Cilician Armenia

Rubenian dynasty[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Ruben I
(Ռուբեն Ա)
Rupoohye.GIF 1025[5] or 1035 [6]
Unknown
1080-1095 Unknown
two children
1095
Kormogolo[7] or 1035
aged 59–60 or 69-70
He declared the independence of Cilicia from the Byzantine Empire, thus formally founding the beginning of Armenian rule there.[8] The Roupenian dynasty ruled Cilician Armenia until 1219.
Constantine I
(Կոստանդին Ա)
Tancred, Tarsus.jpg Between 1035–1040[9] or between 1050–1055
Son of Ruben I
1095-1100/1102/1103 Unknown
(great-granddaughter of Bardas Phokas) three children
c.1100[10] or 24 February 1102 or 23 February 1103 [11]
aged c. 50-60
He provided ample provisions to the Crusaders, for example during the difficult period of the siege of Antioch in the winter of 1097. He was a passionate adherent of the separated Armenian Church.
Thoros I
(Թորոս Ա)
Unknown, before 1100
First son of Constantine I
1100/1102/1103-1129 Unknown
(great-granddaughter of Bardas Phokas) three children
c.1129[12] or 17 February 1129 or 16 February 1130 [13] His alliance with the leaders of the First Crusade helped him rule his feudal holdings with commanding authority. He avenged the death of King Gagik II by killing his assassins. He also bestowed favors and gave gifts and money to many monasteries for their decoration and adornment.
Constantine II
(Կոստանդին Բ)
Unknown, before 1129
Son of Thoros I
1129/1130 Unmarried After 17 February 1129 He died a few months after his father’s death in the course of a palace intrigue.
Leo I
(Լեիոն Ա)
Levon I.gif Unknown, before 1100
Second son of Constantine I
1129/1130-1137 Unknown
six or seven children
14 February 1140
Constantinople
aged at least 39-40
Most of his successes benefited from Byzantium’s pre-occupation with the threats of Zengi from Aleppo and the lack of effective Frankish rule, especially in the Principality of Antioch. He expanded his rule over the Cilician plains and even to the Mediterranean shores. He was taken captive in 1137 with two of his sons by the Byzantine Emperor. He died in prison.
Byzantine Rule: 1137-1144/1145
Thoros II the Great
(Թորոս Բ)
1144[14] or 1145[15][16]
Son of Leo I
1144-1169 Unknown
(An unnamed daughter of Simon of Raban[17][18]) or Isabelle of Edessa[19]
1149
two children

Unknown
(An unnamed daughter of Thomas of Cilicia)
1164
one child
6 February 1169[20][19][21][19]
aged 23–24-25
Thoros survived his incarceration in Constantinople and was able to escape in 1143. He found it occupied by many Greek garrisons, ousting successfully the Byzantine garrisons.
Thomas of Cilicia
(Թոմաս)
Unknown
Son of a daughter of Leo I
1169-1170 Unknown
at least one child
1170
aged 4–5
Grandson of Leo I, was regent on behalf of his own grandson, Ruben II. Assassinated by prince Mleh, who took the power to himself.
Ruben II
(Ռուբեն Բ)
1165
Son of Thoros II
1169-1170 Unmarried 1170
aged 4–5
Placed under regency of his maternal grandfather, Thomas of Cilicia. Died as a minor, assassinated by his uncle Mleh.
Mleh
(Մլեհ)
Before 1120
Son of Leo I
1170-1175 Unknown
no children
15 May 1175
Sis
aged at least 54-55
During his father's captivity escaped to Edessa with two of his brothers. Expelled from Cilicia by Thoros II, for embracing the Muslim faith, almost undid his brother’s work when he took the power.
Ruben III
(Ռուբեն Գ)
1145
First son of Stephen of Armenia and Rita of Barbaron
1175-1187 Isabella of Toron
two children
6 May 1187[22]
Drazark[23]
aged 41-42
He was a friend of the Franks (the Crusaders); for example, at the end of 1177, assisted Philip, Count of Flanders and Prince Bohemond III of Antioch at the ineffectual siege of Harenc.[21]
Leo II the Magnificent
(Լեւոն Ա Մեծագործ)
Leo II of Armenia.jpg 1150
Second son of Stephen of Armenia and Rita of Barbaron
1187-1198/1199 Isabella of Antioch
3 February 1188 or 4 February 1189
(annulled 1206)
one child

Sibylla of Cyprus
28 January 1210 or 27 January 1211
one child
2 May 1219[24]
aged 68-69
In 1194–1195, when he was planning to receive the title of king, he instituted a union of the Armenian church with Rome.
Leo II the Magnificent
(Լեւոն Ա Մեծագործ)

(Leo I as king)
Leo II of Armenia.jpg 1150
Second son of Stephen of Armenia and Rita of Barbaron
1198/1199 - 1219 Isabella of Antioch
3 February 1188 or 4 February 1189
(annulled 1206)
one child

Sibylla of Cyprus
28 January 1210 or 27 January 1211
one child
2 May 1219[25]
aged 68-69
During his reign, succeeded in establishing Cilician Armenia as a powerful and a unified Christian state with a pre-eminence in political affairs.[26] Led his kingdom alongside the armies of the Third Crusade and aided the crusaders. Under his rule, Armenian power in Cilicia was at its apogee: his kingdom extended from Isauria to the Amanus Mountains.
Adam of Baghras Unknown 1219-1220 Unknown 1220 Named regent for Isabella I. Assassinated by courtiers.
Constantine of Barbaron
(Կոնստանդին Գունդստաբլ)
Unknown
Son of Vassag of Barbaron
1220-1226 Alice Pahlavouni
before 1263
six children
1263 Named regent for Isabella I. Married the heiress to his eldest son.
Isabella I
(Զապել)

(jointly with Hethum I )
Isabella of Armenia.jpg 27 January 1216 or 25 January 1217
Daughter of Leo II the Magnificent and Sibylla of Cyprus
1226-1252 Philip of Antioch
June 1222
no children

Hethum I
14 June 1226
Tarsus
seven children
23 January 1252
aged 35-36-37
A period of dynastic conflict that ended with the apparent unification in marriage of the two principal dynastic forces of Cilicia (i.e., the Roupenids and the Hethumids). The country experienced struggles and shifting alliances between Crusader states and the Mongol Empire.

Hethumid dynasty[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Hethum I
(Հեթում Ա)

(jointly with Isabella I )
HetoumIAtMongolCourt1254.JPG 1215
Son of Constantine of Barbaron and Alice Pahlavouni
1226-1270 Isabella I
14 June 1226
Tarsus
seven children
21 October 1270
aged 54-55
Was a major player in the political struggles and shifting alliances around the Crusader states, as the Armenians had ties with all sides. They were primarily aligned with the Europeans, but during Hethum's reign, the rapidly expanding Mongol Empire became a concern.
Leo III
(Լեւոն Բ)

(Leo II as king)
Leo III of Armenia.jpeg 1236
Son of Hethum I and Isabella I
1270-1289 Anna of Lampron
5 January 1262 or 14 January 1263
sixteen children
6 February 1289
aged 52-53
A pious king, he was devoted to Christianity. He pursued active commercial relations with the West, by renewing trade agreements with the Italians and establishing new ones with the Catalans. He also endeavoured to reinforce the Mongol alliance.
Hethum II
(Հեթում Բ)
HetoumIIDrawing.JPG 1266
First son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1289-1293

1295-1296
(as co-ruler)

1299-1303
Unmarried 17 November 1307
Anazarba
aged 40-41
Political trouble: he abdicated in 1293 for monastic vows, being recalled by his brother Thoros III in 1295. They travelled to Constantinople to marry their sister Rita to Michael IX Palaiologos, but their brother SempadI usurped the throne, and they were imprisoned in the return; Freed after Sempad's death, assumed power again in 1299, abdicating once more in 1303 to become regent for his successor, Leo IV.
Thoros III
(Թորոս Երրորդ)

(Thoros I as king)
LeonIIQueenGueraneAndTheirFiveChildren1272.jpg 1271
Second son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1293-1298
(nominally since 1296, imprisoned)
Margaret of Cyprus
9 January 1288
two children

Unknown
(daughter of Mahmud Ghazan Khan)
no children
23 July 1298
aged 26-27
Imprisoned in 1296 by Sempad, his brother, who usurped the throne, was strangled in prison in 1298.
Sempad
(Սմբատ)
Sempad.jpg 1277
Third son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1296-1298
(usurper)
Unknown
(daughter of Mahmud Ghazan Khan)
no children
1310
aged 32-33
Sempad seized the throne with the aid of his brother Constantine while his brothers Hethum II and Thoros were in Constantinople. At their return, imprisoned them. He also blinded Hethum and strangled Thoros.
Constantine III
(Կոստանդին Ա)

(Constantine I as king)
Kostandin III.jpg 1278
Fourth son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1298-1299 Unmarried 1310
aged 31-32
After helping and then deposing his brother, he was raised as king. Gave the throne to his brother, Hethum II.
Hethum of Armenia
(Հեթում Բ)
HetoumIIDrawing.JPG 1266
First son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1303-1305 Unmarried 17 November 1307
Anazarba
aged 40-41
Re-installed as regent for his nephew, Leo IV.
Leo IV
(Լեիոն Գ)

(Leo III as king)
Levon IV.jpg 1289
Son of Thoros III and Margaret of Cyprus
1305-1307 Agnes of Tyre-Cyprus
1305
no children
17 November 1307
Anazarba
aged 17-18
Together with is uncle, he fought the Mongols, but were both assassinated in 1307.
Oshin
(Օշին)
Oshin.jpg 3 January 1283
Fifth son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1307-1320 Isabella of Korikos
c.1310
one son

Isabelle of Cyprus
1310
(annulled c.1316)no children

Joan of Taranto
February 1316
Tarsus
one child
20 July 1320
aged 37
Ascended to the throne after the death of his nephew, Leo IV. He was poisoned by his cousin Oshin of Korikos.
Oshin of Korikos
(Թորոս Բ)
Unknown
Son of Leo I
1320-1329 Marguerite d'Ibelin
before 1320
one child

Joan of Taranto
1320
one child
8 February 1329
Sis
Probably poisoned his cousin to rise as regent.
Leo V
(Լեիոն Դ)

(Leo IV as king)
Portrait of Levon V in manuscript of Armenian translation of Assises d'Antioche.jpg 1309
Son of Oshin and Isabella of Korikos
1329-1341 Alice of Korikos
10 August 1321
one child

Constance of Sicily
29 December 1331
no children
28 August 1341
aged 31-32
Leo was strongly pro-Western and favored a union of the Armenian and Roman Churches, which deeply displeased the native barons. Murederd by them, they elected a cousin, from the Cypriot Lusignans.

House of Lusignan[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Constantine IV
(Կոստանդին Բ)

(Constantine II as king)
Constantine IV of Armenia.jpg c.1300
Son of Amalric, Lord of Tyre and Isabella of Armenia
1341-1344 Kantakouzene
c.1318
Constantinople
no children

Theodora Syrgiannaina
c.1330
two children
17 April 1344
aged c.43-44
Assassinated in an Armenian revolt in 1344.

Hethumid-Neghir dynasty[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Constantine V
(Կոստանդին Դ)

(Constantine III as king)
Constantine III.png 17 April 1313
Son of Baldwin, Lord of Neghir
1344-1362 Marie of Korikos
1340
two children
21 December 1362
aged c.43-44
During his rule, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was reduced by Mamluk raids and conquests. They conquered Ajazzo in 1347, Tarsus and Adana in 1359.
Marie of Korikos
(Մարիա Կոռիկոսի)
Mariun.jpg 1321
Daughter of Oshin of Korikos and Joan of Taranto
1362-c.1365 Constantine V
1340
two children

Constantine VI
1369
no children
Before 1405
Jerusalem
aged no more than 84
Managed the kingdom for three years, before the accession of Constantine VI.
Constantine VI
(Կոստանդին Բ)

(Constantine IV as king)
Kostandin VI.jpg c.1324
Son of John, Lord of Neghir
1365-1373 Marie of Korikos
1369
no children
April 1373
aged c.48-49
Cousin of his predecessor. Allied with Cyprus, and after 1369, with the sultan of Egypt. The barons disliked his policy because they feared the Muslim annexation, and murdered Constantine.

House of Lusignan[edit]

Name Portrait Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Leo VI
(Կոստանդին Բ)

(Leo V as king)
Bust Leon V of Armenia.jpg c.1342
Son of John of Poitiers-Lusignan and Soldana of Georgia
1373-1375 Margaret of Soissons
May 1369
one child
29 November 1393
Paris
aged 50-51
After several battles against superior Mamluk forces, he locked himself in the fortress at Geben (Armeina: Gaban) and eventually surrendered in 1375,[27] thus putting an end to the Kingdom of Armenia.

Claimants[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image
Leo VI 1375 1393 Lusignan
James I 1396 1398 Lusignan
Janus 1398 1432 Lusignan
John 1432 1458 Lusignan
Charlotte 1458 1467 Lusignan

Potential claimants today[edit]

The title passed to the branch of the Lusignans in Constantinople and eventually Russia.[28] The title is contested by the House of Savoy and the House of Brienne via Hugh, Count of Brienne and John of Brienne.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (in Armenian) Poghosyan, S.; Katvalyan, M.; Grigoryan, G. et al. Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. v. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1979, pp. 406–428
  2. ^ Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II (in Armenian). Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti. pp. 29–56. 
  3. ^ Mutafian, p.90
  4. ^ Lang, Robert Hamilton (1878), Cyprus, London: Macmillan and Co., p. 179, retrieved 2008-01-15 
  5. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  6. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  7. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  8. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  9. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  10. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  11. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  12. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  13. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  14. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  15. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  16. ^ Vahan M. Kurkjian (2005-04-05). "A History of Armenia". Website. Bill Thayer. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  17. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  18. ^ Vahan M. Kurkjian (2005-04-05). "A History of Armenia". Website. Bill Thayer. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  19. ^ a b c Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  20. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  21. ^ a b Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades – Volume II.: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East: 1100–1187. 
  22. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  23. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093). 
  24. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  25. ^ Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,[self-published source][better source needed]
  26. ^ Edwards, Robert W. The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia. 
  27. ^ Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Dumbarton Oaks Studies XXIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 10, 125, 234. ISBN 0-88402-163-7. 
  28. ^ Cecil R. Humphery-Smith, Princes of Lusignan page 5 The Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies 2004 and The colonel was probably known as Louis Christian de Lusignan. In the issue No. 180 of the Peterburgskiy Listok (Petersburg List) Newspaper July 3–15, 1884, a list of deceased in St Petersburg between 11 June and 18 June was found. There was a record for Louis Christian de Lusignan, colonel (retired). In the same newspaper issue No. 172 25 June - 7 July 1884, the following article was published: "The deceased who was buried thereby on Smolensk graveyard on 23 July, was a titled King of Cyprus and Jerusalem and Armenia, descendant of one of the protector of God's Casket, colonel of the Russian service, Louis de Lusignan."
General
  • Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9. 
  • Mutafian, Claude (2001). Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie. Paris: CNRS Editions. ISBN 2-271-05105-3. 
  • Histoire Des Princes de Lusignan, Anciens Rois de Jérusalem, de la Petite Arménie et de Chypre, St.Petersbourg, Soikine, Stremiannaya 12, 1903

See also[edit]