List of Armillaria species

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Several groups of shaggy yellowish mushrooms growing on the ground in a forest. Some mushrooms have small convex caps, others with larger expanded caps and a skirt-like ring on the stem.
A. mellea is the type species of the genus Armillaria.

Armillaria is a genus of fungi commonly known as honey mushrooms. First treated by Elias Magnus Fries in 1821, and later assigned generic rank by Friedrich Staude in 1857,[1] Armillaria is classified in the Physalacriaceae family of the Agaricales, the gilled mushrooms.[2] The majority of species in Armillaria are saprotrophic and live mainly on dead wood, but some are parasites that can cause root and butt rot in over 600 species of woody plants.[3] Some Armillaria species form mycorrhizae with orchids;[4] others, such as A. gallica, A. mellea, and A. tabescens, are bioluminescent.[5]

Armillaria species form fleshy, white-spored mushrooms with a cottony or membranous veil that typically forms a distinct annulus on the stem. The fruit bodies usually occur in autumn in large clusters at the base of the stem or roots. Armillaria species can produce rhizomorphs—rootlike aggregations of hyphae—that can form massive, long-lasting underground networks. The growth of the rhizomorph networks allows for tree-to-tree spread of the fungus even when direct contact between diseased and healthy plants is not possible.[6]

The genus once served as a wastebasket taxon for many agaric mushrooms with a white spore print, gills attached to the stem, and an annulus. Due largely to differing interpretations on the limits of the genus, over 270 species and varieties have been placed in Armillaria or its synonym Armillariella. A comprehensive 1995 study by Tom Volk and Harold Burdsall evaluated all of the epithets that have been used in Armillaria or Armillariella. They determined that about 40 species belong to Armillaria sensu stricto (in the strict sense); the remaining names belong to species that are distributed among 43 other modern fungal genera.[7]

Many species are difficult or impossible to distinguish from each other using observable characteristics; laboratory incompatibility tests are often used on pure cultures to reliably determine species. Because of the difficulties posed by routine species identification, the use of DNA sequencing and phylogenetic approaches has become a standard method to help clarify relationships between species. Species differ in their geographical distribution and ecological position, host specificity, microscopic and macroscopic features, and also in their aggressiveness in colonizing wood hosts. The following list of Armillaria species is based on the taxonomic overviews provided by Volk and Burdsall in 1995,[8] David Pegler in 2000,[9] and reports of new species that have been published since then.[10][11][12]


Key to the table of species below
Name The binomial name of the Armillaria species.
Authority The author citation—the person who first described the species using an available scientific name, eventually combined with the one who placed it in Armillaria, and using standardized abbreviations.
Year The year in which the species was named, or transferred to the genus Armillaria. Where the actual year of publication (as defined for the purpose of priority) differs from the date given in the material, the latter date is given in quotes.
Distribution The distribution of the species; unless otherwise indicated, this information is obtained from Volk and Burdsall (1995), and Pegler (2000).
Name Authority  Year Distribution
Armillaria affinis (Singer) T.J.Volk & Burds.[13] 1995
  • Caribbean
  • Central America
Armillaria altimontana Brazee, B.Ortiz, Banik & D.L.Lindner.[12] 2012 Western North America
Armillaria apalosclera (Berk.) A.Chandra & Watl.[14] 1982
Armillaria borealis Marxm. & Korhonen[15] 1982 Eurasia[16]
Armillaria calvescens Bérubé & Dessur.[17] 1989 Eastern North America
Armillaria camerunensis (Henn.) Courtec.[18] 1995 Africa
Armillaria cepistipes[N 1] Velen.[19] 1920
  • Eurasia
  • North America[20]
Armillaria duplicata (Berk.) Sacc.[21] 1887 India
Armillaria ectypa (Fr.) Lamoure[22] 1965 Europe
Armillaria fellea (Hongo) Kile & Watling[23] 1983 Australia
Armillaria fumosa Kile & Watling[23] 1983 Australia
Armillaria fuscipes Petch[24] 1909
Armillaria gallica Marxm. & Romagn.[26] 1987
Armillaria gemina Bérubé & Dessur.[17] 1989 Eastern North America[17]
Armillaria griseomellea (Singer) Kile & Watling[23] 1983 North and South America[27]
Armillaria heimii[N 2] Pegler[31] 1977 Africa
Armillaria hinnulea Kile & Watling[23] 1983 Australasia
Armillaria jezoensis J.Y.Cha & Igarashi[32] 1994 Japan
Armillaria limonea (G.Stev.) Boesew.[33] 1977
  • Australasia
  • South America
Armillaria luteobubalina[N 3] Watling & Kile[34] 1978
  • Australasia
  • South America[35]
Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P.Kumm.[36] 1871
  • Eurasia
  • North America[16]
Armillaria melleorubens (Berk. & M.A.Curtis) Sacc.[21] 1887 North and Central America
Armillaria montagnei[N 3] (Singer) Herink[37] 1973
  • Europe
  • South America
Armillaria nabsnona T.J.Volk & Burds.[38] 1996
  • Asia
  • Western North America[20]
Armillaria novae-zelandiae (G.Stev.) Boesew.[33] 1973
  • Australia
  • New Guinea
  • New Zealand
  • South America
Armillaria omnituens (Berk.) Sacc.[21] 1887 India
Armillaria pallidula Kile & Watling[39] 1988 Australia
Armillaria paulensis Capelari[10] 2008 South America[10]
Armillaria pelliculata Beeli[29] 1927 Africa
Armillaria procera Speg.[40] 1889 South America
Armillaria puiggarii Speg.[40] 1889 South America
Armillaria sinapina Bérubé & Dessur.[41] 1988
Armillaria singula J.Y.Cha & Igarashi[32] 1994
  • Japan
  • North America
Armillaria socialis (DC.) Fayod[42] 1889
  • Eurasia
  • North America[43]
Armillaria solidipes[N 4] Peck[45] 1900
Armillaria sparrei (Singer) Herink[37] 1973 North and South America
Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Emel[46] 1921
  • Eurasia
  • North America[16]
Armillaria tigrensis (Singer) T.J.Volk & Burds.[47] 1983 South America
Armillaria umbrinobrunnea (Singer) Pildain & Rajchenb.[11] 2010 South America
Armillaria viridiflava (Singer) T.J.Volk & Burds.[48] 1995
  • Europe(?)
  • South America
Armillaria yungensis (Singer) Herink[37] 1973 South America


  1. ^ The original spelling of the species name was cepaestipes.[19]
  2. ^ This was a nomen novum for Robert Heim's Clitocybe elegans,[28] as Maurice Beeli had described Armillaria elegans[29] in 1927 (that species is now placed in Cystodermella).[30]
  3. ^ a b A. montagnei and A. luteobubalina may represent the same species. If this is so, its correct epithet would be montagnei.[11]
  4. ^ This species was known as Armillaria ostoyae until a 2008 publication revealed that Charles Horton Peck had described the taxon under a different name in 1900.[44]


  1. ^ Volk and Burdsall (1995), p. 8.
  2. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  3. ^ Tainter FH, Baker FA (1996). Principles of Forest Pathology. Chichester: Wiley. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-471-12952-3.
  4. ^ Cha JY, Igarashi T (1995). "Armillaria species associated with Gastrodia elata in Japan". European Journal of Forest Pathology. 25 (6–7): 319–26. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.1995.tb01347.x.
  5. ^ Mihail JD, Bruhn JN (2007). "Dynamics of bioluminescence by Armillaria gallica, A. mellea and A. tabescens". Mycologia. 99 (3): 341–50. doi:10.3852/mycologia.99.3.341. PMID 17883025.
  6. ^ Mihai JD, Bruhn JN (2005). "Foraging behaviour of Armillaria rhizomorph systems". Mycological Research. 109 (11): 1195–207. doi:10.1017/S0953756205003606. PMID 16279413.
  7. ^ Volk and Burdsall (1995), p. 6.
  8. ^ Volk and Burdsall (1995).
  9. ^ Pegler DN. (2000). "Taxonomy, nomenclature and description of Armillaria". In Fox RTV (ed.). Armillaria Root Rot: Biology and Control of Honey Fungus. Andover, Hants, UK: Intercept. pp. 81–93. ISBN 978-1-898298-64-9.
  10. ^ a b c Lima MLA, Asai T, Capelari M (2008). "Armillaria paulensis: a new South American species". Mycological Research. 112 (9): 1122–28. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.03.006. PMID 18692378.
  11. ^ a b c Pildain MB, Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Rajchenberg M (2010). "Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina" (PDF). Mycologia. 102 (2): 392–403. doi:10.3852/09-105. hdl:2263/14133. PMID 20361506. Retrieved 2010-03-21.[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b Brazee NJ, Ortiz-Santana B, Banik MT, Lindner DL (2012). "Armillaria altimontana, a new species from the western interior of North America". Mycologia. 104 (5): 1200–5. doi:10.3852/11-409. PMID 22505437.
  13. ^ Volk and Burdsall (1995), p. 24.
  14. ^ Chandra A, Watling R (1981). "Studies in Indian Armillaria (Fries per Fries) Staude (Basidiomycotina)". Kavaka. 10: 63–84.
  15. ^ Marxmüller H. (1982). "Étude morphologique des Armillaria ss.str. à anneau". Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France (in French). 98 (1): 87–124.
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  17. ^ a b c Bérubé JA, Dessureault M (1989). "Morphological studies of the Armillaria mellea complex: Two new species, A. gemina and A. calvescens". Mycologia. 81 (2): 216–25. doi:10.2307/3759703. JSTOR 3759703. Archived from the original on 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
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  21. ^ a b c Saccardo PA. (1887). "Sylloge Hymenomycetum, Vol. I. Agaricineae". Sylloge Fungorum (in Latin). 5: 83–84.
  22. ^ Lamoure D. (1965). "Charactères mycéliens et position taxinomique de Clitocybe ectypa (Fr.) F.Moreau". Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences (in French). 260 (4): 4561–63.
  23. ^ a b c d Kile GA, Watling R (1983). "Armillaria species from southeastern Australia". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 81 (1): 129–40. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(83)80212-5.
  24. ^ Petch T. (1909). "New Ceylon fungi". Annals of the Royal Botanic Gardens Peradeniya. 4: 299–307.
  25. ^ Wingfield BD, Maphosa L, Coetzee MPA, Mwenje E, Wingfield MJ (2009). "Characterisation of Zimbabwean Armillaria using IGS-1 sequences and AFLP analysis" (PDF). Fungal Diversity. 34: 187–96.
  26. ^ Marxmüller H. (1987). "Quelques remarques complémentaires sur les Armillaires annelées". Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société Mycologique de France (in French). 103 (2): 137–56.
  27. ^ Pildain MB, Coetzee MPA, Rajchenberg M, Petersen RH, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD (2009). "Molecular phylogeny of Armillaria from the Patagonian Andes". Mycological Progress. 8 (3): 181–94. doi:10.1007/s11557-009-0590-8.
  28. ^ Heim R. (1963). "L'Armillariella elegans Heim". Revue de Mycologie (in French). 28: 85–94.
  29. ^ a b Beeli M. (1927). "Contribution à l'étude de la flore mycologique du Congo II". Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique (in French). 59: 101–12.
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  33. ^ a b Boesewinkel HJ. (1977). "New plant disease records in New Zealand: records in the period 1969–76". New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 20 (4): 585. doi:10.1080/00288233.1977.10427376.
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  48. ^ Volk and Burdsall (1995), p. 119.

Cited literature[edit]