List of Australian Aboriginal languages

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A language map, different colours represent different language families:

This is a list of Australian Aboriginal languages and dialects. Many, but not all, of these languages are endangered. An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language.

UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable
  • Definitely endangered
  • Severely endangered
  • Critically endangered


Language Alt. names Speakers Status Notes
Adithinngithigh language Adetingiti Extinct Unwritten language.
Adnyamathanha language, Adynyamathanha language[1] Ad'n'amadana, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Atnyamathanha 107 Severely endangered SA R. M. W. Dixon classifies Adnyamathanha and Guyani as a single language. Ethnologue treats them as separate, and so they each have their own ISO 639-3 codes
Aghu Tharrnggala language Aghu Tharnggalu Extinct Qld
Alawa language[1] 12 Critically endangered 4 partial first-language speakers
Alngith dialect Extinct [2]
Alyawarre language Alyawarr 1660 Developing NT
Amarag language, Amurdag language 1 Critically endangered NT
Ami language 5 Moribund
Andajin language 2 Nearly Extinct WA
Andegerebinha language Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe 5 Nearly Extinct NT, Hay River, Pituri Creek area, east of Alyawarra
Anguthimri language Awngthim Extinct Paman languages. Qld.
Anindilyakwa language[1] Enindhilyagwa 1300 Vulnerable
Anmatyerre language 1000 Developing NT
Antakirinya language, Antakarinya language[1] 6 Critically endangered
Arabana language[1] 21 Critically endangered
Areba language Extinct
Aritinngithigh language Extinct Qld
Arrernte language[1] Aranda 5500 Vulnerable Alice Springs region NT Eastern, Western and Southern
Atampaya language Extinct
Australian Aboriginal English Over 30,000 Vigorous Developed post-contact
Australian Aboriginal Pidgin English language Few Nearly Extinct Pidgin. Developed post-contact. Has been mostly creolized.
Australian Kriol language Creole, Pidgin English, Roper-Bamyili Creole 4,200 Vigorous WA, NT & Qld developed post-contact. 10, 000 second language speakers.
Awabakal language Awabakal 9 Dormant NSW. Being revived. Was considered extinct.
Ayabadhu language,Ayapathu language Extinct
Badimaya language Widimaya, Parti-Maya 3 Nearly Extinct WA
Bandjigali language 4 to 22 Moribund
Banjima language, Panytyima language[1] 50 to 100 Moribund
Bardi language[1] Baadi, Badi, Ba:di, Baardi, Bard 20 to 150 Moribund WA
Barngarla language Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla Extinct SA
Barrow Point language Extinct[3]
Bayungu language 2 Nearly extinct
Bidyara language, Bidjara language Bithara, Bitjara Extinct Qld
Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk 40 Moribund WA Developed post-contact, second language speakers only.
Bundjalung language, Bandjalang language[1] 100 Shifting NSW
Bunuba language[1] Bunaba, Bunapa, Punapa 40 to 110 Moribund WA
Bunurong language Extinct Vic
Burduna language Boordoona, Bootena, Boruna, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Bu-tena, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna Extinct WA
Damin language Demiin Extinct Initiation language for men. Qld
Darkinjung language Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darkinyun, Darkinyung, Darknung Extinct NSW
Dharawal language[1] Dharawaal, Thurrawal, Thurawal, Turrubul Extinct NSW
Dhargari language 1 Nearly Extinct
Dharug language[1] Daruk, Dharruk, Dharuk, Dharug, Darug Extinct NSW
Dhauwurdwurung language Gunditjmara Extinct Vic
Dhurga language[1] Extinct
Dirari language Extinct
Diyari language Dieri Extinct Pama–Nyungan languages, Karnic, Karna. SA
Djabwurung language Tjap-wurrung Extinct Vic
Djangun language Extinct
Djawi language, Jawi language Chowie, Djau, Dyawi Extinct WA
Djinang language[1] 100 to 230 Vigorous Yolŋu languages
Djiringanj language Extinct SE NSW
Djiwarli language, Jiwarli language Djiwali, Djwarli, Guwari, Jiwali, Kuwari, Tci-warli, Tjiwarli Extinct WA
Doolboong language Duulngari, Tulpung Extinct WA
Dungidjau language[1] Extinct
Dyaabugay language, Djabugay language Djabugai, Dyabugay, Tjapukai 28 Moribund Qld
Dyaberdyaber language, Djabirr-Djabirr language Djaberdjaber, Djaber-Djaber, Jabirr-Jabirr, Jabirrjabirr Extinct WA
Dyangadi language Extinct
Dyirbal language[1] 15 to 28 (Wurm 2007) Moribund Qld
Dyugun language, Djugun language Djugan, Djukan, Jookoon Extinct WA
Eora language Iora Extinct NSW
Erre language Extinct
Flinders Island language Extinct Yalgawarra language


Language Alt. names Speakers Status Notes
Gaagudju language, Gagadu language[1] 6 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) extinct
Gajerrong language, Gadjerawang language, Gajirrabeng language[1] Gadjerong, Gadyerong, Gajirrawoong, Kajirrawung 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered WA & NT
Gambera language Gambere, Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera 6 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA
Gamilaraay language[1] Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi, Yuwaalaraay, Wallarai 3 (1997 Coonabarabran Public School) Critically endangered NSW
Ganggalidda language, Ganggalida language[1] 5 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered
Garawa language 40 to 87 speakers NT
Garig-Ilgar language 4 (2003 N Evans)
Population includes 3 Ilgar, 1 Garig
Giyug language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Gooniyandi language[1] Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan 100 (1990 Schmidt) Severely endangered WA
Gudanji language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Gugadj language Kukatj 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Gugu Badhun language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Gugubera language, Koko-Bera language, Koko Bera language[1] Kok Kaber, Kok-Kaper, Kukubera 15 (1991 SIL) 50 (1990 Schmidt) Severely endangered Qld
Guguyimidjir language, Guugu Yimithirr language, Guugu Yimidhirr language[1] Gogo-Yimidjir, Gugu-Gugu Yimijir, Gugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Koko Yimidir, Kuku Jimidir, Kuku Kuku Yimithirr, Kukuyimidir 20 to 30 (1991 Wayne Rosendale)
200 to 300 know and understand the language but prefer English
400 (1990 Schmidt)
Vulnerable Qld
Gumbaynggirr language, Kumbainggar language[1] 10 (2000) Critically endangered
Gundungurra language Gandangara NSW
Gungabula language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Gunin language Cuini, Kunan, Goonan, Gunan, Gwini, Gwiini WA
Gunya language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Gupapuyngu language[1] Gobabingo, Gubabwingu 330 Vulnerable NT
Gurindji Kriol language Gurindji children's language, Gurinji children's language NT. Developed post-contact
Gurrgoni language, Guragone language[1] 20 (1990 Schmidt) Vulnerable
Guwamu language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Guwij language Guidj, Guwidj WA
Iwaidja language[1] 130 Vulnerable
Jaminjung language Djamindjung language[1] Djamindjung 27 tp 130 Severely endangered
Jardwadjali language Vic
Jaru language Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru 350 WA
Jawoyn language[1] 20 to 42 Severely endangered
Jingulu language, Djingili language[1] 10 (1997) Severely endangered Pama–Nyungan languages, Barkly. NT
Jurruru language Chooraroo, Churoro, Djuroro, Jururu, Thuraru, Tjuroro, Tjurruru, Tjururu WA
Kabi Kabi language Gabi Gabi, Kabi Kabi, Dippil Qld
Kala Lagaw Ya language 700 to 1200 Qld
Kalaamaya language Galamai, Galamaya, Jaburu, Kaburn, Kalamaia, Kelamai, Natingero, Njindango, Takalako WA
Kalaku language Gala:gu, Galaagu, Kaburn, Kalaaku, Kalako, l, Kalarko, Kallaar, Kallaargu, Karlaku, Malba, Malpa, Marlba WA
Kamu language 2 (1967)
Kaniyang language Ganajang, Kaneang, Kaniyan, Kunyung WA
Kanju language, Kaantju language Gandanju, Gandju, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Karajarri language, Karadjeri language[1] Garadjari, Garadjeri, Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard'are, Guradjara, Karrajarri 12 (1991 SIL) Critically endangered WA
Kariyarra language Gariera, Kaierra, Kariara, Kariera, Karriara, Karriarra, Kariyara, Kyeara WA
Kaurna language SA
Kaurna language[1] Critically endangered
Kawarrangg language Qld
Kayardild language[1] Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda 6 (2000 Evans) 150 Critically endangered Pama–Nyungan languages, Tangic. Qld, Bentinck Island
Kija language[1] Gidja, Kidja, Kitja, Lunga, Lungga 210 Severely endangered WA
Kokata language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Western Desert Language
Kok-Nar language Kok Narr Qld
Kukatja language[1] Gogodja, Gugadja, Gugudja, Kukaja Vulnerable WA
Kuku Thaypan language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Kuku Yalanji language[1] Gugu Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalangi Severely endangered Qld
Kuku-Mangk language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Extinct
Kuku-Mu'inh language 7 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Kuku-Muminh language 31 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Kuku-Ugbanh language 6 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Kuku-Uwanh language 40 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Kullili language Kullila, Galili Qld
Kuluwarrang language Guluwarin, Kuluwarin WA
Kunbarlang language[1] 50 to 100 (1983 Black) Severely endangered
Kunggara language 10 (1971 SIL)
Kunggari language 10
Kunja language Qld
Kunjen language[1] 20 to 25 (1991 Bruce Sommer)
40 with some knowledge
300 (1991 Bruce Sommer)
Critically endangered
Kunwinjku language[1] 1200 to 2000 Vulnerable
Kurrama language[1] Gurama, Karama, Karima, Kerama, Korama, Korima, Kurama 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered WA
Kurtjar language, Gurdjar language[1] Kurtjjar, Kurrtjar 30 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) extinct Qld
Kuthant language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Kuuk Thaayorre language[1] Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Taior, Thaayore, Thayore, Thayorre 24 Definitely endangered Qld
Kuuku Ya'u language Koko-Ja'o, Kokoyao, Kuuku-Ya'u, Ya'o Critically endangered Qld
Kuurinji language, Gurindji language[1] Gurinji, Kuurrinyji 225 to 900 Definitely endangered NT
Kuyani language Guyani, Kijani, Kwiani SA extinct. R. M. W. Dixon classifies Adnyamathanha and Guyani as a single language. Ethnologue treats them as separate, and so they each have their own ISO 639-3 codes


Language Alt. names Speakers Status Notes
Lairmairrener language Central Tas
Lamu-Lamu language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Laragia language 6 (1983 Black)
Lardil language[1] Leerdil 2 (2000 Evans) Critically endangered Qld moribund
Larrakia language 29 NT
Limilngan language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Linngithigh language Leningitij, Linngithig Qld
Lower Burdekin languages
Luthigh language Qld
Matngele language, Madngele language[1] 15 to 20 (1983 Black),
10 (estimate fieldwork 2013)
Critically endangered NT
Malgana language Malngin, Maljanna, Maldjana, Malkana WA
Malyangaba language Maljangapa, Maljangpa, Maljangaba, Malya-napa, Mullia-arpa, Mulya-napa, Mulya-nappa, Malynapa, Maljapa, Malyapa, Karikari, Bulali SA
Manda language 25 (1983 Black)
Mandandanyi language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Mangarla language, Mangala language[1] Manala, Mangalaa, Maŋala, Minala 63 Critically endangered WA
Mangarrayi language, Mangarayi language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Mangerr language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Mara language, Marra language 15 (1991 M Sharpe) NT
Maranunggu language 15 to 20 (1983 Black)
Margany language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Maridan language 20 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Marimanindji language 15 (1983 Black)
Maringarr language[1] 30 to 40 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Mariyedi language 20 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Marrgu language, Margu language[1] 1 (2000 Evans) extinct
Marrisyefin language, Maridjabin language[1] 20 (1970 Oates) Critically endangered
Marrithiyel language, Marithiel language[1] 25 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Marti Ke language 10 (2001 Alexander) 100
Martuwangka language[1] Vulnerable
Martuyhunira language, Martuthunira language Maratunia, Mardadhunira, Mardathon, Mardathoni, Mardathoonera, Mardatuna, Mardatunera, Mardudhoonera, Mardudhunera, Mardudhunira, Mardudjungara, Marduduna, Mardudunera, Marduthunira, Mardutunera, Mardutunira, Marduyunira, Martuthinya, and 5 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA extinct
Maung language[1] 260 Vulnerable
Maya language (Australia) Maia, Maja WA
Mayaguduna language 2
Mbabaram language Barbaram 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Mbara language (Australia)
Mbariman-Gudhinma language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Mbiywom language Qld
Meriam Mir language[1] 160 to 210 Definitely endangered
Miriwoong language, Miriwung language[1] 10 to 20 (1990 Schmidt) Critically endangered
Miwa language Bagu, Miwi, Pela 4 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA
Mpakwithi dialect Qld
Mpalityanh language Qld
Mudburra language, Mudbura language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Severely endangered
MalakMalak, MullukMulluk[1] 9 to 11 (1988 SIL),
11 (estimate fieldwork 2013)
Severely endangered
Muluridyi language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Munumburru language Munumburu WA
Muruwari language Muruwarri, Murawari, Murawarri 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld


Language Alt. names Speakers Status Notes
Nakkara language[1] 50 Severely endangered
Nauo language Nawu SA extinct
Ndjébbana language 240 Liverpool River in Arnhem Land, NT
Ngaanyatjarra language[1] 700 to 1000 Vulnerable
Ngaatjatjara language[1] Ngaatjatjara, Ngaadadjarra Severely endangered W.A
Ngadjunmaya language 10 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Ngadjuri language SA
Ngalakan language[1] 10 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered NT
Ngaliwuru language[1] Critically endangered
Ngalkbun language, Dalabon language[1] Buin, Boun, Buan, Bouin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Nalabon 20 (2000 N Evans) Severely endangered Gunwinyguan. NT
Ngamini language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Ngandi language[1] Critically endangered
Ngangikurunggurr language[1] Severely endangered NT
Ngan'gityemerri language, Nangikurrunggurr 150-200 NT
Ngardi language[1] Ngadi, Narti, Ngati 10 to 14 Critically endangered WA
Ngarinman language[1] Severely endangered
Ngarinyin language[1] Definitely endangered
Ngarla language[1] 8 (1991 SIL)
10 partial speakers
extinct WA
Ngarluma language[1] Gnalluma, Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngalluma, Ngalooma, Ngaluma 70 (1970 C.G von Brandenstein) Critically endangered WA
Ngarnawu language Ngarnaw WA
Ngarnka language Pama–Nyungan languages, Barkly. NT
Ngawun language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Ngkoth language Qld
Ngumbarl language Ngoombarl, Ngormbal, Ngumbal WA
Ngunawal language Ngunnawal NSW
Ngurmbur language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Nhanta language Nhanda WA
Nhuwala language Ngoala, Noala, Noalla, Nooela, Nuela 10 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA
Nijadali language 6 (1990 SIL)
Nimanbur language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Ntra'ngith language Qld
Nuenonne language SE Tas extinct
Nungali language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Nunggubuyu language[1] 44 to 110 Severely endangered
Nyamal language[1] Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel 20 to 30 (1991 SIL) Severely endangered WA
Nyangga language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Nyangumarta language[1] 250 to 310 Vulnerable
Nyawaygi language 3 (1981)
Nyikina language, Nyigina language[1] 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Severely endangered
Nyininy language Njining, Njininj, Nyinin WA
Nyulnyul language Njul-Njul, Nyol-Nyol, Nyoolnyool, Nyul Nyul 1 (2001 McGregor) WA
Nyungar language Noongar 232 (dialects 8,000) WA
Okunjan language Ogh-Undjan, Ogondyan Qld
Paakantyi language, Darling language[1] Baagandji, Kula, Southern Baagandji 5 Critically endangered Pama–Nyungan, Baagandji. NSW. Nearly extinct
Pakanha language 10 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Paredarerme language Tas
Peerapper language Tas
Peramangk language SA Descendants List, R & D Hunter, L.E. Teakle
Pini language 10
Pinigura language 5 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Pintupi language[1] 203 Vulnerable
Pitjantjatjara language[1] 2700 Vulnerable
Pitta Pitta language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Plangermaireener language Tas
Popham Bay language (extinct)
Pyemmairre language Tas
Rembarrnga language[1] 10 to 38 Critically endangered
Ritharrngu language[1] 32 Definitely endangered
Tharkarri language
Dhalandji language[1] 20 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered
Thaua language Thoorga, Durga, Dhurga South Coast of NSW
Thiin language WA extinct
Tiwi language[1] 1700 Vulnerable
Tommeginne language NNW Tas
Toogee language SW Tas
Tyaraity language 10 (1983 Black)
Tyerremotepanner language NNE Tas
Umbindhamu language 6 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Umbugarla language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Umbuygamu language 7 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Umiida language Umida, Umi:da WA
Umpila language[1] Severely endangered
Unggarangu language Unggarangi WA
Unggumi language Ungkami, Wunggumi WA
Uradhi language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Urningangg language 10 (1983 Black)
Uw Olkola language Olkola, Olgolo Qld
Uw Oykangand language Oykangand Qld


Language Alt. names Speakers Status Notes
Waanyi language[1] Critically endangered Garawa. Qld
Wadjiginy language 12 (1988 SIL)
Wadjigu language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wagaya language 10 (1983 Black)
Wagiman language, Wageman language[1] 10 (2000) Severely endangered
Wajarri language[1] Watjari, Watjarri, Wadjari, Wadjeri 50 (1981 W Douglas)
200 or fewer (1981 W Douglas)
Severely endangered WA
Wakawaka language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Walangama language Qld
Walbanga language Pama–Nyungan languages, Yuin–Kuric languages, Yuin. South Coast of New South wales
Walmajarri language[1] Tjiwaling, Tjiwarlin 500 to 520 Definitely endangered
Wambaya language[1] 12 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered Pama–Nyungan languages, Barkly. NT
Wamin language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wandandian language Pama–Nyungan languages, Yuin-Kuric, Yuin. South Coast of New South wales
Wangaaybuwan language, Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa language[1] 12 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered
Wangai language Wongai or Wankai 200-300 Goldfields of Western Australia
Wanggamala language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wangganguru language 8 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wangkajunga language Wangkatjungka, Wonggadjunggu WA
Wangkumara language, Ngura language[1] Wanggumara 6 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Population includes 1 Punthamara, 4 Wongkumara, 2 Badjiri, and 1 Kalali
Critically endangered Qld
Wanyjirra language Wandjira, Wandjirra, Wanjira NT
Waray language 4 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wardaman language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Severely endangered WA
Warlmanpa language 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Warlpiri language[1] 2500 Vulnerable
Warluwara language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Warnman language, Wanman language[1] 20 (1973 SIL) Severely endangered
Warrgamay language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Warrungu language Warrangu, Warrango Qld
Warrwa language Warwa, Warwar 2 (2001 McGregor) WA
Warumungu language[1] 50 to 310 Severely endangered
Warungu language 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Western Desert language See article for the various dialects 7400 WA, NT & SA
Wik Me'nh language Qld
Wik Mungkan language[1] 1050 Vulnerable
Wik Ngathan language[1] Definitely endangered
Wik-Epa language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wik-Iiyanh language 40 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wik-Keyangan language 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wik-Me'anha language 12 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wik-Ngatharr language Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharr, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr, Wikngatara Qld
Wikngenchera language, Wik Ngencherr language[1] 50 (1970 Oates) Severely endangered
Wilawila language Wila-Wila 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA
Winyjarrumi language Windjarumi WA
Wiradjuri language, Wiradhuri language[1] 3 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Critically endangered
Wirangu language Warrangoo, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrung, Wirrunga 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) SA
Woiwurrung language Woiwurrong, Woiworung Pama–Nyungan languages, Kulin. Vic extinct
Wolyamidi language Woldjamidi, Wol'jamidi, Wolyamidi WA
Worimi language NSW extinct
Worrorra language, Worora language[1] 20 (1990 Schmidt) Critically endangered
Wulna language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Wunambal language[1] Unambal, Wunambul 20 (1990 A Schmidt) Critically endangered WA
Wurla language Ola, Worla, Wula WA
Yandruwandha language Yandrruwantha 2 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) SA & Qld
Yankunytjatjara language[1] 70 to 560 Definitely endangered
Yan-nhangu language, Jarnango language[1] 40 (1983 Black) Definitely endangered
Yanyuwa language[1] 70 to 130 Severely endangered
Yawarawarga language Yawarrawarrka 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) SA & Qld
Yawijibaya language Jawdjibara, Yaudjibara, Yawjibarra WA
Yawuru language Jauor, Yaoro, Yawooroo 30 (2001 K Hosokawa) WA
Yidiny language Idin, Idindji, Idinji, Jidindji, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi 12 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) Qld
Yiiji language[1] Jeidji, Yeidji 20 (1990 A Schmidt) Critically endangered WA
Yindjilandji language 1 (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Yinggarda language Inggarda, Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inparra, Jinggarda, Yingkarta, Kakarakala 5 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) WA
Yinhawangka language Inawonga, Innawonga, Inyawonga WA
Yinwum language Qld
Yir Yoront language[1] 15 (1991 Bruce Sommer) extinct
Yir-Thangedl language Qld
Yorta Yorta language Vic
Yukulta language Jokula Qld, Doomagee region
Yulparija language Julbaridja, Julbre, Yulbaridya, Yurlparija WA
Yuwaaliyaay language Euahlayi, Yuwaalayaay NSW


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Retrieved 2015-04-11. 
  2. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version:
  3. ^ [1] Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: [2]

External links[edit]

Some of these sources conflict to some degree with one another.