Atlantic hurricane season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Atlantic tropical storm and hurricane frequency, by month[1]
Hurricane tracks from 1980 through 2014. Green tracks did not make landfall in US; yellow tracks made landfall but were not major hurricanes at the time; red tracks made landfall and were major hurricanes.

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year from June through November when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active.[2] In the Northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September;[2] the season's climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season.[3] This is the norm, but in 1938, the Atlantic hurricane season started as early as January 3.

Tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a pre-determined list. On average, 10.1 named storms occur each season, with an average of 5.9 becoming hurricanes and 2.5 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). The most active season was 2005, during which 28 tropical cyclones formed, of which a record 15 became hurricanes. The least active season was 1914, with only one known tropical cyclone developing during that year.[4] The Atlantic hurricane season is a time when most tropical cyclones are expected to develop across the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is currently defined as the time frame from June 1 through November 30, though in the past the season was defined as a shorter time frame. During the season, regular tropical weather outlooks are issued by the National Hurricane Center, and coordination between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center occurs for systems which have not formed yet, but could develop during the next three to seven days. There is also a season within a season. The strongest time for hurricane activity seems to be between mid-August thru mid-October. Wind factors and temperature and moisture are perfect during this time to encourage cyclonic activity.[5]

Concept[edit]

The basic concept of a hurricane season began during 1935,[6] when dedicated wire circuits known as hurricane circuits began to be set up along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts,[7] a process completed by 1955.[8] It was originally the time frame when the tropics were monitored routinely for tropical cyclone activity, and was originally defined as from June 15 through October 31.[9] Over the years, the beginning date was shifted back to June 1, while the end date was shifted to November 15,[7] before settling at November 30 by 1965.[10][11] This was when hurricane reconnaissance planes were sent out to fly across the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico on a routine basis to look for potential tropical cyclones, in the years before the continuous weather satellite era.[9] Since regular satellite surveillance began, hurricane hunter aircraft fly only into storm areas which are first spotted by satellite imagery.[12]

Operations[edit]

During the hurricane season, the National Hurricane Center routinely issues their Tropical Weather Outlook product, which identifies areas of concern within the tropics which could develop into tropical cyclones. If systems occur outside the defined hurricane season, special Tropical Weather Outlooks will be issued.[13] Routine coordination occurs at 1700 UTC each day between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center to identify systems for the pressure maps three to seven days into the future within the tropics, and points for existing tropical cyclones six to seven days into the future.[14] Possible tropical cyclones are depicted with a closed isobar, while systems with less certainty to develop are depicted as "spot lows" with no isobar surrounding them.

HURDAT[edit]

The North Atlantic hurricane database, or HURDAT, is the database for all tropical storms and hurricanes for the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, including those that have made landfall in the United States. The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database — which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) webpage — has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity.

HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. HURDAT contains numerous systematic as well as some random errors in the database. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as their understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack of exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall.

Re-analysis project[edit]

HURDAT is regularly updated annually to reflect the previous season's activity. The older portion of the database has been regularly revised since 2001. The first time in 2001 led to the addition of tropical cyclone tracks for the years 1851 to 1885. The second time was in October 2002 when Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) was upgraded to a Category 5. Recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 19th and 20th centuries by various researchers have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events. Tropical storms from 1851 to 1965 have already been reanalyzed with most recently, re-analysis of tropical storms from 1961 to 1965 being completed and integrated into HURDAT database in November 2019.[15] Possible changes for the years 1966 onward are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years.

In addition to the groundbreaking work by Partagas[needs context], additional analyses, digitization and quality control of the data was carried out by researchers at the NOAA Hurricane Research Division funded by the NOAA Office of Global Programs.[16]

The National Hurricane Center's Best Track Change Committee has approved changes for a few recent cyclones, such as Hurricane Andrew. Official changes to the Atlantic hurricane database are approved by the National Hurricane Center Best Track Change Committee.

1494–1850 (pre-HURDAT era)[edit]

Period Seasons Individual years
Pre-19th century Pre-17th century (pre 1600), 17th century (1600s), 18th century (1700s) 1780
1800–1849 1800–1809, 1810–1819, 1820–1829, 1830–1839, 1840–1849 1842

1850–1899 (1851–present HURDAT era)[edit]

1850s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1850 7 7 7 0 Unknown One
1851 6 3 1 36.24 24 Four • Great Florida Middle Panhandle Hurricane of 1851 (cat 3) First Atlantic hurricane season to be included in the ATL-HURDAT
1852 5 5 1 73.28 100+ One • Great Mobile Hurricane of 1852 (cat 3) One of only three known seasons in which all tropical cyclones became hurricanes.
1853 8 4 2 76.49 40 Three Features the earliest known category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale.
1854 5 3 1 31.00 30+ Three • Coastal Hurricane of 1854 (cat 3)
1855 5 4 1 18.12 Not known Five • Middle Gulf Shore Hurricane of 1855 (cat 3)
1856 6 4 2 48.94 200+ One The Last Island Hurricane of 1856 (cat 4) Features the Last Island hurricane, the strongest hurricane to make landfall in Louisiana, later tied with Laura (2020).
1857 4 3 0 46.84 424 Two & Four
1858 6 6 0 44.79 None Three & Six
1859 8 7 1 55.73 Numerous Six

1860s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1860 7 6 1 62.06 60+ One
1861 8 6 0 49.71 22+ One and Three
1862 6 3 0 46.03 3 Two and Three
1863 9 5 0 50.35 90 One, Two, Three & Four
1864 5 3 0 26.55 None One, Three & Five
1865 7 3 0 49.13 326 Four & Seven
1866 7 6 1 83.65 383 Six • Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1866 (cat 4)
1867 9 6 1 59.97 811 'San Narciso' Hurricane San Narciso of 1867 (cat 3)
1868 4 3 0 34.65 2 One, Two & Four
1869 10 7 1 51.02 38 Six • First New England Gale of 1869 (cat 3)
Saxby's New England Gale of 1869 (cat 2)

1870s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1870 11 10 2 87.80 2,052 Four • First Key West Hurricane 1870/Hurricane of San Marcos 1870 (cat 3)
• Second Key West Hurricane 1870 (cat 2)
1871 8 6 2 88.39 30 Three and Four • Central Florida Hurricane of 1871 (cat 3)
• Hurricane Santa Juana of 1871 (cat 3)
1872 5 4 0 65.38 Unknown Two
1873 5 3 2 69.47 626 Five • Central Florida Hurricane of 1873 (cat 3)
1874 7 4 0 47.05 Unknown Seven
1875 6 5 1 72.48 800 Three Indianola Hurricane of 1875 (cat 3)
1876 5 4 2 56.05 19 "San Felipe" Hurricane San Felipe of 1876 (cat 3)
• Cuba-South Florida Hurricane of 1876 (cat 3)
1877 8 3 1 73.36 34 Four • Florida Panhandle hurricane of 1877 (cat 3)
1878 12 10 1 180.85 108 Seven Gale of 1878 (cat 2) Features the first above average (and hyperactive) season on record.
1879 8 6 2 63.63 47 Four • Great Beaufort Carolina Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)
• Louisiana Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)

1880s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1880 11 9 2 131.08 133 Eight • Brownsville Hurricane of 1880 (cat 4)
1881 7 4 0 59.25 700 Five and Six • Georgia Hurricane of 1881 (cat 2)
1882 6 5 2 59.47 6 Six • Pensacola Hurricane of 1882 (cat 3)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1882 (cat 4)
1883 4 3 2 66.70 236 Two and Three • Bahamas-North Carolina Hurricane of 1883 (cat 3)
1884 4 4 1 72.06 8 Two
1885 8 6 1 58.30 25 Two
1886 12 10 4 166.17 200+ "Indianola" Indianola Hurricane of 1886 (cat 4)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
• Texas-Louisiana Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
Seven hurricanes struck the United States, the most during a single year.[17]
Indianola, Texas struck by two major hurricanes (1875 and 1886) which effectively closed down the town.[18][circular reference]
1887 19 11 2 181.26 2 Seven Tied for third most active season on record; with 1995, 2010, 2011, and 2012.
Has the most storms forming outside the normal hurricane season
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm
1888 9 6 2 84.95 924 Three and Four Miami-Louisiana Hurricane of 1888 (cat 3)
• Hurricane San Gil of 1888 (cat 3)
1889 9 6 0 104.04 40 Six

1890s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1890 4 2 1 33.35 9 Three
1891 10 7 1 116.11 700+ "Martinique" Martinique Hurricane of 1891 (cat 3)
1892 9 5 0 115.84 16 Three, Five, and Seven
1893 12 10 5 231.15 4,028 "Cheniere Caminada" Hurricane San Roque of 1893 (cat 3)
New York Hurricane of 1893 (cat 3)
1893 Sea Islands Hurricane (cat 3)
• Great Charleston Hurricane (cat 3)
1893 Cheniere Caminada hurricane (cat 4)
5 major hurricanes made landfall this year.
Two hurricanes caused more than 2,000 deaths in the United States.
Four simultaneous hurricanes on August 22, one of two times on record.
1894 7 5 4 135.42 200+ Six • Florida Panhandle Hurricane of 1894 (cat 3)
1895 6 2 0 68.77 56 Two
1896 7 6 2 136.08 130 Four • Hurricane San Ramon of 1896 (cat 3)
Cedar Keys Hurricane of 1896 (cat 3)
1897 6 3 0 54.54 None One
1898 11 5 1 113.24 562 "Georgia" Georgia Hurricane of 1898 (cat 4) Major hurricane last struck Georgia in 1881
1899 9 5 2 151.03 3,439 "San Ciriaco" Hurricane San Ciriaco of 1899/Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1899 (cat 4) The San Ciriaco hurricane was the longest lasting Atlantic hurricane on record

1900s[edit]

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

1900s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1900 7 3 2 83.35 8,000+ $60 million "Galveston" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (cat 4) The Galveston hurricane was the deadliest disaster in the United States.
1901 12 5 1 98.98 10 $1 million Seven
1902 5 3 0 32.65 None Unknown Four
1903 10 7 1 102.07 228 $1.15 million Two Jamaica Hurricane of 1903 (cat 3)
1904 5 3 0 30.35 87 $1 million Two
1905 5 1 1 28.38 1 Unknown Four
1906 11 6 3 162.88 367 $2.48 million Four Mississippi Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
Florida Keys Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
1907 5 0 0 13.06 None Unknown One One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes, with the other being 1914.
1908 10 6 1 95.11 None Unknown Six Includes the only known March tropical cyclone in the basin
1909 11 6 4 93.34 4,614 $75 million "Grand Isle" 1909 Velasco hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Monterrey hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Grand Isle hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Key West Hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Greater Antilles hurricane (cat 2)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year

1910s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1910 5 3 1 63.90 100 $1.25 million "Cuba" The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1910 (cat 4)
1911 6 3 0 34.29 27 $3 million Three
1912 7 4 1 57.26 116 $67,000 Seven The Jamaica Hurricane of 1912 (cat 3)
1913 6 4 0 35.60 5 $4 million Four
1914 1 0 0 2.53 0 Unknown One Least active season on record.
One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes, with the other being 1907.
1915 6 5 4 130.10 675 $63 million "New Orleans" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1915 (cat 4)
New Orleans Hurricanes of 1915 (cat 4)
Two cat 4 hurricanes made landfall in US in same year.
Galveston last struck with major hurricane in 1900.
1916 15 10 5 144.01 31 $5.9 million "Texas" Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
• Charleston Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
Great Texas Hurricane of 1916 (cat 4)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year following a very active 1915 season.
1917 4 2 2 60.67 5 $170,000 "Nueva Gerona" Nueva Gerona Hurricane of 1917 (cat 4)
1918 6 4 1 39.87 34 $5+ million One • Louisiana Hurricane of 1918 (cat 3)
1919 5 2 1 55.04 ~900 $22 million "Florida Keys" Great Florida Keys Hurricane of 1919 (cat 4)

1920s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1920 5 4 0 29.81 2 $15.75 million One
1921 7 5 2 86.53 6 $36.5 million "Tampa Bay" • Hurricane San Pedro of 1921 (cat 3)
Great Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921 (cat 4)
1922 5 3 1 54.52 Unknown Unknown Two
1923 9 4 1 49.31 0 Unknown Five
1924 11 5 2 100.19 150+ Unknown "Cuba" Great Cuba Hurricane of 1924 (cat 5) The first officially classified Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Scale
1925 4 2 0 7.25 59+ $19.9 million One
1926 11 8 6 229.56 1,315+ $1.4+ billion "Miami" The Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Louisiana hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Great Havana-Bermuda Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
6 major hurricanes this year, 5 major landfalls
1927 8 4 1 56.48 184 Unknown "Nova Scotia" Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1927 (cat 3)
1928 6 4 1 83.48 4,000+ $952.5+ million "Okeechobee" Great Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 (cat 5) The Okeechobee hurricane is the only known hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength.
1929 5 3 1 48.07 51 $9.0 million "Florida" Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1929 (cat 4)

1930s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1930 3 2 2 49.77 8,000 $50 million "Dominican Republic" Dominican Republic Hurricane of 1930 (cat 4) The fifth deadliest hurricane on record
1931 13 3 1 47.84 2,502 $7.5 million "Belize" Belize Hurricane of 1931 (cat 4)
1932 15 6 4 169.66 3,315 $37 million "Cuba" Freeport Texas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Hurricane San Ciprián of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Cuba Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Two Category 5 hurricanes; one in November (the latest such on record); four major hurricanes made landfall
1933 20 11 6 258.57 651 $86.6 million "Tampico" Chesapeake–Potomac Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Great Cuba-Brownsville Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Outer Banks Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Tampico Yucatán Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Second most active season on record following very active 1932 season.
Two Category 5 hurricanes.
Five major hurricanes made landfall
1934 13 7 1 79.07 2,017 $4.26 million Thirteen
1935 8 5 3 106.21 2,604 $12.5 million "Labor Day" Great Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 (cat 5)
Cuba Hurricane of 1935 (cat 4)
The Labor Day hurricane is most intense landfalling tropical cyclone in the Atlantic known to date
1936 17 7 1 99.78 5 $1.23 million Thirteen
1937 11 4 1 65.85 0 Unknown Six
1938 9 4 2 77.58 ~700 $290.3 million "New England" Long Island Express Hurricane (cat 3) Earliest starting season on record (January 3).
Long Island express made landfall as a fast moving category 3.
1939 6 3 1 43.68 5 Unknown Five

1940s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1940 9 6 0 67.79 101 $4.7 million Four
1941 6 4 3 51.77 63 $10 million "Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
• Nicaragua Hurricane of 1941 (cat 4)
Florida Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year
1942 11 4 1 62.49 17 $30.6 million Three Matagorda Texas Hurricane of 1942 (cat 3)
1943 10 5 2 94.01 19 $17.2 million Three First year of Hurricane Hunters
1944 14 8 3 104.45 1,153 $202 million "Great Atlantic" Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Cuba-Florida Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Atlantic hurricane only category 2 at landfall
1945 11 5 2 63.42 80 $80 million "Southeast Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1945 (cat 3)
Homestead Florida Hurricane of 1945 (cat 4)
1946 7 3 0 19.61 5 $5.2 million Four
1947 10 5 2 88.49 94 $145.3 million "Fort Lauderdale" Fort Lauderdale Hurricane of 1947 [George] (cat 4)
Cape Sable Hurricane of 1947 [King] (cat 2)
First year of Atlantic tropical cyclone naming.[19]
1948 10 6 4 94.98 94 $30.9 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1948 [Easy] (cat 4)
Miami Hurricane of 1948 [Fox] (cat 3)
1949 16 7 3 96.45 3 $58.2 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1949 (cat 4)
Texas Hurricane of 1949 (cat 2)

1950s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1950 16 11 6 211.28 20 $37 million Dog None Record-breaking 8 tropical storms in October
1951 12 8 3 126.33 257 $80 million Easy None
1952 11 5 2 69.08 607 $3.75 million Fox None Includes the only known February tropical cyclone in the basin
1953 14 7 3 98.51 1 $6 million Carol None First year of female names for storms.
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm.
1954 16 7 3 110.88 1,069 $752 million Hazel Carol, Edna, Hazel Includes Alice, one of only two storms in the basin to span two calendar years, tying for the latest storm in a season
1955 13 9 4 158.17 1,518 $1.2 billion Janet Connie, Diane, Ione, Janet
1956 12 4 1 56.67 76 $67.8 million Betsy None
1957 8 3 2 78.66 513 $152.5 million Carrie Audrey One of only two seasons to feature a major hurricane in June.
1958 12 7 3 109.69 41 $12 million Helene None
1959 14 7 2 77.11 59 $23.3 million Gracie Gracie

1960s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1960 8 4 2 72.90 455 $442.34 million Donna Donna
1961 12 8 5 205.40 345 $392 million Hattie Carla, Hattie Two Category 5 Hurricanes

Lowest number of named storms for a hyperactive season.

1962 7 4 0 35.57 39 >$4.88 million Ella None No major hurricanes
1963 10 7 3 117.93 7,225 $589 million Flora Flora The sixth deadliest hurricane on record
1964 13 7 5 169.77 261 $605 million Cleo Cleo, Dora, Hilda
1965 10 4 1 84.33 76 $1.45 billion Betsy Betsy Current extent of the reanalysis project as of November 2019
1966 11 7 3 145.28 1,094 $410 million Inez Inez One of only two seasons to feature a major hurricane in June.

One named storm de-classified in post-analysis

1967 8 6 1 121.70 64 $217 million Beulah Beulah First hurricane season in the modern satellite era

features the highest number of tropical depressions in a season at the time, record later broken by 2005.

1968 8 4 0 45.07 10 $10 million Gladys None The name "Edna" was retroactively retired, due to the storm in 1954.
There was one subtropical storm with Category 1 hurricane strength.
No major hurricanes, nor category 2 hurricanes.
1969 18 12 5 165.74 364 $1.7 billion Camille Camille Fourth most active season on record tied with 2019.
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record.
Includes one subtropical storm.
Total 105 63 25 9,933 $5.82 billion 11 names

1970s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1970 11 5 2 40.18 71 $454 million Celia Celia First season of a 24-year period of decreased activity in the Atlantic (-AMO)
1971 13 6 1 96.53 45 $213 million Edith None Includes first documented Hurricane to cross Central America, Irene
1972 7 3 0 35.61 122 $2.1 billion Betty Agnes Includes three subtropical storms
No major hurricanes
1973 8 4 1 47.85 15 $18 million Ellen None Includes one subtropical storm
1974 11 4 2 68.13 8,260+ $1.97 billion Carmen Carmen, Fifi Includes four subtropical storms
Fifi was the fourth deadliest hurricane on record
1975 9 6 3 76.06 80 $100 million Gladys Eloise Includes one subtropical storm
1976 10 6 2 84.17 72 $100 million Belle None Includes two subtropical storms
1977 6 5 1 25.32 10 $10 million Anita Anita Features the strongest Atlantic hurricane to strike Mexico.
1978 12 5 2 63.22 37 $45 million Greta Greta Includes the January subtropical storm in the Atlantic
1979 9 5 2 92.92 2,118 $4.3 billion David David, Frederic First year for alternating male/female names.
Includes one subtropical storm of Category One strength .
Total 96 49 16 10,830+ $9.31 billion 9 names

1980s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1980 15 11 9 2 148.94 256 $1 billion Allen Allen Includes the storm with the highest sustained winds attained so far in the Atlantic
1981 18 12 7 3 100.38 10 $45 million Harvey None
1982 9 6 2 1 31.50 141 $100 million Debby None Includes one subtropical storm
1983 7 4 3 1 17.40 22 $2.6 billion Alicia Alicia Least active hurricane season in the satellite era
1984 17 13 5 1 84.30 35 $66 million Diana None Includes one subtropical storm
1985 13 11 7 3 87.98 241 $4.5 billion Gloria Elena, Gloria Hurricane Kate struck Florida on November 21, the latest United States hurricane landfall
1986 10 6 4 0 35.79 70 $57 million Earl None No major hurricanes
1987 14 7 3 1 34.36 10 $90 million Emily None
1988 19 12 5 3 102.99 550 $7 billion Gilbert Gilbert, Joan Included strongest hurricane on record until 2005; first hurricane since 1978 to cross Central America
1989 15 11 7 2 135.13 112 $10.7 billion Hugo Hugo Hurricane Hugo was the strongest tropical cyclone to ever strike South Carolina, and was, at the time, the costliest Atlantic hurricane on record, later broken by Andrew, and then Katrina, tied with Harvey.
Total 137 93 52 17 1,447 $26.2 billion 7 names

1990s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1990 16 14 8 1 96.80 116 $150 million Gustav Diana, Klaus No tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in the United States
1991 12 8 4 2 35.54 30 $2.5 billion Claudette Bob
1992 9 7 4 1 76.22 66 $27 billion Andrew Andrew Hurricane Andrew was the costliest U.S. hurricane until 2005.
Includes one subtropical storm.
1993 10 8 4 1 38.67 274 $271 million Emily None
1994 12 7 3 0 32.02 1,184 $1.56 billion Florence None Last season of a 24-year period of decreased activity in the Atlantic (-AMO)
No major hurricanes
1995 21 19 11 5 227.10 115 $9.3 billion Opal Luis, Marilyn, Opal, Roxanne Tied for third most active season on record
First season of an ongoing period of increased activity in the Atlantic (+AMO)
1996 13 13 9 6 166.18 179 $3.8 billion Edouard Cesar, Fran, Hortense Cesar was renamed Douglas after it crossed Central America.
Highest number of major hurricanes at the time
1997 9 8 3 1 40.93 11 $110 million Erika None Includes one subtropical storm
1998 14 14 10 3 181.77 12,000+ $12.2 billion Mitch Georges, Mitch Four simultaneous hurricanes on September 26, the first time since 1893.
Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest hurricane in over 200 years.
1999 16 12 8 5 176.53 465 $5.9 billion Floyd Floyd, Lenny Most Category 4 hurricanes on record, later tied by 2005.
Total 132 110 64 25 14,440 $62.7 billion Mitch 15 names

2000s[edit]

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

2000s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2000 19 15 8 3 119.14 105 $1.296 billion Keith Keith Includes one subtropical storm
2001 17 15 9 4 110.32 153 $11.44 billion Michelle Allison, Iris, Michelle Included the first tropical storm in the Atlantic to be retired
2002 14 12 4 2 67.99 50 $2.47 billion Isidore Isidore, Lili Record-tying 8 named storms formed in September
2003 21 16 7 3 176.84 93 $6.33 billion Isabel Fabian, Isabel, Juan 2 off-season storms
2004 17 15 9 6 226.88 3,260 $61.17 billion Ivan Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne Includes one subtropical storm
Record-tying 8 named storms forming in August
2005 31 28 15 7 250.13 3,912 $171.755 billion Wilma Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, Wilma Second costliest hurricane season on record
Season holds most activity records, including cyclones, storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and Category 5's (4)
Most retired names
First year to use the Greek alphabet later also used in 2020 Atlantic hurricane season
Includes 1 subtropical storm and 1 subtropical depression
2006 10 10 5 2 78.54 14 $504.42 million Gordon and Helene None
2007 17 15 6 2 73.89 478 $3.42 billion Dean Dean, Felix, Noel Includes one subtropical storm
Two Category 5 Hurricanes that made landfall
2008 17 16 8 5 145.72 1,073 $49.42 billion Ike Gustav, Ike, Paloma Tied for fifth most active season on record
Only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November
2009 11 9 3 2 52.58 9 $58 million Bill None
Total 174 151 74 36 9,146 $307.87 billion Wilma 24 names

2010s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2010 21 19 12 5 165.48 392 $7.39 billion Igor Igor, Tomas Tied for fourth most active season on record (with 1887, 1995, 2011 and 2012)
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record with twelve (Alex, Danielle, Earl, Igor, Julia, Karl, Lisa, Otto, Paula, Richard, Shary, and Tomas)
Record tying 8 named storms forming in September (Gaston through Nicole)
2011 20 19 7 4 126.30 112 $17.4 billion Ophelia Irene Tied for fourth most active season on record (with 1887, 1995, 2010 and 2012)
2012 19 19 10 2 132.63 355 $72.32 billion Sandy Sandy Tied for fourth most active season on record (with 1887, 1995, 2010 and 2011)
Tied (with 2016 and 2020) for most active season before July (Alberto through Debby)
Record tying eight named storms forming in August (Ernesto through Leslie [Leslie spanned most of September])
2013 15 14 2 0 36.12 54 $1.512 billion Humberto Ingrid Includes one subtropical storm (Unnamed December SS [14L])
No major hurricanes, nor Category 2 hurricanes
Tied (with 1982) for fewest hurricanes since 1930 (Humberto and Ingrid, a tie with Alberto and Debby in 1982)
2014 9 8 6 2 66.73 21 $371.6 million Gonzalo None
2015 12 11 4 2 62.69 89 $813.9 million Joaquin Erika, Joaquin
2016 16 15 7 4 141.25 736 ≥ $17.49 billion Matthew Matthew, Otto Earliest start since 1951 (January 12, since January 4)
Record for earliest formation of 4th named storm (Danielle)
Tied (with 2012 and 2020) for most active season before July (Alex through Danielle)
Includes southernmost Category 5 on record, and the first since 2007 (Matthew, since Felix)
First hurricane in 20 years to cross Central America into the Eastern Pacific basin (Otto)
2017 18 17 10 6 224.88 3,364 ≥ $294.92 billion Maria Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate Costliest hurricane season on record (US$294.67 Billion)
First April system (Arlene) since 2003 (Ana)
Earliest Main Development Region named storm on record (Bret)
First U.S. major hurricane landfall since Wilma in 2005 (Harvey)
Highest rainfall produced by a tropical cyclone in the United States and its territories (Harvey)
First-ever three Category 4 U.S. hurricane landfalls in a single season (Harvey, Irma, and Maria)
Second season to feature multiple Category 5 landfalls after 2007 (Irma and Maria after Dean and Felix)
Only one of four seasons to produce ten hurricanes in a row (Franklin through Ophelia)
Only season on record with three hurricanes with an ACE value over 40 (Irma, Jose, and Maria)
Most ACE produced in a single month in Atlantic basin (September, caused by Irma through Maria)
Easternmost Major hurricane on record (Ophelia)
2018 16 15 8 2 132.58 172 ≥ $50.205 billion Michael Florence, Michael Includes a record seven storms that were subtropical at one point (Alberto, Beryl, Debby, Ernesto, Joyce, Leslie, and Oscar)
Fourth consecutive season for a storm to develop before the official start (Alberto)
The first season on record to have a Category 5 hurricane present in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean (Michael, followed by Lane, Walaka, and Willa)
2019 20 18 6 3 132.20 119 ≥ $11.588 billion Dorian TBD Record fifth consecutive season for a storm to develop before the official start (Andrea).
Includes two subtropical storms (Andrea and Rebekah).
Dorian and Lorenzo in 2019 became two of six Category 5 storms in four years, the others being Matthew, Irma and Maria, and Michael, the most consecutive years with Category 5 storms on record.
Features record-breaking easternmost Category 5 hurricane (Lorenzo).
Total 166 155 72 30 5,414 $474.01 billion Maria

2020s[edit]

Year Number of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
ACE Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2020 28 27 10 4 135.3 152 >$27.873 billion Laura TBD Record-breaking 6th straight season with at least one pre-season storm. (Arthur and Bertha).
Holds the record for the earliest formation date for most named storms.
Record-tying 2 named storms in May.
Record-tying 5 named storms in July. Record-breaking 6 tropical depressions in July.

Record-breaking 10 named storms in September.
First season on record to have 9 tropical storms form before August.
First season on record to have 13 tropical storms form before September.
First season on record to have 18 or more tropical storms form before October.
One of only two seasons to use the Greek Alphabet, with the other being 2005.
Easternmost forming Atlantic tropical/subtropical cyclone on record. (Alpha)
Record-breaking 10 landfalls in the United States.
Tied for most Louisiana landfalls with 4.

Total 28 27 10 4 152 >$27.873 billion Laura

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season[edit]

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851–2020.

A 2011 study analyzing one of the main sources of hurricanes - the African easterly wave (AEW) - found that the change in AEWs is closely linked to increased activity of intense hurricanes in the North Atlantic. The synoptic concurrence of AEWs in driving the dynamics of the Sahel greening also appears to increase tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic.[20]

Tropical cyclone count adjusted for lack of observation prior to 1965.

See also[edit]

Parent topics[edit]

Atlantic hurricane topics[edit]

Other tropical cyclone basins[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Landsea, Chris (contributor from the NHC). "Total and Average Number of Tropical Cylones by Month (1851-2017)". aoml.noaa.gov. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". NOAA. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  3. ^ McAdie, Colin (May 10, 2007). "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  4. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, 2020.
  5. ^ "The peak of the hurricane season – why now? | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration". www.noaa.gov. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  6. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1941). "Hurricane Bureau Begins Season's Vigil Tonight". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  7. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1959). "1959 Hurricane Season Opens Officially Today". Meridian Record. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  8. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1955). "Hurricane Season Opens; New England Joins Circuit". The Robesonian. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  9. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1960). "1960 Hurricane Season Open As Planes Prowl". The Evening Independent. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  10. ^ Neal Dorst (January 21, 2010). "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season ?". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  11. ^ Brownsville Herald (June 1, 1965). Hurricane Season Officially Opened.
  12. ^ United Press International (May 30, 1966). "Hurricane Season Opens This Week". The News and Courier. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  13. ^ National Hurricane Center (2011). "Atlantic Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  14. ^ United States Department of Commerce (2006). Assessment: Hurricane Katrina, August 23–31, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  15. ^ https://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data_sub/re_anal.html
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) [1]
  17. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2007". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  18. ^ Indianola, Texas
  19. ^ Dorst, Neal (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. Slides 49–51.
  20. ^ Wang and Gillies (2011). "Observed Change in Sahel Rainfall, Circulations, African Easterly Waves, and Atlantic Hurricanes Since 1979". International Journal of Geophysics. 2011: 1–14. doi:10.1155/2011/259529.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)