List of Black Sabbath band members

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The original lineup of Black Sabbath, clockwise from top left: Tony Iommi, Bill Ward, Geezer Butler, Ozzy Osbourne

Black Sabbath were an English heavy metal band from Aston, Birmingham. Formed in 1968, the group's first lineup included vocalist Ozzy Osbourne, guitarist Tony Iommi, bassist Geezer Butler and drummer Bill Ward. This lineup remained active until 1979, when Osbourne was fired. Subsequently, the band went through numerous personnel changes over the years, with only Iommi remaining a constant member. The group's final lineup, for a tour called "The End", included a reunited Osbourne, Iommi and Butler, supported by touring members Tommy Clufetos on drums and Adam Wakeman on keyboards. As of March 2017, Black Sabbath are officially disbanded.

History[edit]

1968–1985[edit]

Black Sabbath formed in 1968, taking members from two other local bands – guitarist Tony Iommi and drummer Bill Ward from Mythology, and vocalist Ozzy Osbourne and bassist Geezer Butler from Rare Breed.[1] Initially known as The Polka Tulk Blues Band, the group's name was changed in September 1968 to Earth, before they became Black Sabbath in August 1969 after being confused with another British act called of the same name.[2] After seven commercially and critically successful albums, Osbourne left abruptly in September 1977 to pursue a solo career.[3] He was replaced by Dave Walker, although by the following January he had returned to the band.[4] After one more album, Never Say Die!, Osbourne was fired on 27 April 1979, due to his reliance on alcohol and drugs, and his reluctance to work on a new album.[5]

Ronnie James Dio replaced original vocalist Ozzy Osbourne in 1979, and initially recorded two studio albums.
Ronnie James Dio replaced original vocalist Ozzy Osbourne in 1979, and initially recorded two studio albums.

Osbourne was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio in June 1979.[6] Butler chose to leave shortly after his arrival, with Geoff Nicholls taking his place in mid-July before Dio's former bandmate Craig Gruber joined and Nicholls moved to rhythm guitar and keyboards (later keyboards only).[7] Recording began with Gruber, but Butler returned in November and performed all bass parts on Heaven and Hell.[8] Ward abruptly left partway through the album's promotional tour after a show on 19 August 1980, with Vinny Appice enlisted to take his place from 31 August.[9] In November 1982, after disagreements over the mixing of Live Evil, Dio and Appice left Black Sabbath and formed Dio together.[10] The following February, the band replaced Dio with former Deep Purple frontman Ian Gillan, and brought back original drummer Ward.[11]

After recording Born Again, Ward was forced to leave again in the summer of 1983 due to his continuing problems with alcohol abuse. He was replaced for the Born Again Tour by Electric Light Orchestra drummer Bev Bevan.[12] Gillan departed after the tour.[13] He was briefly replaced by former Steeler vocalist Ron Keel, although this was short-lived due to disagreements between the band and their new producer Spencer Proffer, which saw plans for a new album fall through.[14] After Keel, a newly-sober Ward returned to the band and they briefly worked with David "Donut" Donato on vocals. However, this also failed to result in a new album or tour dates, Butler left in response to the personnel changes, and the band remained inactive until the following year.[13] Iommi subsequently began working on a planned solo album in early 1985.[13]

1985–1997[edit]

For his planned solo album, Iommi began working with bassist Gordon Copley and drummer Eric Singer, then members of Lita Ford's backing band (Iommi's fiancée at the time).[15] After a few months, Copley returned to working with Ford, and Dave Spitz was brought in as his replacement.[16] On 13 July 1985, the original lineup of Black Sabbath reunited for a one-off appearance at Live Aid, performing the songs "Children of the Grave", "Iron Man" and "Paranoid".[17] Iommi then returned to working on his solo album, for which he enlisted former Trapeze and Deep Purple vocalist Glenn Hughes in July.[18] However, after pressure from his American record label Warner Bros. Records, Iommi was forced to credit Seventh Star to "Black Sabbath featuring Tony Iommi" upon its release in January 1986.[19]

Returning on the Seventh Star Tour under the original moniker, the band were forced into another change of vocalist on 26 March 1986, when Hughes suffered an injury in a fight with manager John Downey which left him unable to sing.[20][21] He was replaced by Ray Gillen, who debuted on 29 March.[22] During the production of their next album, The Eternal Idol, the lineup of Black Sabbath changed multiple times – first, Bob Daisley replaced Spitz on 30 September 1986, before leaving on 11 November after completing his bass parts; next, Singer left on 1 January 1987, with his drum parts completed; and finally, Tony Martin replaced Gillen on 1 March.[20] Around the time of Martin's arrival, Bevan also returned to the band.[23] Preparing for shows in July, the band briefly rehearsed with original bassist Butler,[20] although within a few days he had left again and Spitz was brought back in his place.[24] Bevan left after one show, objecting to upcoming dates at Sun City, South Africa, and was replaced for the shows by Terry Chimes.[23]

Tony Martin joined in 1987, and went on to become the second longest-serving vocalist in the band's history.
Tony Martin joined in 1987, and went on to become the second longest-serving vocalist in the band's history.

After the Sun City shows, Spitz left the band again on 15 August 1987; he was later replaced by Jo Burt on 1 October.[24] Burt remained a member early the next year,[25] but had left by the time the band played a charity show on 29 May 1988, at which Nicholls filled in on bass.[24] By August, the band had started work on new album Headless Cross with bassist Laurence Cottle and drummer Cozy Powell.[26] Butler was slated to return for the subsequent touring cycle, but he ultimately joined Osbourne's solo band and instead Neil Murray was hired in May 1989.[27][28] This lineup remained stable for more than a year, releasing Tyr in 1990 and touring until the end of the year.[29]

After the tour in promotion of Tyr, Butler returned to the band.[30] Despite rumours of an original reunion lineup, it was Dio who took over from Martin on vocals in January 1991.[29] Within a few months, however, Martin was reinstated after Dio and Iommi disagreed over the vocalist's desire to bring back Vinny Appice and reunite the Mob Rules lineup.[30] Dio eventually did return with Appice later in the year, and the lineup released Dehumanizer in 1992.[30] At the end of the resulting tour, however, Dio left after refusing to perform at two shows in November supporting original vocalist Osbourne, who had announced his retirement. Rob Halford, who had recently left Judas Priest, filled in for the dates.[31] After the original lineup reunited onstage at the second show for four songs, plans were set for a full reformation with Osbourne and Ward the next year.[32]

The reunion with Osbourne and Ward ultimately fell through, and in early 1993 the band brought back Martin as frontman.[33] With Appice also gone after the Dehumanizer Tour, the band auditioned drummers and hired Bobby Rondinelli in March.[34] Cross Purposes was released and promoted on a short concert tour in 1994, after which Butler left the band again. Rondinelli was replaced by Ward for the final leg of the tour in South America, but the drummer chose to leave again when Butler departed.[35] Butler and Ward were replaced by returning members Murray and Powell, respectively, marking a reunion of the Tyr lineup.[35] The band toured in promotion of new album Forbidden in 1995, although Powell was replaced by Rondinelli partway through the tour in August.[36] After the conclusion of the tour, Black Sabbath went on hiatus during 1996 as Iommi began work on a new solo album.[36]

1997–2017[edit]

In March 1997, the long-awaited reunion of Osbourne, Iommi and Butler was announced for the Ozzfest tour, starting in May.[37] Ward, however, was not invited to join; his place was instead taken by Faith No More drummer Mike Bordin.[38] For a rescheduled show on 1 July, Shannon Larkin of Godsmack took over from Bordin, who was unavailable.[39] Ward eventually returned in November for a pair of shows the following month,[40] which were recorded and released alongside two new studio tracks on Reunion in 1998.[41] A short European tour was scheduled for June 1998, however just before it began Ward suffered a minor heart attack.[42] Appice was brought in to replace him for the shows.[43] Ward returned later in the year, with a tour in support of Reunion taking place in 1999.[44] After another hiatus while members worked on solo projects, Sabbath joined Ozzfest again in 2001, although a later tour was cancelled when Osbourne was ordered by his label Epic Records to complete work on his new album Down to Earth.[45]

Osbourne, Iommi and Butler released 13 in 2013, and completed The End Tour in 2017 with Tommy Clufetos on drums.
Osbourne, Iommi and Butler released 13 in 2013, and completed The End Tour in 2017 with Tommy Clufetos on drums.

After another hiatus, Black Sabbath returned in 2004 with new touring keyboardist Adam Wakeman.[46] Halford reprised his role as substitute vocalist for a show on 26 August, after Osbourne was unable to sing due to bronchitis.[47] More tour dates followed in 2005, including another appearance on the Ozzfest tour,[48] before Iommi began working with Dio in early 2006 on new tracks for an upcoming compilation titled The Dio Years.[49] By October, the reunion had evolved into a full reformation of the Heaven and Hell lineup of the band (without Nicholls), with the moniker Heaven & Hell adopted accordingly.[50] During this time, the official lineup of Black Sabbath continued to be Osbourne, Iommi, Butler and Ward, as it was assured by representatives of the band that Heaven & Hell was a separate project.[51]

Heaven & Hell released one studio album, The Devil You Know, and remained active until Dio died of stomach cancer on 16 May 2010.[52] On 11 November 2011, the original lineup announced at a press conference that they would be reuniting for their first studio album since 1978, as well as an accompanying concert tour.[53] However, on 3 February 2012, Ward announced that he would not be joining his bandmates unless he received a "signable contract ... that reflects some dignity and respect toward me as an original member of the band".[54] The drummer confirmed his departure in May, after failing to reach an agreement that suited him.[55] Five days after the announcement, the band played their first live show since 2005 in Birmingham, with Tommy Clufetos – the drummer in Osbourne's solo band – in place of Ward.[56]

Former Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave drummer Brad Wilk was enlisted to perform on new album 13, which was released in June 2013.[57] Clufetos remained for the album's promotional touring cycle.[58] On 3 September 2015, it was announced that the band would embark on a tour dubbed The End throughout 2016 and 2017, which would serve as their "farewell tour".[59] Another studio album was initially announced in 2014, however this was later scrapped.[60] The final studio recordings released by the band were four outtakes from the 13 sessions, which were issued alongside four live recordings on the EP The End in January 2016.[61] The final Black Sabbath show took place on 4 February 2017 at the Genting Arena in Birmingham, which was recorded for The End of the End documentary film and The End: Live in Birmingham album and video release.[62][63] On 7 March 2017, Black Sabbath's disbandment was officially confirmed.[64]

Band members[edit]

Official[edit]

Image Name Years active Instruments Release contributions
Tony-Iommi 2009-06-11 Chicago photoby Adam-Bielawski.jpg
Tony Iommi 1968–2017
  • guitar
  • occasional flute, synthesizers and piano
all Black Sabbath releases
Black Sabbath (1970).jpg
Bill Ward
  • 1968–1980
  • 1983
  • 1984
  • 1994
  • 1997–2006
  • 2011–2012
  • drums
  • percussion
  • occasional vocals
Heaven And Hell 4.jpg
Geezer Butler
  • 1968–1979
  • 1979–1984
  • 1987
  • 1990–1994

  • 1997–2017
  • bass
  • occasional synthesizers
OzzyChangingHands02-20-2010.jpg
Ozzy Osbourne
  • 1968–1977
  • 1978–1979
  • 1997–2006
  • 2011–2017
  • vocals
  • harmonica
  • all Black Sabbath releases from Black Sabbath (1970) to Never Say Die! (1978)
  • Reunion (1998)
  • The Last Supper (1999)
  • Past Lives (2002)
  • all Black Sabbath releases from 13 (2013) onwards
DaveWalker-Bozeman-SLAMFest.jpg
Dave Walker 1977–1978 vocals none
Ronnie-James-Dio Heaven-N-Hell 2009-06-11 Chicago Photoby Adam-Bielawski (cropped).jpg
Ronnie James Dio
  • 1979–1982
  • 1991–1992
  • 2006–2010 (died 2010)
Geoff Nicholls 1986.jpg
Geoff Nicholls 1979–2004 (died 2017)
  • keyboards
  • bass and rhythm guitar (1979)
  • all Black Sabbath releases from Heaven and Hell (1980) to The Last Supper (1999)
  • The Dio Years (2007) – three new studio recordings
  • Live at Hammersmith Odeon (2007)
Craig Gruber 1979 (died 2015) bass none
Heaven and Hell 29 (cropped).jpg
Vinny Appice
  • 1980–1982
  • 1991–1992
  • 1998 (touring)
  • 2006–2010
drums
  • Black and Blue (1980)
  • Mob Rules (1981)
  • Live Evil (1982)
  • Dehumanizer (1992)
  • The Dio Years (2007) – three new studio recordings
  • Live at Hammersmith Odeon (2007)
Deep Purple - inFinite - The Long Goodbye Tour - Barclaycard Arena Hamburg 2017 22.jpg
Ian Gillan 1982–1984 vocals Born Again (1983)
Bev Bevan - Electric Light Orchestra (1977).png
Bev Bevan
  • 1983–1984
  • 1987
  • drums
  • percussion
  • The Eternal Idol (1987) – "Scarlet Pimpernel" and "Eternal Idol" only
  • Born Again reissue bonus live tracks (2011)
Ron Keel 1984 vocals none
David Donato
Esinger.jpg
Eric Singer 1985–1987
  • drums
  • percussion
Gordon Copley 1985 bass Seventh Star (1986) – "No Stranger to Love" only
Dave Spitz
  • 1985–1986
  • 1987
Seventh Star (1986)
Glenn Hughes - 2011 (cropped).jpg
Glenn Hughes 1985–1986 vocals
Ray Gillen 1986–1987 (died 1993)
  • Seventh Star reissue bonus live tracks (2010)
  • The Eternal Idol reissue bonus studio tracks (2011)
Bob Daisley 1986 bass The Eternal Idol (1987)
Tony Martin 1.jpg
Tony Martin
  • 1987–1991
  • 1991

  • 1993–1997
vocals all Black Sabbath releases from The Eternal Idol (1987) to Forbidden (1995), except Dehumanizer (1992)
Terry Chimes 1987–1988 drums none
Jo Burt bass
Cozy Powell (1974).png
Cozy Powell
  • 1988–1991
  • 1994–1995 (died 1998)
  • drums
  • percussion
Auftritt der Don Airey Band im Reigen, Wien. X.jpg
Laurence Cottle 1988 bass Headless Cross (1989)
Neil Murray
  • 1989–1990
  • 1994–1997
bass
  • Tyr (1990)
  • Forbidden (1995)
OTR smiles.jpg
Bobby Rondinelli
  • 1993–1994
  • 1995–1997
drums
  • Cross Purposes (1994)
  • Cross Purposes Live (1995)

Touring[edit]

Image Name Years active Instruments Release contributions
Mbordin1990.jpg
Mike Bordin 1997 drums none
Adam Wakeman pic 1.jpg
Adam Wakeman
  • 2004–2006
  • 2011–2017
  • keyboards
  • guitar
W2590 Hellfest2016 BlackSabbath TommyClufetos 8575.jpg
Tommy Clufetos 2012–2017 drums

Other contributors[edit]

Session[edit]

Image Name Years active Instruments Release contributions
RickWakemanMiniMoog.jpg
Rick Wakeman 1973
  • piano
  • synthesizers
Sabbath Bloody Sabbath (1973) – "Sabbra Cadabra" only
Jezz Woodroffe 1976 keyboards Technical Ecstasy (1976)
Don Airey 2005.jpg
Don Airey 1978 keyboards Never Say Die! (1978)
Jon Elstar harmonica Never Say Die! (1978) – "Swinging the Chain" only
Brian May Portrait - David J Cable (cropped).jpg
Brian May 1988 guitar Headless Cross (1989) – "When Death Calls" only
Body Count feat. Ice-T With Full Force 2018 04.jpg
Ice-T 1994 vocals Forbidden (1995) – "The Illusion of Power" only
Brad Wilk.jpg
Brad Wilk 2012
  • drums
  • percussion
  • 13 (2013)
  • The End (2016) – studio tracks only

Touring[edit]

Image Name Years active Instruments Details
Rob Halford 2004.jpg
Rob Halford
  • 1992
  • 2004
vocals Halford replaced Dio at two shows in November 1992,[31] and later substituted for Osbourne at one in August 2004.[47]
2015 RiP Godsmack Shannon Larkin by 2eight - 3SC5195.jpg
Shannon Larkin 1997 drums Larkin substituted for touring drummer Bordin, who was unavailable, at a rescheduled Ozzfest show on 1 July 1997.[39]

Timeline[edit]

Lineups[edit]

Period Members Releases
September 1968 – September 1977
October 1977 – January 1978
  • Dave Walker – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
none
January 1978 – April 1979
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
June – July 1979
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
none
July – August 1979
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geoff Nicholls – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
none
August – November 1979
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geoff Nicholls – guitar, keyboards
  • Craig Gruber – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
none
November 1979 – August 1980
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
August 1980 – November 1982
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Vinny Appice – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
February – summer 1983
  • Ian Gillan – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
Summer 1983 – March 1984
  • Ian Gillan – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bev Bevan – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
March – April 1984
  • Ron Keel – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bev Bevan – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
Summer – late 1984
  • David Donato – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
Early 1985 none
July 1985 – March 1986
  • Glenn Hughes – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Dave Spitz – bass
  • Eric Singer – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
March – September 1986
  • Ray Gillen – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Dave Spitz – bass
  • Eric Singer – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
September – November 1986
  • Ray Gillen – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Bob Daisley – bass
  • Eric Singer – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
November 1986 – January 1987
  • Ray Gillen – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Eric Singer – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
January – March 1987
  • Ray Gillen – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
March – July 1987
  • The Eternal Idol (1987) – vocals only
July 1987
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bev Bevan – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
July 1987
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Dave Spitz – bass
  • Bev Bevan – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
July – August 1987
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Dave Spitz – bass
  • Terry Chimes – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
October 1987 – early 1988
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Jo Burt – bass
  • Terry Chimes – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
May 1988
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geoff Nicholls – bass
  • Terry Chimes – drums
none
August – November 1988
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Laurence Cottle – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
May 1989 – November 1990
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Neil Murray – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
December 1990 – January 1991
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
January – mid-1991
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
Mid – late 1991
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums, percussion
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
October 1991 – November 1992
  • Ronnie James Dio – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Vinny Appice – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
November 1992 (two shows)
  • Rob Halford – vocals (substitute)
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Vinny Appice – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
March 1993 – July 1994
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bobby Rondinelli – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
August – September 1994
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
October 1994 – August 1995
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Neil Murray – bass
  • Cozy Powell – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
August – December 1995
  • Tony Martin – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Neil Murray – bass
  • Bobby Rondinelli – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
Band inactive during 1996
March – June 1997
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Mike Bordin – drums (touring)
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
1 July 1997 (one show)
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Shannon Larkin – drums (substitute)
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
November 1997 – May 1998
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
June 1998
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Vinny Appice – drums (touring)
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
none
Late 1998 – June 2004
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums
  • Geoff Nicholls – keyboards
June 2004 – May 2012
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Bill Ward – drums
  • Adam Wakeman – keyboards (touring)
none
May 2012 – March 2017
  • Ozzy Osbourne – vocals
  • Tony Iommi – guitar
  • Geezer Butler – bass
  • Tommy Clufetos – drums (touring)
  • Adam Wakeman – keyboards (touring)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Keel, Ron (28 January 2014), Even Keel: Life on the Streets of Rock & Roll, Pennsauken, New Jersey: BookBaby, ISBN 978-1619277939
  • Larkin, Colin (27 May 2011), The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, London, England: Omnibus Press, ISBN 978-0857125958
  • McIver, Joel (15 October 2016), The Complete History of Black Sabbath: What Evil Lurks, New York City, New York: Race Point Publishing, ISBN 978-1631062728
  • Popoff, Martin (1 May 2011), Black Sabbath FAQ: All That's Left to Know on the First Name in Metal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Backbeat Books, ISBN 978-0879309572
  • Stolz, Norman (8 November 2017), Experiencing Black Sabbath: A Listener's Companion, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1442256910
  • Wade, Chris (15 October 2013), The Music of Black Sabbath, Morrisville, North Carolina: Lulu.com, ISBN 978-1291589955

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