List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century
The List of Atlantic hurricanes in the 18th century encompasses all known Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1700 to 1799. Although not all of the data for every storm that occurred are available, some parts of the coastline were populated enough to provide data of hurricane occurrences.
|Atlantic hurricane seasons|
|1700||Charleston South Carolina and Virginia||September 13–14 [O.S. September 2–3] ||98||Rising-Sun Hurricane of 1700. A hurricane struck the South Carolina coastline while the Rising-Sun, a Scottish warship, was prevented from entering Charleston Bay from the Atlantic by a sandbar across the mouth. It had already been badly damaged by a storm in the Gulf of Mexico, being dismasted, and was seeking repairs. The ship, passengers and crew were returning to Scotland from a failed Scottish attempt to establish a colony at Darien (what we now call Panama). The crew was in the process of 'lightening the ship', to gain entry to the bay, and as part of that, 15 passengers were taken ashore in a small boat. In the ensuing hurricane, the ship was thrust up on the beach, broken up, and all left aboard were drowned. The only survivors from the ship were those who had gone ashore earlier and ended up having to bury the dead on the beach the next day. Ships docked in the harbor at Charleston were also wrecked. Charleston was devastated and flooded by this ferocious hurricane.|
|1700||Barbados||September 20 [O.S. September 9] |
|1702||Barbados||September 24–26 [O.S. September 13–15] |
|1703||Virginia, Maryland, New England coastline||October 18–19 [O.S. October 7–8] ||N/A||Great wind and flood damage; many ships were lost.|
|1703||England / British Isles||December 7–8 [O.S. November 26–27]||Many thousands||The Great Storm of 1703. This was the most powerful wind force ever experienced in modern English history, causing more death and destruction than any known storm before or after. One-third of the British Navy fleet sunk during this storm, which likely originated from an Atlantic-based hurricane.|
|1705||Havana Cuba, southeast coast of Florida||August 16–18 [O.S. August 5–7] ||Many were lost||4 ships lost|
|1706||Barbados to New York and Connecticut||October 5–15 [O.S. September 24-October 4] ||Strong wind and heavy rains were reported in NY (14th) and CT (16th). Unusual and heavy flooding occurred in many areas in NY and CT.|
|1706||Off of Virginia coast||November 6–7 [O.S. October 26–27]||N/A||A hurricane at sea - an England-bound fleet of ships from America was scattered by a raging hurricane at sea. Many ships had to return to Virginia for repairs after the hurricane while other ships were lost at sea. No landfall is believed to be known.|
|1707||St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua, St. Thomas, Montserrat||September 9–11 [O.S. August 30-September 1] ||N/A||Nevis was "nearly ruined" and several ships were wrecked off the coast of St. Kitts|
|1707||St. Augustine, Florida||September 30 [O.S. September 19] ||N/A||Heavy flooding and damage|
|1712||Barbados, Jamaica, Cuba||September 6–10 [O.S. August 26–31] ||400||Many houses destroyed|
|1712||Barbados||September 19 [O.S. September 8] |
|1713||Lesser Antilles, Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico||September 4–6 ||100 in Martinique||San Zacarias Hurricane of 1713. Caused a storm surge in southern Puerto Rico.|
|1713||North of Antigua to South Carolina Charleston, North Carolina, Virginia||September 10–17 [O.S. September 1–6] ||Many||Carolina Hurricane of 1713. Charleston was once again inundated by the sea (see 1700). The death toll was reportedly significant and resulted from the high storm surge that washed in with the storm. On Sullivan's Island, "The new lookout made of wood, built eight square and eighty feet high, was blown down." In Charleston's harbor, all but one of the vessels were driven ashore and "all the front wall and mud parapet before Charlestown [were] undermined and washed away." The two rivers on both sides of the town were connected for a period of unknown time during the storm. The storm was reportedly more violent in the north of Charleston, suggesting that landfall was made north of the town. The effects were most prominent in Currituck County, North Carolina, near the Virginia-North Carolina border, where the storm surge breached the Outer Banks and opened several inlets into the Currituck Sound. William Byrd, one of the commissioners who established the Virginia-North Carolina boundary, stated: "There was no tide in Currituck until 1713 when a violent storm opened a new inlet five miles south of the old one. One of the new inlets carved out by the storm became the location where the Virginia-North Carolina line begins on the Atlantic coast."|
|1713||Puerto Rico||October 3||Hurricane San Cándido of 1713. Caused a lot of storm damage in the south coast.|
|1714||Florida Keys||Late June||Many drowned||Many ships sank|
|1715||Bahamas, Florida East Coast||July 31||1000–2500||Florida Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1715. Occurred near southeastern Bahamas and straits of Florida. Due to numerous delays, the fleet of twelve ships did not depart from Havana, Cuba, until late. Once the heavy-laden treasure ships turned into the Bahamas channel, they encountered northeasterly winds. The hurricane overtook the fleet as it emerged from the Bahamas channel. Three ships sank in deep water; the remainder were driven to the Florida coast wrecked on the rocks and reefs just north of present-day Vero Beach. The fleet captain Spanish Admiral Don Juan de Ubilla drowned in the storm along with more than a thousand other sailors. See 1715 Treasure Fleet and Florida Treasure Coast. The surviving sailors tried to live on the uninhabited Florida coast where their ships had wrecked. After the sinking of the ships, the Spanish government tried to recover some of the treasure, some of which they were able to, though most remains unclaimed to this day. This area off of the Florida coast would be named the "Treasure Coast" for the millions in gold, silver, and jewels these ships from this fleet took down with them from this storm. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1716||Massachusetts / Boston, Martha's Vineyard||October 24–25 [O.S. October 13–14]||The New England Hurricane of 1716 was a hurricane with strong winds and rains affecting Eastern Massachusetts, Boston, and Martha's Vineyard. May have made no direct landfall.|
|1717||Alabama||Late Summer||Pelican Harbor on Dauphin Island was destroyed by the shifting sands.|
|1722||Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Carolinas||August 28 – September 3||280, 400 ||Passed south of Port Royal, which was devastated by a 16–18 foot storm surge. |
|1722||Jamaica, Louisiana, South Carolina||September 11,23-24 [O.S. September 1,12-13]||400||Great Louisiana Hurricane of 1722. Moved through the Lesser Antilles on September 11. This hurricane is the first tropical storm to strike the region for which there are adequate first-hand accounts and almost completely destroyed the city's fragile existing infrastructure. The storm made landfall in Louisiana on September 23 with 15 hours of hurricane winds and an 8-foot storm surge flooding. Hurricane force winds lasted 15 hours. In 1718, 3 feet (1m) high levees protected New Orleans from both river and tidal overflow (today they are 17 feet (5.2 m) high). The buildings in New Orleans suffered extensive destruction, but they were not of high-grade construction; instead, they had been hastily constructed when New Orleans was initially selected to be the capital of the Louisiana Company in 1717-18. The bayou between New Orleans and Biloxi was filled with 2 to 3 feet (0.6-0.9 m) of water as a result of the storm, and all ships at the port were destroyed. Rainfall and flooding were reported to have lasted for five days. This storm was responsible for moving Mobile from its old site 27 miles (43 km) north of the mouth of the Mobile River to its present-day site. This same storm likely re-curved northeast and headed into South Carolina as they reported three days of flooding rains in South Carolina around the 27th.|
|1724||Maryland / Chesapeake Bay, Virginia||August 23 [O.S. August 12]||N/A||The Great Gust of 1724. Almost all tobacco crops and much of the corn crops were destroyed by this violent tropical storm, which struck the Chesapeake Bay. Violent floods of rain and prodigious gusts of wind were seen upon the James River. Some homes were wrecked, and several vessels were driven ashore. The storm was likely followed by a second hurricane just five days later, which caused rain for many straight days that caused the Virginia floods of 1724.|
|1724||Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania||August 28 [O.S. August 17]||Second of two hurricanes that passed through the area within five days. Another violent storm system came through affecting Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania with violent winds, flooding, and rain. This system and the Great Gust of 1724 systems are among the most significant tropical storms to affect the Mid-Atlantic during the colonial period of the late 1600s and 1700s.|
|1726||Jamaica||November 2||18+||This storm devastated Port Royal, sinking some 50 ships. Based on damage information, it was observed to be a small yet powerful hurricane. The date was perhaps same as 22 October on the Julian calendar.|
|1727||Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Massachusetts/Boston||September 27 [O.S. September 16]||The New England Hurricane of 1727 was a strong hurricane that caused considerable damage, uprooted many trees, damaged property, and washed ships in port ashore. Center of the storm likely past over eastern Massachusetts. Severe destruction noted in Essex County.|
|1728||Carolinas||August 13 [O.S. August 2]||The Carolina Hurricane of 1728 was the fourth major hurricane to hit Charleston area.|
|1729||Nassau Bahamas||first week of August||The Woodes Rodgers Hurricane of 1729 was the first report of major storm damage at a settlement in the Bahamas. Dated occurrence three weeks prior to the arrival of the first royal governor of the Bahamas, Woodes Rodgers on August 25, 1729. Storm blew down greatest parts of the houses on the island. The Royal Assembly on the island was not able to conduct business of the colony because of the extensive damage done to the island.|
|1730||Jamaica, Puerto Rico||August 31, September 1||N/A||Hurricane Santa Rosa of 1730 was a storm that passed south of Puerto Rico on August 31 and caused damage to houses and plantations. It made its way to Jamaica on September 1. One ship holding including the ex-president of Panama, was lost at sea during this storm.|
|1730||Havana Cuba||unknown||This hurricane struck Havana and Matanzas, destroying many buildings.|
|1730||Caribbean Sea||unknown||Nuestra Senora del Carmen sank in a hurricane south of Jamaica.|
|1731||Windward Passage||June 24||1+||This hurricane destroyed two ships.|
|1733||St. Kitts||June 30||Several||This hurricane wrecked at least one ship.|
|1733||Cuba, Bahamas, Florida Keys||July 15–16||A 22-ship Spanish treasure fleet was struck by a hurricane as the ships tried to cross the Bahamas Channel. The storm left 13 ships sunk or grounded between Elliott Key and Key Vaca. One of the sunken ships, the Pedro, is located in 20 feet of water off the Indian Key in the Florida Keys. The sinking was one of the greatest maritime disasters. The event was unknown until diver Art McKee began an underwater archival investigation in 1938.|
|1737||St. Kitts, Montserrat, Dominican Republic||September 9||Several people drowned||This storm destroyed many ships.|
|1738||Guadeloupe, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic||August 30||N/A||Hurricane Santa Rosa of 1738 was a hurricane caused damage to agriculture and to many homes in Puerto Rico. It is estimated that it entered Puerto Rico in the east and crossed over the entire island, then passed on to the Dominican Republic.|
|1738||Puerto Rico||September 12||N/A||Hurricane San Leoncio of 1738 was a hurricane caused damage to agriculture and to many homes on the south side of Puerto Rico. There was no reported damage from San Juan. The hurricane headed to Hispaniola on September 13.|
|1740||Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic||August 3||Hurricane San Esteban of 1740. This hurricane passed close to the south of the island and then later affected the northeast Dominican Republic. The city of Ponce reported the most damage. This was the first of two hurricanes that impacted Puerto Rico in 1740.|
|1740||Puerto Rico||September 11–12||N/A||Hurricane San Vicente of 1740 affected San Juan on the northern side of the island. Two ships were destroyed by the hurricane. The hurricane was not strong.|
|1740||Mobile Alabama; Louisiana||September 22–23||N/A||Twin Mobile Hurricanes of 1740. It destroyed the town of La Balize |
|1740||Mobile Alabama||September 29||N/A||Twin Mobile Hurricanes of 1740. |
|1742||Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico||October 27-28||N/A||Hurricane San Judas Tadeo of 1742 passed at some distance on the north side of Puerto Rico affecting St. Thomas. Strong winds caused high seas, which damaged ships.|
|1743||Jamaica||October 20||"Great number"||N/A|
|1743||Philadelphia, Boston areas||November 1–2 [O.S. October 21–22]||Ben Franklin's 'Eclipse Hurricane'. So-called because it occurred during the night of a total lunar eclipse. First tropical storm in American history to be accurately measured with scientific instruments. Ben Franklin noted the difference in the start times the storms that started in Philadelphia and Boston and rationalized that it must have been the same storm traveling northward. This is referred to as the first tangible progress towards understanding the "law of storms" |
|1744||Jamaica||October 31–November 1||182||N/A|
|1746||Caribbean Sea||N/A||N/A||Thirteen ships were destroyed by the storm.|
|1747||Virginia||September 15||50+||An indentured servant ship was destroyed by the storm.|
|1747||St. Christopher, Leeward Islands||October 2|
|1747||North Carolina, Massachusetts||October 8||"Many"||Seven ships were destroyed by the storm|
|1747||Bermuda||October 10||The storm was called a "Violent gale of wind"|
|1747||St. Kitts||November 4||"Upwards of 20 sail of vessels lost"|
|1748||Off Virginia Capes||September 11||"Dispersed fleet"|
|1748||Bermuda||October 13||Up to £20,000 damage|
|1749||North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland||October 18–19 [O.S. October 7–8]||The Coastal Hurricane of 1749 caused severe flooding, high tides, and tree damage. Wind effects were also recorded in New York City, Philadelphia, and Boston. It was estimated to be one of the strongest hurricanes to hit the Mid-Atlantic region, perhaps a category 4 based on the recorded tidal surge. This hurricane produced a huge tidal surge of 15 feet. Responsible for creating Willoughby Spit, a small area of land near Norfolk that was inside the Chesapeake Bay. Ben Franklin had this storm under watch and it helped confirm his hypothesis from the 1743 hurricane he observed that coastal storms moved from the southwest and were preceded by northeasterly winds.|
|1750||August 29 [O.S. August 17]||Offshore North Carolina, Cape Hatteras||N/A||Four ships lost|
|1751||July 24||St. Kitts||Entire crew||One ship lost|
|1751||October||Jamaica, Havana, Cuba|
|1752||September 15||South Carolina||Great Hurricane of 1752 One of the most severe hurricanes to hit the Charlestown area in colonial times. Rated similar to hurricanes that hit the area in 1804 and 1893.|
|1752||September 23, 26||Bahamas, Cuba||N/A||Sixteen ships lost off the north shore of Havana. Struck the Bahamas on the 23rd and Cuba on the 26th. Likely the same hurricane as Second Great Hurricane of 1752 in the Carolinas.|
|1752||September 30 - Oct 1||South Carolina, North Carolina||The Second Hurricane of 1752 One of the most severe hurricanes to hit the Charlestown area in colonial times. Rated similar to hurricanes that hit the area in 1804 and 1893. Began moving northward up the Carolina coast to Wilmington, North Carolina.|
|1752||October 22||Offshore Florida||7+||Twelve ships lost|
|1752||November 3||Pensacola Florida|||
|1754||September||Santo Domingo||N/A||Twelve ships lost|
|1756||October 2 / 3||Havana Cuba||A hurricane with heavy rains struck Havana, Cuba.|
|1757||August 11||Florida to Boston||Rain for 3 days; great SW-NW-N gusts|
|1758||August 23||Barbados, South Carolina |
|1758||November 10||St. Kitts||200||N/A|
|1758||N/A||St. Marks, Florida||40||N/A|
|1759||September||Havana Cuba||Impeded Florida Current that water backed up causing the Dry Tortugas to disappear |
|1760||August 12||Pensacola Florida|||
|1760||September 7–8||Veracruz, Mexico|
|1761||September 20–23||Outer Banks of North Carolina||N/A||A "severe equinoctial storm" made a breach through the Outer Banks of North Carolina, eight miles above its present entrance near Haulover, and it was named New Inlet. This inlet was subsequently closed in 1881, costing $600,000 in that year's dollars.|
|1761||October 23–24||Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Eastern Massachusetts/Boston ||The Southeastern New England Hurricane of 1761 was a major hurricane that lasted overnight. Strong wind damage. Said to be the worst storm in Boston since the great hurricane of 1727. Many buildings were destroyed and bridges washed out from Providence to Newport, Rhode Island and north to Boston and across Cape Cod.|
|1765||July 31||Martinique, St. Eustatius, Guadeloupe|
|1765||November 13–14||St. Domingo|
|1766||July 17||Bahamas||First of many hurricanes produced during the 1766 season|
|1766||August 16||West of Jamaica|
|1766||September 4||Galveston, Texas||N/A||The Gulf Hurricane of 1766 A strong storm struck Galveston. The next strong storm to hit Galveston wouldn't be until 1818. Five Spanish treasure fleet ships en route from Vera Cruz to Havana were destroyed, but the crew and items were saved. A Spanish mission named Nuestra Senora De la Luz and the Presidio San Augustine de Ahumado on the lower Trinity River was destroyed. Constance Bayou in Louisiana was named after one of the wrecked ships from this storm.|
|1766||September 13–19||St. Christopher, Montserrat, Puerto Rico||N/A||Hurricane San Genaro of 1766 was a severe hurricane that impacted Puerto Rico. It destroyed half the town and many ships.|
|1766||September 21||St. Eustatius, Tortuga|
|1766||October 6–8||Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico||N/A||Hurricane San Marcos of 1766 passed first across Guadalupe. There it sunk twelve slave ships, killing all aboard. This hurricane also devastated the French-owned Caribbean island Martinique, ruining its sugarcane business there. One of the families affected was that of Joseph Tascher who was financially ruined from the hurricane. Distressed about the well-being of his family following the storm, he sent his daughter Rose Tascher to live in France. Rose later married Napoleon Bonaparte who rechristened his new bride as Josephine. Later it crossed Puerto Rico from south east to north west, it affected the entire island.|
|1766||October 22–23||Northwest Florida||N/A||This sunk one ship, killing the entire crew except for three.|
|1767||August 5-7th||Martinique, Puerto Rico||1,600 drowned||Hurricane San Cayetano of 1767 was "[a] powerful hurricane". Caused big flooding and crop damage on Puerto Rico. 1,600 people drowned on the island of Martinique. See the list of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1767||September 21||Coastal North Carolina||N/A||This hurricane caused a number of vessels to be lost. Floods struck Virginia, with a mill entirely destroyed in Warwick County.|
|1767||October 16–17||North Carolina||N/A|||
|1768||October 15||Havana, Cuba||1000||This hurricane destroyed 96 public buildings and 4,048 houses, 69 ships were wrecked. It appeared to pass over the island from west to east. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.  |
|1769||September 7–8||North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, New England coast ||At least 6||The Great Chesapeake Bay Hurricane of 1769. It made landfall near New Bern, North Carolina and laid that town in ruin as tides rose 12 feet above normal. The eye of the hurricane passed close to Williamsburg. Many old houses in eastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia were destroyed, particularly around Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Norfolk due to 13 hours of high winds from the northeast to northwest. Most notably, it caused widespread damage to the Stratford Hall plantation which belonged to the family of the famous Confederate General Robert E. Lee.|
|1769||September 25 – September 28||Northeast coast of Florida & Charleston, South Carolina||N/A||This hurricane approached Florida and may have hit St. Augustine, Florida on the 25th, but it turned northeastward, and hit near Charleston on the 28th. Damage was minimal in the Carolinas, but crop damage occurred in northeast Florida.|
|1769||October 29||Florida East Coast|||
|1770||June 6||Charleston, South Carolina|
|1770||October 20||New England coastline, Connecticut to Maine ||This hurricane caused strong winds, hail, high tides that caused major flooding. These tides were the highest tides reported since the 1723 area harbor flooding.|
|1771||May 23–24||Jamaica and Cuba ||N/A||N/A|
|1771||November 30-December 1||Veracruz, Mexico|
|1772||August 1–7||Hispaniola, Cuba|
|1772||August 27 - September 4||Greater Antilles including Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Croix, Puerto Rico, Jamaica; Mobile, Alabama; New Orleans, Louisiana||At least 280||Hurricane San Agustin of 1772 The Alexander Hamilton Hurricane of 1772 or Bernard Roman's Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1772. This strong hurricane passed through the Leeward Islands, St. Thomas, St. Croix, and crossed Puerto Rico on August 29. Damage to Puerto Rico was severe. Alexander Hamilton famously wrote an account on the storm in Saint Croix, which was later published in the American colonies; community planters in St. Kitts were impressed by his writings, and they raised a fund for Hamilton to receive an education in the colonies, launching him into his career as an American founding father. By 1774, Hamilton was a student at King's College (now Columbia University) in New York City. It is also talked about in multiple songs from the hit musical Hamilton. Nevis had very little houses standing after the storm. Later the hurricane made its way past West Florida and into the Gulf of Mexico, eventually heading into the Pensacola, Florida and Mobile, Alabama area. Many ships were destroyed in Alabama. Mobile got severely flooded. The storm impact in the Mobile area was detailed in Bernard Romans' book published in 1776.|
|1772||August 31||Puerto Rico, Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis||Hurricane San Ramón of 1772 This was the second hurricane to hit Puerto Rico, having hit just three days after the last one passed. It affected Barbados, St. Thomas, Leeward Islands, St. Kitts and Nevis, and the northeast side of Puerto Rico with lesser damage than the one a few days before. On St. Kitts the damage was considerable from this hurricane, the second of three in a row this year to hit the islands, leaving many houses flattened.|
|1772||September 3?||Saint Kitts and Nevis||"Several"||Three successive hurricanes hit the island group during the year in 1772. This storm was the third storm of the three.|
|1772||September 1||North Carolina||50||14 vessels were forced ashore|
|1773||August 26||Virginia||Unknown||This hurricane caused damage to ships in the area|
|1773||September 30 - October 2||Virginia||Unknown||It caused three days of rainfall across the region|
|1774||August 24–25||Virginia||Unknown||This hurricane was an "August nor'easter" that caused two days of heavy rainfall|
|1774||September 3||Annapolis, Maryland||Unknown||The Maryland capitol building in Annapolis saw roof damage from a hurricane that began on September 3 and lasted about 24 hours. A "stormy" northeast wind was seen in Westmoreland County, Virginia, along with a "flood of rain."|
|1775||August 1||Puerto Rico||Unknown||Tropical Storm San Pedro of 1775 This hurricane passed close to the southwest corner of Puerto Rico and then over the Dominican Republic. The effects of this storm are unknown.|
|1775||August 29 - September 9||Outer Banks, Virginia, Newfoundland||4,163||The Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775 or Independence Hurricane of 1775. This was the deadliest known Atlantic hurricane at the time, until it was passed a year later by the Guadeloupe Hurricane of 1776 and the San Calixto Hurricane of 1780. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. Eighth known deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history.
This hurricane moved onshore in North Carolina and traveled up through Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. It also traveled up through New England. A localized, storm surge is reported to have reached heights of between 20 and 30 feet in Newfoundland, destroying many English and Irish ships. Because of the destruction, many sailors drowned. Over 4,000 people died off of Newfoundland, mainly from storm surge. This storm still is Canada's deadliest natural disaster.
|1775||November 2||Caicos Islands||11||Several English warships were lost|
|1776||June||South coast of Cuba|
|1776||June||New Orleans, Louisiana|
|1776||July 10||Virginia||Unknown||Affected a Revolutionary War battle in Virginia; it caused supply ships to sink in the Chesapeake Bay area, and resulted in moderate damage to the area.|
|1776||August||Off northern coast of Cuba|
|1776||September 5 to 12||Pointe-à-Pitre, Antigua, Martinique, Guadeloupe and Louisiana||6,000+||The Pointe-à-Pitre Guadeloupe Hurricane of 1776 On Guadeloupe, the hurricane killed over 6,000 people, more than any known hurricane before it. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes. The hurricane hit Martinique on September 5 and hit Pointe-à-Pitre Bay in Guadeloupe the next day killing over 6,000 from storm surge and other causes. Seventh known deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history.
An analysis by hurricane scholar Michael Chenoweth indicated that the tropical cyclone was of at least hurricane strength, or with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph (119 km/h), when it struck Guadeloupe. The same analysis indicated the storm also affected Antigua and Martinique early in its duration, and later it struck Louisiana on September 12. The storm struck a large convoy of French and Dutch merchant ships, sinking or running aground 60% of the vessels. The ships were transporting goods to Europe.
|1777||June||Florida||Several||One ship sunk; no one recovered|
|1777||August 26||Chesapeake Bay||Unknown||This storm hampered General Howe's march on Philadelphia. It also caused Washington to seek refuge at Hermitage in Elkton, Maryland.|
|1777||September 10 to 16||Central Atlantic, Pennsylvania||Unknown||September 10 - The Ariadne, Ruffel, from Dominica to London sunk, all hands saved. 5 others of the fleet missing.
September 16 - Preempted Battle of the Clouds in Chester County, PA.
|1777||October||Oriente, Cuba and St. Dominigue|
|1778||August 12–13||North Carolina, Mid-Atlantic/New England coastline||Ordering of Providence Hurricane of 1778 Prevented a naval battle between the British and French in the Revolutionary War, causing them to separate as the hurricane moved up the coast.|
|1778||October 7–10||Florida, Louisiana||October of 1778 Storm. The Gulf Coast was struck by hurricanes in three successive years during the Revolutionary War. Hurricane hit near Pensacola, Florida. The resulting tidal surge from the storm impacted the Louisiana delta, destroying Belize, Bayou St. John, and Tigouyou.|
|1778||November 1||Cape Cod, Massachusetts||50-70||This storm was possibly related to the previous storm|
|1779||August 18||Havana, Cuba, Louisiana||Unknown||Dunbar's Hurricane. All but one warship in a Spanish fleet were sunk off the coast. Ships in the New Orleans harbor were pushed well inland, causing heavy damage. Many houses in New Orleans were destroyed, many ships were sunk and trees knocked down. William Dunbar, who happened to be in New Orleans at this time, first uncovered the true nature of tropical storms and hurricanes from this hurricane in 1779 that a hurricane revolves around a vortex in the center and had progressive forward movement. He presented his findings to the American Philosophical Society in 1801.|
|1779||December 3||Atlantic coast||120||N/A|
The 1780 Atlantic hurricane season was extraordinarily destructive and was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history with over 25,000 deaths. Four different hurricanes, three in October and one in June, caused at least 1,000 deaths each; this event has never been repeated and only in the 1893 and 2005 seasons were there two such hurricanes. The season also held the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone of all time.
Additionally, 1780 was a turning point in Caribbean habitation and trade, marking the end of a long period of economic boom that started in the early 1500s and marked the beginning of an economic decline for the region as news of the devastating hurricanes spread. Eight different storms battered the West Indies including three killer storms in the month of October alone. Tens of thousands were killed across the Caribbean onshore from storm surge, powerful winds and many thousands more killed offshore on sunken ships. The hurricanes struck the Caribbean in the midst of the American Revolutionary War as British and French navies were vying for control over the region and the hurricanes did considerable damage to both fleets wrecking numerous ships and drowning many.
|1780||June 13||Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, Dominican Republic||4000-5000||San Antonio Hurricane of 1780 or The St. Lucia Hurricane of 1780. On June 13, a hurricane "caused deaths and losses" on Puerto Rico, after having also struck St. Lucia, where it killed around 4,000 to 5,000. It later went on to the Dominican Republic. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1780||August 24||Louisiana||25||The Louisiana Hurricane of 1780 New Orleans experienced a powerful hurricane on August 24, with winds gusting over 160 mph, completely destroying 39 of the 43 buildings in Grand Isle, Louisiana. Then, the eye passed over New Orleans that night, severely damaging structures in what is now known as the French Quarter, causing harvest-ruining crop damage, severe flooding, and tornadoes.|
|1780||August 25||St. Kitts||Tropical storm or hurricane|
|1780||October 1–5||St. Lucia, Montego Bay Jamaica, Cuba, Bahamas||3,000||The Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane of 1780 Early on, it sank the British transport ship Monarch, killing several hundred Spanish prisoners and the ship's entire crew. The hurricane began to move northwest towards Jamaica, where it destroyed the port and settlement of Savanna-la-Mar on October 3. As many of the town's residents gathered at the coast to see the large waves coming in, a 20-foot surge came in engulfed the onlookers, docked ships, and many of the town's buildings. In the nearby port village of Lucea, 400 people and all but two structures perished, with 360 people also killed in the nearby town of Montego Bay. It would go on to sink the British frigate Phoenix (killing 200 of its crew), the Monarch with its crew and several hundred Spanish prisoners onboard, and ships-of-the-line Victor, Barbadoes, and Scarborough and crippled many others. It continued its direction, and hit Cuba on October 4, followed by a pass over the Bahamas. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1780||October 10||Lesser Antilles||20,000 - 27,500||Great Hurricane of 1780, San Calixto Hurricane of 1780, or Great Hurricane of the Antilles. This is the deadliest known hurricane on record in the Atlantic. The record still stands today. It killed over 20,000 people and estimates as high as 27,500 people. 4,000-5,000 people were killed on St. Eustatius, 9,000 people on Martinique, 1,000 people in St. Pierre which had all of its homes destroyed, and 4,326 people in Barbados. Many of the deaths were due to the storm surge. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.
The winds were estimated to be 135 mph and category 4 strength. The hurricane destroyed the island of Barbados with winds possibly exceeding 320 km/h (200 mph) which would make it an extreme category 5 strength hurricane, leaving the island completely decimated with nearly all its buildings and plantations destroyed. The town of Bridgetown in Barbados was completely destroyed. The force of the winds was so intense that most of the island's trees were knocked down and the ones that remained standing had their bark stripped off. It also severely affected St. Vincent and Grenada. The hurricane then moved to Saint Lucia, Martinique, and St. Eustatius. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to British and French fleets in conflict in the area. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola. There, it caused heavy damage near the coastlines and then sank 50 ships in Bermuda. It ultimately turned to the northeast without striking the United States.
|1780||October 18–21||Cuba, Gulf of Mexico||2000+||Solano's Hurricane A powerful hurricane in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico struck a Spanish war fleet of 64 vessels under José Solano en route from Havana, Cuba to attack Pensacola, Florida, then the capital of British West Florida. The ships had 4,000 men aboard under the military command of Bernardo de Gálvez, and 2,000 died. The slow-moving hurricane was first noted near Jamaica on October 15. Progressing northwestwards it likely crossed the western end of Cuba, before shifting northeast-wards to Apalachee Bay. It struck Solano's fleet on October 20. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1780||October 23||Barbados, St. Lucia||Lesser Antilles Hurricane|
|1780||November 17||New England||A tropical cyclone moved up the east coast of the United States, disrupting the British blockade of the New England states.|
|1781||August 1||Jamaica||N/A||Many ships washed ashore|
|1781||August 23||New Orleans, Louisiana||N/A||N/A|
|1781||Unknown||Offshore Florida||2000||See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1782||September 16||Central Atlantic coast||3,000||The Central Atlantic hurricane of 1782 was a hurricane that hit the fleet of Admiral Thomas Graves as it sailed across the North Atlantic in September 1782. It is believed to have killed some 3,000 people. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1783||September 19||North Carolina||N/A||3 ships sunk|
|1783||October 7–9||South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia||N/A||The Charleston Hurricane of 1783 Charleston saw excessive rain and wind with the cyclone. Strongest reported tropical storm in Charleston since 1752. Winds shifted from northwest to northeast as the storm passed offshore. Extensive damage was also seen in North Carolina. Richmond saw violent northeast gusts for 24 hours, but no damage. Norfolk and Portsmouth reported a "25-foot tide" which caused damage.|
|1783||October 18–19||New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut ||Heavy rains and winds in New Brunswick, NJ and New Haven, CT. Brought snowfall to western Connecticut and Vermont.|
|1784||July 30||Jamaica||9||"Captain [Paul] Cox got in here from St. Ann's the 30th ult[ima]. but a few hours before a most violent hurricane came on, which began about 8 at night, and at nine the brig parted her cables and was drove on shore. Captain Rice, in a brig from Salem, and a ship belonging to Bristol, are also on shore. The ship Britannia, of between 4 and 500 tons rode it out—In consequence of the calamity occasioned by this hurricane, it is expected the ports of this island will be opened for six months. Captain Rice, with six of his people, taking to their boat, were lost. It is said, he had between 4 and 5000 dollars with him. Scarce a vessel in the harbour of Kingston but was either lost or drove on shore. St. Thomas's in the east has received the greatest damage. Scare a house or plantation but has suffered. Captain Gray in a brig belonging to Salem, lay at Morant Bay, have heard nothing from him in particular; but the report is, that every vessel that lay there, except one ship, is either lost or drove on shore. No perfect account of the damage is yet come to hand."|
|1784||Unknown||Curaçao||N/A||Many ships damaged or destroyed|
|1785||August 24–29||St. Croix, Greater Antilles including Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Havana Cuba||142||Heavy damaged sustained in Havana. 4 ships sunk in harbor.|
|1785||September 1||Delaware||181||One of the few hurricanes on record in the state. It wrecked the ship Faithful Steward.|
|1785||September 23–24||Mid-Atlantic states||N/A||The Equinoctial Storm. Impacted the coastline shortly after the Sept 23 equinox. Led to the "highest tide ever before known in Norfolk." It struck the lower Chesapeake Bay. Portsmouth experienced a strong northeast to northwest gale for 3 days. The storm in Virginia was noted in both the Virginia Gazette of October 1 and the New Jersey Gazette of October 1 (from Ludlum 1963 p. 30). The Annual Register the next year reported that several ships had been driven ashore by the tide and the wind, with a total damage estimated at around £30,000. The two parallel track storms of 1785 led to the building of the lighthouse in Cape Henry which opened seven years later in 1792.|
|1785||September 25||Puerto Rico||N/A||San Lupo Hurricane of 1785 devastated agricultural fields. Governor Juan Dabán visited the islands affected area to inspect and help with the damages; it was the first time a governor of Puerto Rico did that after a hurricane.|
|1786||September 2||Barbados||"Several"||Several houses destroyed|
|1786||October 5||Eastern Virginia||N/A||Heavy rainfall accompanied the storm. According to George Washington, tides were "occasionally high" at Mount Vernon, with "high freshes." James Madison at Montpelier saw the Rapidan River overflow its banks. The center may have passed very near his location, as the winds shifted from southeast to southwest.|
|1787||September 2–4||Belize, Veracruz, Mexico||100||It has been identified as 'Event 6' in Belizean sedimentary records by McCloskey and Keller. Two articles in the Georgia State Gazette or Independent Register (Augusta, GA) provide a vivid and detailed description of the storm in Belize, with estimates of more than 100 casualties and more than 500 houses destroyed. Several injuries were caused by this hurricane in Veracruz.|
|1787||September 19||Georgia, South Carolina||23||A storm moved just offshore the Georgia and South Carolina coastline to lead to a storm surge that caused 23 people to perish, as well as flooding and crop damage between Savannah and Georgetown.|
|1787||October 24||St. Croix, Tortola||N/A||"Savannah, November 22. By Captain McLean, who arrived here on Saturday last from the Windward Islands, we have advice, that a hurricane happened there on the 24th of last month; he was then off St. Eustatia, and afterwards went into the Danish Island of St. John, where he learnt that all the shipping at St. Croix were driven ashore, except one brig that foundered at her anchors; that a great many houses and other buildings were thrown down, and numbers of lives lost; and that the sugar canes had suffered much. He also heard that the hurricane had done considerable damage at Tortola, and thinks it must have been severely felt at St. Christopher's." |
|1788||July 22–24||Mid-Atlantic States||N/A||George Washington's Hurricane. George Washington reported from Mount Vernon a "very high northeast wind" the previous night, which sank ships and blew down trees. A "more violent and severe a hurricane than for many years." Madison at Montpelier reports a "great wind and rain." According to the Philadelphia Independent Gazette on August 8, the storm in Norfolk began from the northeast at 5 p.m. on the 23rd, then blew a "perfect hurricane" from the south at 12:30 a.m. The tide was lower than in 1785. Alexandria also saw the winds switch from east-northeast to south, which caused the highest known tide in the Potomac.|
|1788||July||Mississippi||N/A||Landfalling hurricane in Mississippi caused the Mississippi river to flood in July 1788.|
|1788||August 14–19||Martinique, Dominica, Bahamas, New England||600-700||Hurricane San Roque of 1788. Details given in an article on pages 2 and 3 of The Georgia State Gazette, or Independent Register. (Augusta, GA) ,November 8, 1788.|
|1789||August 19||New Jersey, New England||N/A||Heavy damage|
|1791||June 21–22||Cuba||3,000||The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1791. Powerful storm impacted Havana killing at least 3,000 people and 11,700 cattle perished on the island, mainly due to storm surge. See List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes.|
|1791||Unknown||Southern Texas||N/A||This storm flooded Padre Island and the mainland nearby. A herd of 50,000 cattle belonging to a Spanish cattle baron drowned in the storm surge.|
|1791||October 25||Puerto Rico; St. Croix|
|1792||August 1||Lesser Antilles||N/A||Several ships were destroyed.|
|1793||August 13||Virgin Islands||28||This hurricane moved slowly through the area.|
|1793||August||Louisiana||N/A||This hurricane caused crop damage and minor flooding.|
|1794||June 27||Jamaica||N/A||One ship was destroyed in this tropical storm.|
|1794||July 4||Mid-Atlantic states||N/A||Reported at Annapolis by William Faris in his diary. On the night of the 5th, it "raind and Blowd very Hard" (sic) all night. It finally cleared out between 10 and 11 am on the 6th.|
|1794||Late July||Jamaica||"Heavy deaths"||N/A|
|1794||August 9–10||Havana Cuba|
|1794||August 25–31||Havana Cuba and Louisiana||100+||Hurricane struck Havana on August 25. 100 bodies were recovered in the harbor the day after. It also struck Florida Keys and the crew of the vessel Vigilant stayed on their damaged ship for two days. In Louisiana, heavy flooding, high winds, crop damage, and unusually large hail occurred.|
|1794||Early October||Northeastern Florida||N/A||Caused beach erosion and damage|
|1794||October 26||Mid-Atlantic states||N/A||Caused 3.5 inches (89 mm) of rain at Madison's Montpelier estate. While the wind there was "brisk" on the morning on the 26th, Annapolis reported that "it Blow'd very Hard a near Hurrican [sic] and rained all night" from the 26th into the 27th.|
|1795||July 20||New Orleans|
|1795||August 2–3||North Carolina; Virginia||N/A||Twin North Carolina Hurricanes of 1795. First of two parallel track hurricanes that occurred ten days apart. Several Spanish ships lost; brought heavy rain through the mid-Atlantic, disrupting mail service and damaging crops; at Annapolis, rain set it on the afternoon of the 2nd, before it escalated later in the day, when it "Blow'd a Harrican." Trees were levelled and the tide was so high that "one could not get to the Market House without a Boat." Vessels were driven ashore by the tempest (from the diary of William Faris). Thomas Jefferson recorded this hurricane in his journal as his plantation at Monticello suffered heavy crop losses.|
|1795||August 12–13||North Carolina; Virginia||N/A||Twin North Carolina Hurricanes of 1795. Considered a major hurricane, caused additional flooding and crop damage after the previous storm; the damage could be "Modestly estimated at a year's rent", quoted by Thomas Jefferson. The "powerful torrent" of rain in Petersburg caused creeks to rise higher than noted in the previous 70 years (North Carolina Journal). Winds were gusty at Farmville, where a "great fresh" was reported. Annapolis reported strong winds and rains on August 13 as well. Thomas Jefferson recorded this hurricane in his journal as his plantation at Monticello suffered heavy crop losses. The two storms caused the Appomattox river to crest more than 12 feet above flood stage.|
|1796||August 26–27||New Orleans|
|1796||early September||Havana, Bahamas, Florida coast||Bahamian wreckers reported this severe gale off the coast of Florida. The Bahamas were also struck by this hurricane.|
|1796||October 2||Pinar del Río, Cuba, Bahamas||N/A||This hurricane caused shipping delays|
|1797||September 5||North Carolina||N/A||One ship sunk|
|1797||October 15–21||Bahamas and South Carolina||"Many"||The Charleston Hurricane of 1797 Charleston saw excessive rain and wind with the cyclone. Strongest reported tropical storm in Charleston since 1783 and 1752 ones. Several ships lost.|
|1799||September 23||Jamaica||27||This hurricane remained offshore, but rain, flooding, and winds were severe|
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