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List of Australian Aboriginal languages

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A language map, different colours represent different language families:

There are numerous Australian Aboriginal languages and dialects, many of which are endangered. An endangered language is one that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language.

UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1][clarification needed]

  • Vulnerable
  • Definitely endangered
  • Severely endangered
  • Critically endangered


Language Alternative names Speakers Status Notes
Adithinngithigh language Adetingiti Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland. Unwritten language.
Adnyamathanha language, Adynyamathanha language[1] Ad'n'amadana, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Atnyamathanha 110 (2006) Severely endangered SA R. M. W. Dixon classifies Adnyamathanha and Guyani as a single language. Ethnologue treats them as separate, and so they each have their own ISO 639-3 codes. They are traditional languages of the Adnyamathanha of and the Kuyani peoples, of the Flinders Ranges and to the west of the Flinders respectively, in South Australia.
Aghu Tharrnggala language Aghu wititit Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Alawa language[1] 12 (2006) Moribund Roper River, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Alngith dialect Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland[2]
Alyawarre language Alyawarr 1660 Developing Northern Territory - one of the Arrernte language group
Amarag language, Amurdag language Charlie Mungulda Extinct Goulburn Island, Northern Territory. Considered extinct in the 2016 census but Mungulda's death was not reported, even coauthoring a paper in 2020.
Ami language 5 Moribund Daly River, Northern Territory
Andajin language 2 Nearly extinct Kimberley region, Western Australia; may be considered a dialect of Ngarinyin language, which is one of the Worrorran languages
Andegerebinha language Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe, Andegerebenha, Antekerrepenhe 0 (2016) Dormant Northern Territory, Hay River, Pituri Creek area, east of Alyawarra. One of the Arrernte language group
Anguthimri language Awngthim, Paman languages Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Anindilyakwa language[1] Enindhilyagwa 1300 Vulnerable Groote Eylandt and Bickerton Island in the Gulf of Carpentaria in the Northern Territory
Anmatyerre language 640 (2016) Developing NT. One of the Arrernte language group
Antakirinya language, Antakarinya language[1] 6 Critically endangered
Arabana language[1] 21 Critically endangered
Areba language Extinct
Aritinngithigh language Extinct Qld
Arrernte language[1] Upper Arrernte, Aranda, Arunta, Arrarnta 1,910 Central/Eastern Arrernte; 1,550 Alywarra; other dialects fewer or 0. Vulnerable Alice Springs region NT Eastern, Western and Southern; comprises a group of dialects
Atampaya language Extinct
Australian Aboriginal English Over 30,000 Vigorous Developed post-contact
Australian Aboriginal Pidgin English language Few Nearly extinct Pidgin. Developed post-contact. Has been mostly creolized.
Australian Kriol language Creole, Pidgin English, Roper-Bamyili Creole 4,200 Vigorous WA, NT & Qld developed post-contact. 10, 000 second language speakers.
Awabakal language Awabakal 9 Dormant NSW. Being revived. Was considered extinct.
Ayabadhu language, Ayapathu language Extinct
Badimaya language Widimaya, Parti-Maya 3 Nearly extinct WA
Bandjigali language 4 to 22 Moribund
Banjima language, Panytyima language[1] 50 to 100 Moribund
Bardi language[1] Baadi, Badi, Ba:di, Baardi, Bard 20 to 150 Moribund WA
Barngarla language Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla Extinct SA
Barrow Point language Extinct[3]
Bayungu language 2 Nearly extinct
Bidyara language, Bidjara language Bithara, Bitjara Extinct Qld
Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk 40 Moribund WA Developed post-contact, second language speakers only.
Bundjalung language, Bandjalang language[1] 100 Shifting NSW
Bunuba language[1] Bunaba, Bunapa, Punapa 40 to 110 Moribund WA
Bunurong language Extinct Vic
Burduna language Boordoona, Bootena, Boruna, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Bu-tena, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna Extinct WA
Damin language Demiin Extinct Initiation language for men. Qld
Darkinjung language Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darkinyun, Darkinyung, Darknung Extinct NSW
Dharawal language[1] Dharawaal, Thurrawal, Thurawal, Turrubul Extinct NSW
Dhargari language 1 Nearly extinct
Dharug language[1] Daruk, Dharruk, Dharuk, Dharug, Darug Extinct NSW
Dhauwurdwurung language Gunditjmara Extinct Vic
Dhurga language[1] Extinct
Dirari language Extinct
Diyari language Dieri 13 (2006)[4] Nearly extinct Karnic, SA. Program in place to teach and increase usage.
Djabwurung language Tjap-wurrung Extinct Vic
Djangun language Extinct
Djawi language, Jawi language Chowie, Djau, Dyawi Extinct WA
Djinang language[1] 100 to 230 Vigorous Yolŋu languages
Djiringanj language Extinct SE NSW
Djiwarli language, Jiwarli language Djiwali, Djwarli, Guwari, Jiwali, Kuwari, Tci-warli, Tjiwarli Extinct WA
Doolboong language Duulngari, Tulpung Extinct WA
Dungidjau language[1] Extinct
Dyaabugay language, Djabugay language Djabugai, Dyabugay, Tjapukai 28 Moribund Qld
Dyaberdyaber language, Djabirr-Djabirr language Djaberdjaber, Djaber-Djaber, Jabirr-Jabirr, Jabirrjabirr Extinct WA
Dyangadi language Extinct
Dyirbal language[1] 15 to 28[5] Moribund Qld
Dyugun language, Djugun language Djugan, Djukan, Jookoon Extinct WA
Eora language Iora Extinct NSW
Erre language Extinct
Flinders Island language Extinct Yalgawarra language
Gaagudju language, Gagadu language[1] 6[6] extinct
Gajerrong language, Gadjerawang language, Gajirrabeng language[1] Gadjerong, Gadyerong, Gajirrawoong, Kajirrawung 3[6] Critically endangered WA & NT
Gambera language Gambere, Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera 6[6] WA
Gamilaraay language[1] Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi, Yuwaalaraay, Wallarai 105 (2016) Critically endangered NSW. It is being revived.
Ganggalidda language, Ganggalida language[1] 5[6] Critically endangered
Garawa language 40 to 87 speakers NT
Garig-Ilgar language 4 (2003 N Evans)
Population includes 3 Ilgar, 1 Garig
Giyug language 2[6]
Gooniyandi language[1] Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan 100 (1990 Schmidt) Severely endangered WA
Gudanji language 3[6]
Gugadj language Kukatj 1[6] Qld
Gugu Badhun language 2[6]
Gugubera language, Koko-Bera language, Koko Bera language[1] Kok Kaber, Kok-Kaper, Kukubera 15 (1991 SIL) 50 (1990 Schmidt) Severely endangered Qld
Guguyimidjir language, Guugu Yimithirr language, Guugu Yimidhirr language[1] Gogo-Yimidjir, Gugu-Gugu Yimijir, Gugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Koko Yimidir, Kuku Jimidir, Kuku Kuku Yimithirr, Kukuyimidir 20 to 30 (1991 Wayne Rosendale)
200 to 300 know and understand the language but prefer English
400 (1990 Schmidt)
Vulnerable Qld
Gumbaynggirr language, Kumbainggar language[1] 10 (2000) Critically endangered
Gundungurra language Gandangara NSW
Gungabula language 2[6]
Gunin language Cuini, Kunan, Goonan, Gunan, Gwini, Gwiini WA
Gunya language 3[6]
Gupapuyngu language[1] Gobabingo, Gubabwingu 330 Vulnerable NT
Gurindji Kriol language Gurindji children's language, Gurinji children's language NT. Developed post-contact
Gurrgoni language, Guragone language[1] 20 (1990 Schmidt) Vulnerable
Guwamu language 1[6]
Guwij language Guidj, Guwidj WA
Iwaidja language[1] 130 Vulnerable
Jaminjung language Djamindjung language[1] Djamindjung 27 to 130 Severely endangered
Jardwadjali language Vic
Jaru language Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru 350 WA
Jawoyn language[1] 20 to 42 Severely endangered
Jingulu language, Djingili language[1] 10 (1997) Severely endangered Pama–Nyungan languages, Barkly. NT
Jurruru language Chooraroo, Churoro, Djuroro, Jururu, Thuraru, Tjuroro, Tjurruru, Tjururu WA
Kabi Kabi language Gabi Gabi, Kabi Kabi, Dippil Qld
Kalau Lagau Ya Kala Lagaw Ya, Kalaw Lagaw Ya, Kalau Kawau Ya, Kalaw Kawau Ya, Lagau Ya 700 to 1200 Qld
Kalaamaya language Galamai, Galamaya, Jaburu, Kaburn, Kalamaia, Kelamai, Natingero, Njindango, Takalako WA
Kalaku language Gala:gu, Galaagu, Kaburn, Kalaaku, Kalako, l, Kalarko, Kallaar, Kallaargu, Karlaku, Malba, Malpa, Marlba WA
Kamu language 2 (1967)
Kaniyang language Ganajang, Kaneang, Kaniyan, Kunyung WA
Kanju language, Kaantju language Gandanju, Gandju, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu 50[6] Qld
Karajarri language, Karadjeri language[1] Garadjari, Garadjeri, Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard'are, Guradjara, Karrajarri 12 (1991 SIL) Critically endangered WA
Kariyarra language Gariera, Kaierra, Kariara, Kariera, Karriara, Karriarra, Kariyara, Kyeara WA
Kaurna language[1] Critically endangered SA
Kawarrangg language Qld
Kayardild language[1] Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda 6 (2000 Evans) 150 Critically endangered Tangkic. Qld, Bentinck Island
Kija language[1] Gidja, Kidja, Kitja, Lunga, Lungga 210 Severely endangered WA
Kokata language 3[6] Western Desert Language
Kok-Nar language Kok Narr Qld
Kukatja language[1] Gogodja, Gugadja, Gugudja, Kukaja Vulnerable WA
Kuku Thaypan language 2[6] Qld
Kuku Yalanji language[1] Gugu Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalangi Severely endangered Qld
Kuku-Mangk language 1[6] Extinct
Kuku-Mu'inh language 7[6]
Kuku-Muminh language 31[6]
Kuku-Ugbanh language 6[6]
Kuku-Uwanh language 40[6]
Kullili language Kullila, Galili Qld
Kuluwarrang language Guluwarin, Kuluwarin WA
Kunbarlang language[1] 50 to 100 (1983 Black) Severely endangered
Kunggara language 10 (1971 SIL)
Kunggari language 10
Kunja language Qld
Kunjen language[1] 20 to 25 (1991 Bruce Sommer)
40 with some knowledge
300 (1991 Bruce Sommer)
Critically endangered
Kunwinjku language[1] 1200 to 2000 Vulnerable NT
Kurrama language[1] Gurama, Karama, Karima, Kerama, Korama, Korima, Kurama 50[6] Critically endangered WA
Kurtjar language, Gurdjar language[1] Kurtjjar, Kurrtjar 30[6] Extinct Qld
Kuthant language 3[6] Qld
Kuuk Thaayorre language[1] Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Taior, Thaayore, Thayore, Thayorre 24 Definitely endangered Qld
Kuuku Ya'u language Koko-Ja'o, Kokoyao, Kuuku-Ya'u, Ya'o Critically endangered Qld
Kuurinji language, Gurindji language[1] Gurinji, Kuurrinyji 225 to 900 Definitely endangered NT
Kuyani language Guyani, Kijani, Kwiani SA extinct. R. M. W. Dixon classifies Adnyamathanha and Guyani as a single language. Ethnologue treats them as separate, and so they each have their own ISO 639-3 codes
Lairmairrener language Central Tas
Lamu-Lamu language 1[6]
Laragia language 6 (1983 Black)
Lardil language[1] Leerdil 2 (2000 Evans) Critically endangered Qld moribund
Larrakia language 29 NT
Limilngan language 3[6]
Linngithigh language Leningitij, Linngithig Qld
Lower Burdekin languages
Luthigh language Qld
Matngele language, Madngele language[1] 15 to 20 (1983 Black),
10 (estimate fieldwork 2013)
Critically endangered NT
Malgana language Malngin, Maljanna, Maldjana, Malkana WA
Malyangaba language Maljangapa, Maljangpa, Maljangaba, Malya-napa, Mullia-arpa, Mulya-napa, Mulya-nappa, Malynapa, Maljapa, Malyapa, Karikari, Bulali SA
Manda language 25 (1983 Black)
Mandandanyi language 1[6]
Mangarla language, Mangala language[1] Manala, Mangalaa, Maŋala, Minala 63 Critically endangered WA
Mangarrayi language, Mangarayi language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Mangerr language 1[6]
Mara language, Marra language 15 (1991 M Sharpe) NT
Maranunggu language 15 to 20 (1983 Black)
Margany language 1[6]
Maridan language 20[6]
Marimanindji language 15 (1983 Black)
Maringarr language[1] 30 to 40 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Mariyedi language 20[6]
Marrgu language, Margu language[1] 1 (2000 Evans) Extinct
Marrisyefin language, Maridjabin language[1] 20 (1970 Oates) Critically endangered
Marrithiyel language, Marithiel language[1] 25 (1983 Black) Critically endangered
Marti Ke language 10 (2001 Alexander) 100
Martuwangka language[1] Vulnerable
Martuyhunira language, Martuthunira language Maratunia, Mardadhunira, Mardathon, Mardathoni, Mardathoonera, Mardatuna, Mardatunera, Mardudhoonera, Mardudhunera, Mardudhunira, Mardudjungara, Marduduna, Mardudunera, Marduthunira, Mardutunera, Mardutunira, Marduyunira, Martuthinya, and 5[6] WA extinct
Maung language[1] 260 Vulnerable
Maya language (Australia) Maia, Maja WA
Mayaguduna language 2
Mbabaram language Barbaram 2[6] Qld
Mbara language (Australia)
Mbariman-Gudhinma language 3[6]
Mbiywom language Qld
Meriam Mir language[1] 160 to 210 Definitely endangered
Miriwoong language, Miriwung language[1] 10 to 20 (1990 Schmidt) Critically endangered
Miwa language Bagu, Miwi, Pela 4[6] WA
Mpakwithi dialect Qld
Mpalityanh language Qld
Mudburra language, Mudbura language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Severely endangered
MalakMalak, MullukMulluk[1] 9 to 11 (1988 SIL),
11 (estimate fieldwork 2013)
Severely endangered
Muluridyi language 1[6]
Munumburru language Munumburu WA
Muruwari language Muruwarri, Murawari, Murawarri 1[6] Qld
Nakkara language[1] 50 (2006) Severely endangered Arnhem Land, NT
Nauo language Nawu, Nhawu, Nawo, Njao Extinct Eyre Peninsula, South Australia
Ndjébbana language Djeebbana, Kunibidji, Gunavidji, Gunivugi, Gombudj 240 (2006) Endangered Liverpool River, Arnhem Land, NT
Ngaanyatjarra language[1] 700 to 1000 (2006) Vulnerable Warburton, Western Australia
Ngaatjatjara language[1] Ngaatjatjara, Ngaadadjarra 12 (2005) Moribund Warburton, Western Australia
Ngadjunmaya language 10,[6] 0 (2007) Extinct Goldfields-Esperance, WA
Ngadjuri language Extinct SA
Ngalakan language[1] 10,[6] 0 (2004) Extinct Roper River, Northern Territory
Ngaliwuru language[1] Jaminjung 27 to 130 (2006) Critically endangered Victoria River (Northern Territory)
Ngalkbun language, Dalabon language[1] Buin, Boun, Buan, Bouin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Nalabon 15 (2006) Moribund Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Ngamini language 2[6] Extinct SA
Ngandi language[1] 9 (2006) Critically endangered NT
Ngan'gityemerri language, Nangikurrunggurr 110 to 180 Endangered Daly River, NT
Ngardi language[1] Ngadi, Narti, Ngati 10 to 14 (2006) Moribund NT, WA
Ngarigo language[1] Ngarigu Moribund by early 20th C, now extinct.[7] Centred on Monaro region NSW, ACT, VIC
Ngarinman language[1] 592 (2006) Severely endangered Northern Territory
Ngarinyin language[1] Ungarinjin, Eastern Worrorran Moribund Northern Kimberley, WA
Ngarla language[1] 8 (1991), 0 (2015)
10 partial speakers
Extinct Port Hedland, WA
Ngarluma language[1] Gnalluma, Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngalluma, Ngalooma, Ngaluma 11 to 42 (2006) Critically endangered WA
Ngarnawu language Ngarnaw 56 to 58 (2009) Moribund Northern Kimberley, WA
Ngarnka language Pama–Nyungan languages Extinct Barkly Tableland, Northern Territory
Ngawun language 1[6] Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Ngkoth language Extinct Qld
Ngumbarl language Ngoombarl, Ngormbal, Ngumbal Extinct WA
Ngunawal language Ngunnawal, Burragorang, Gundungurra Extinct NSW/ACT
Ngurmbur language 1[6] Extinct Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Nhanta language Nhanda "A Handful" (2001) Moribund WA
Nhuwala language Ngoala, Noala, Noalla, Nooela, Nuela No L1 Speakers Dormant WA
Nijadali language Nyiyaparli 3 (2006) Moribund WA
Nimanbur language 2[6] Extinct Dampier Peninsula. WA
Ntra'ngith language Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Nuenonne language Nyunoni Extinct SE Tas
Nungali language 2[6] Extinct Daly River, Northern Territory
Nunggubuyu language[1] 272 (2016) Severely endangered Numbulwar, Northern Territory
Nyamal language[1] Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel 20 to 34 (2006) Severely endangered Pilbara, WA
Nyangga language Yukulta 1[6] Extinct Queensland & Northern Territory
Nyangumarta language[1] 250 to 310 Vulnerable WA
Nyawaygi language Extinct NE Queensland
Nyikina language, Nyigina language[1] 20 to 68 (2006) Severely endangered Fitzroy River, WA
Nyininy language Njining, Njininj, Nyinin 350 (2006) Endangered WA
Nyulnyul language Njul-Njul, Nyol-Nyol, Nyoolnyool, Nyul Nyul Extinct WA
Nyungar language Noongar 232 (dialects 8,000) Endangered WA
Okunjan language Ogh-Undjan, Ogondyan 2 (2005) Moribund Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Paakantyi language, Darling language[1] Baagandji, Kula, Pama–Nyungan 4 to 22 (2006) Critically endangered Darling River, NSW
Pakanha language No L1 speakers (2007 Wurm) Dormant Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Paredarerme language Extinct Tas
Peerapper language Extinct Tas
Peramangk language Poonawatta, Tarrawatta, Karrawatta, Yira-Ruka, Wiljani, Mutingengal, Runganng, Jolori, Pongarang, Paldarinalwar, Merelda. Descendants still exist Adelaide Hills, SA
Pini language 10 Moribund Western Desert language
Pinigura language Dhalandji 6 (2005) Moribund WA
Pintupi language[1] 203 Vulnerable NT, WA
Pitjantjatjara language[1] 2700 Vulnerable NT, SA, WA
Pitta Pitta language 2[6] Extinct Boulia, Queensland
Plangermaireener language Extinct Tas
Popham Bay language Wurrugu Extinct NT
Pyemmairre language Extinct Tas
Rembarrnga language[1] 10 to 38 (2006) Critically endangered Roper River, NT
Ritharrngu language[1] 32 (2006) Critically endangered Northern Territory
Tharkarri language[1] 20[6] Critically endangered Pilbara, WA
Thaua language Thoorga, Durga, Dhurga Extinct South Coast of NSW
Thiin language Extinct WA
Tiwi language[1] 1700 Vulnerable Tiwi Islands
Tommeginne language Extinct NNW Tas
Toogee language Extinct SW Tas
Tyaraity language 8 (2015) Moribund Daly River, Northern Territory
Tyerremotepanner language Extinct NNE Tas
Umbindhamu language 6[6] Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Queensland
Umbugarla language 3[6] Extinct Arnhem Land, NT
Umbuygamu language 7[6] Extinct Queensland
Umiida language Umida, Umi:da 4 to 22 (2005) Moribund WA
Umpila language[1] 12 (2005) Severely endangered Cape York Peninsula, Qld
Unggarangu language Unggarangi 4 to 22 (2005) Moribund WA
Unggumi language Ungkami, Wunggumi 4 to 22 (2005) Moribund WA
Uradhi language 2[6] Extinct Cape York Peninsula, Qld
Urningangg language Mangerr, Giimbiyu 10 (1983 Black) Extinct Arnhem Land, NT
Uw Olkola language Olkola, Olgolo, Kunjen 2 (2005) Moribund Cape York Peninsula, Qld
Uw Oykangand language Oykangand, Kunjen 2 (2005) Moribund Cape York Peninsula, Qld
Waanyi language[1] Critically endangered Garawa. Qld
Wadjiginy language 12 (1988 SIL)
Wadjigu language 1[6]
Wagaya language 10 (1983 Black)
Wagiman language, Wageman language[1] 10 (2000) Severely endangered
Wajarri language[1] Watjari, Watjarri, Wadjari, Wadjeri 50 (1981 W Douglas)
200 or fewer (1981 W Douglas)
Severely endangered WA
Wakawaka language 3[6]
Walangama language Qld
Walbanga language Pama–Nyungan languages, Yuin–Kuric languages, Yuin. South Coast of New South wales
Walmajarri language[1] Tjiwaling, Tjiwarlin 500 to 520 Definitely endangered
Wambaya language[1] 12[6] Critically endangered Pama–Nyungan languages, Barkly. NT
Wamin language 1[6]
Wandandian language Pama–Nyungan languages, Yuin-Kuric, Yuin. South Coast of New South wales
Wangaaybuwan language, Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa language[1] 12[6] Critically endangered
Wangai language Wongai or Wankai 200-300 Goldfields of Western Australia
Wanggamala language 1[6]
Wangganguru language 8[6]
Wangkajunga language Wangkatjungka, Wonggadjunggu WA
Wangkumara language, Ngura language[1] Wanggumara 6[6]
Population includes 1 Punthamara, 4 Wongkumara, 2 Badjiri, and 1 Kalali
Critically endangered Qld
Wanyjirra language Wandjira, Wandjirra, Wanjira NT
Waray language Warray, Wulwulam (dialect), Ngorrkkowo (dialect) 4[6] Extinct Adelaide River, NT
Wardaman language[1] 50 (1983 Black) Severely endangered WA
Warlmanpa language 50[6]
Warlpiri language[1] 2500 Vulnerable
Warluwara language 3[6]
Warnman language, Wanman language[1] 20 (1973 SIL) Severely endangered
Warrgamay language 3[6]
Warrungu language Warrangu, Warrango Qld
Warrwa language Warwa, Warwar 2 (2001 McGregor) WA
Warumungu language[1] 50 to 310 Severely endangered
Warungu language 2[6]
Western Desert language See article for the various dialects 7400 WA, NT & SA
Wik Me'nh language Qld
Wik Mungkan language[1] 1050 Vulnerable
Wik Ngathan language[1] Definitely endangered
Wik-Epa language 3[6]
Wik-Iiyanh language 40[6]
Wik-Keyangan language 3[6]
Wik-Me'anha language 12[6]
Wik-Ngatharr language Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharr, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr, Wikngatara Qld
Wikngenchera language, Wik Ngencherr language[1] 50 (1970 Oates) Severely endangered
Wilawila language Wila-Wila 2[6] WA
Winyjarrumi language Windjarumi WA
Wiradjuri language, Wiradhuri language[1] 3[6] Critically endangered
Wirangu language Warrangoo, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrung, Wirrunga 2[6] SA
Woiwurrung language Woiwurrong, Woiworung Pama–Nyungan languages, Kulin. Vic extinct
Wolyamidi language Woldjamidi, Wol'jamidi, Wolyamidi WA
Worimi language NSW extinct
Worrorra language, Worora language[1] 20 (1990 Schmidt) Critically endangered
Wulna language 1[6]
Wunambal language[1] Unambal, Wunambul 20 (1990 A Schmidt) Critically endangered WA
Wurla language Ola, Worla, Wula WA
Yandruwandha language Yandrruwantha 2[6] SA & Qld
Yankunytjatjara language[1] 70 to 560 Definitely endangered
Yan-nhangu language, Jarnango language[1] 40 (1983 Black) Definitely endangered
Yanyuwa language[1] 70 to 130 Severely endangered
Yawarawarga language Yawarrawarrka 1[6] SA & Qld
Yawijibaya language Jawdjibara, Yaudjibara, Yawjibarra WA
Yawuru language Jauor, Yaoro, Yawooroo 30 (2001 K Hosokawa) WA
Yidiny language Idin, Idindji, Idinji, Jidindji, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi 12[6] Qld
Yiiji language[1] Jeidji, Yeidji 20 (1990 A Schmidt) Critically endangered WA
Yindjilandji language 1[6]
Yinggarda language Inggarda, Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inparra, Jinggarda, Yingkarta, Kakarakala 5[6] WA
Yinhawangka language Inawonga, Innawonga, Inyawonga WA
Yinwum language Qld
Yir Yoront language[1] 15 (1991 Bruce Sommer) Extinct
Yir-Thangedl language Qld
Yorta Yorta language Vic
Yukulta language Jokula Qld, Doomagee region
Yulparija language Julbaridja, Julbre, Yulbaridya, Yurlparija WA
Yuwaaliyaay language Euahlayi, Yuwaalayaay NSW


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da UNESCO (2010). Moseley, Christopher; Nicolas, Alexander (eds.). Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (PDF) (3rd ed.). Paris. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022.
  2. ^ List of Australian Aboriginal languages at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)
  3. ^ List of Australian Aboriginal languages at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022)
  4. ^ L17 Dieri at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  5. ^ Wurm, Stephen A. (2007). "Australasia and the Pacific". In Moseley, Christopher (ed.). Encyclopedia of the World’s Endangered Languages. Routledge. pp. 425–578. doi:10.4324/9780203645659-12. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Wurm, Stephen A.; Hattori, Shirō, eds. (1981). "Language atlas of the Pacific area, part 1: New Guinea area, Oceania, Australia". Pacific Linguistics: Series C. Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. 66.
  7. ^ Koch, Harold (2016). "Documentary sources on the Ngarigu language: the value of a single recording" (PDF). In Austin, Peter K.; Koch, Harold; Simpson, Jane (eds.). Language, land and song: Studies in honour of Luise Hercus. EL Publishing. pp. 145–157. ISBN 978-0-728-60406-3.

External links

Some of these sources conflict to some degree with one another.