Australian region tropical cyclone

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An Australian tropical cyclone is a non frontal, low pressure system that has developed, within an environment of warm sea surface temperatures and little vertical wind shear aloft in either the Southern Indian Ocean or the South Pacific Ocean.[1] Within the Southern Hemisphere there are officially three areas where tropical cyclones develop on a regular basis, these areas are the South-West Indian Ocean between Africa and 90°E, the Australian region between 90°E and 160°E and the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The Australian region between 90°E and 160°E is officially monitored by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the Papua New Guinea National Weather Service and the Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika, while others like the Fiji Meteorological Service and the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also monitor the basin. Each tropical cyclone year within this basin starts on July 1 and runs throughout the year, encompassing the tropical cyclone season which runs from November 1 and lasts until April 30 each season. Within the basin, most tropical cyclones have their origins within the South Pacific Convergence Zone or within the Northern Australian monsoon trough, both of which form an extensive area of cloudiness and are dominant features of the season. Within this region a tropical disturbance is classified as a tropical cyclone, when it has 10-minute sustained wind speeds of more than 65 km/h (35 mph), that wrap halfway around the low level circulation centre, while a severe tropical cyclone is classified when the maximum 10-minute sustained wind speeds are greater than 120 km/h (75 mph).

Basin history[edit]

There is a history of tropical cyclones affecting northeastern Australia for over 5000 years; however, Clement Lindley Wragge was the first person to monitor and name them.[2]

In the early history of tropical cyclones in the Australian region, the only evidence of a storm was based on ship reports and observations from land. Later, satellite imagery began in the basin in the 1959/60 season, although it was not continuous until 1970. In Western Australia in particular, the lack of population centers, shipping lanes, radars, and offshore stations meant that storms were tracked infrequently. After the onset of satellite imagery, the Dvorak technique was used to estimate storm's intensities and locations.[3]

Background[edit]

The Australian region is currently defined as being between 90E and 160E and is monitored by five different warning centres during the season that runs from 1 November to 30 April. Three of the warning centres are

Seasons[edit]

1970s[edit]

Season Tropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages References
1970–71 20 20 10 Sheila-Sophie Unknown  ?
1971–72 18 18 10 Emily Unknown  ?
1972–73 15 15 8 Flores Unknown  ?
1973–74 19 19 9 Jessie Unknown  ?
1974–75 16 5 3 Trixie 71>  ?
1975–76 16 16 6 Watorea Unknown  ?
1976–77 13 5 1 Ted Unknown  ?
1977–78 9 5 2 Alby Unknown  ?
1978–79 13 3 1 Hazel Unknown  ?
1979–80 16 15 7 Amy Unknown  ?

1980s[edit]

Season Tropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages References
1980–81 14 14 11 Mabel Unknown Unknown
1981–82 14 14 7 Chris-Damia Unknown Unknown
1982–83 7 7 5 Elinor Unknown Unknown
1983–84 24 22 11 Kathy 1 $19 Million
1984–85 20 18 11 Kristy 0 $3.5 Million
1985–86 17 15 8 Victor 153 $250 Million
1986–87 9 8 2 Elsie 0 None
1987–88 6 5 2 Gwenda-Ezenina 1 $17.9 Million
1988–89 14 13 6 Orson 6 $93.9 Million
1989–90 14 14 4 Alex Unknown Unknown

1990s[edit]

Season Tropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages References
1990–91 10 10 7 Marian 27
1991–92 11 10 9 Harriet-Heather 5 $9.4 million
1992–93 8 8 4 Oliver 0 $950 million
1993–94 12 11 7 Theodore 22
1994–95 19 9 6 Chloe 1
1995–96 19 14 9 Olivia 1 $58.5 million
1996–97 15 14 3 Pancho 34 $190 million
1997–98 10 9 3 Tiffany [4]
1998–99 21 14 9 Gwenda 8 $250 million [4]
1999-00 13 12 5 John/Paul 0 $251 million [4]

2000s[edit]

Season Tropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages References
2000–01 9 8 3 Sam 163 $12.8 million [4]
2001–02 14 10 4 Chris 19 $929 thousand [4]
2002–03 10 9 3 Inigo 62 $28 million [4]
2003–04 13 10 5 Fay 0 $20 million [4]
2004–05 13 10 4 Ingrid 5 $14.4 million [4]
2005–06 17 14 9 Glenda 1 $808 million [4]
2006–07 8 5 3 George 3 [4]
2007–08 24 9 3 Pancho 149 $86 million [4]
2008–09 24 11 3 Hamish 5 $103 million [4]
2009–10 13 8 4 Laurence 3 $681 million [4]

2010s[edit]

Season Tropical
Lows
Tropical
Cyclones
Severe Tropical
Cyclones
Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages References
2010–11 28 10 5 Yasi 3 $3.56 billion [4][5]
2011–12 21 7 2 Lua 16 > $230 million [5]
2012–13 16 9 4 Narelle 20 $2.5 billion [6]
2013–14 17 10 5 Ita 22 $958 million
2014–15 17 9 7 Marcia 1 > $732 million
2015–16 11 3 0 Stan 0 None [A 1]
2016–17 29 7 2 Ernie 14 $420 million

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Number of tropical lows and tropical cyclones excludes Tropical Cyclone Raquel, which was considered to have been a part of the 2014-15 year.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (5 May 2015). List of Tropical Cyclone Names withdrawn from use due to a Cyclone's Negative Impact on one or more countries (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2014). World Meteorological Organization. pp. 2B–1–2B–4 (23–26). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  2. ^ Nott, Jonathon (14 November 2003). "Palaeotempestology: the study of prehistoric tropical cyclones—a review and implications for hazard assessment". Science Direct. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  3. ^ S.J. Buchan; P.G. Black; R.L. Cohen (1999). The Impact of Tropical Cyclone Olivia on Australia's Northwest Shelf (PDF). Offshore Technology Conference. Retrieved January 14, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Padgett, Gary (1997–2011). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summaries". Archived from the original on 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  5. ^ a b National Climate Centre (3 July 2012). "Record-breaking La Niña events – Tropical cyclone activity during 2010–11 and 2011–12" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. p. 17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  6. ^ Nathan Paull and Miranda Forster (29 January 2013). "Floods recede as states count cost". Australian Associated Press. News Limited. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  7. ^ Queensland Regional Office (September 2015). Tropical Cyclone Raquel (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 

External links[edit]