List of British monarchs

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Royal coat of arms
of the United Kingdom
Royal Arms
The Royal Arms since the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, featuring the arms of England in both the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second and Ireland in the third. In Scotland a separate version is used (shown right), whereby the Arms of Scotland take precedence.[1]

There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union under the House of Stuart since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, Great Britain merged with the Kingdom of Ireland (also previously in personal union with Great Britain) to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After most of Ireland left the union on 6 December 1922, its name was amended on 12 April 1927 to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Stuart (1707–1714)[edit]

Queen Anne had been Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland since 8 March 1702, and so became Queen of Great Britain upon the Union of England and Scotland.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Before the Acts of Union 1707 → See List of English monarchs, List of Scottish monarchs, and List of Irish monarchs.
Anne
1 May 1707

1 August 1714
(7 years, 92 days)
Anne1705.jpg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
No surviving children
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
Aged 49
Daughter of James VII and II
Cognatic primogeniture
Bill of Rights 1689
[2]

House of Hanover (1714–1901)[edit]

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the Parliament of England, which excluded "Papists" (i.e. Roman Catholics) from the succession. In return for access to the English plantations in North America and the West Indies, the Hanoverian succession and the Union were ratified by the Parliament of Scotland in 1707.

After the death of Anne with no living children, George Louis, the son of Sophia of Hanover—granddaughter of James I through his daughter Elizabeth—was the closest heir to the throne who was not Catholic.[i]

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
George I
George Louis
1 August 1714[a]

11 June 1727
(12 years, 315 days)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 28 May 1660
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682
2 children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
Aged 67
Great-grandson of James VI and I
Act of Settlement
Eldest son of Sophia of Hanover
[3]
George II
George Augustus
11 June 1727[b]

25 October 1760
(33 years, 137 days)
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg 30 October 1683
Herrenhausen
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August 1705
Herrenhausen
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
Aged 76
Son of George I [4]
George III
George William Frederick
25 October 1760[c]

29 January 1820
(59 years, 97 days)
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
Aged 81
Grandson of George II [5]
George IV
George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820[d]

26 June 1830
(10 years, 149 days)
George IV 1821 color.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(1) Maria Fitzherbert
Park Lane
15 September 1785
No verified children
(2) Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace
8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
Aged 67
Son of George III [6]
William IV
William Henry
26 June 1830[e]

20 June 1837
(6 years, 360 days)
William IV.jpg Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg 21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace
13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
Aged 71
Son of George III [7]
Victoria
Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837[f]

22 January 1901
(63 years, 217 days)
Queen Victoria 1843.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of the Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace
10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
Aged 81
Granddaughter of George III [8]

Houses of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) and Windsor (1917–present)[edit]

Due to his father Albert, Prince Consort, being of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward VII inaugurated a new royal house when he succeeded his mother Victoria, the last monarch of the House of Hanover, in 1901. George V changed its name in 1917, during the First World War, because of wartime anti-German sentiment in the country. The house name Windsor has since been used.

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim Ref.
Edward VII
Albert Edward
22 January 1901[g]

6 May 1910
(9 years, 105 days)
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel
10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
Aged 68
Son of Victoria [9]
George V
George Frederick Ernest Albert
6 May 1910[h]

20 January 1936
(25 years, 260 days)
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace
6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
Overdosed aged 70
Son of Edward VII [10]
Edward VIII
Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David
20 January 1936[i]

11 December 1936
(Abdicated after 326 days)
Edward VIII Portrait - 1936.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé
3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
Aged 77
Son of George V [11]
George VI
Albert Frederick Arthur George
11 December 1936[j]

6 February 1952
(15 years, 58 days)
King George VI.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
Aged 56
Son of George V [12]
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
6 February 1952[k]

Present
(66 years, 20 days)
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Portrait Herbert James Gunn.jpg Arms of the United Kingdom.svg 21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip of Greece and Denmark
Westminster Abbey
20 November 1947
4 children
Living
Age 91
Daughter of George VI [13]

Timeline of British monarchs[edit]

Elizabeth II George VI Edward VIII George V Edward VII Queen Victoria William IV of the United Kingdom George IV of the United Kingdom George III of the United Kingdom George II of Great Britain George I of Great Britain Anne, Queen of Great Britain House of Windsor House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha House of Hanover House of Stuart

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a family tree showing King George I's relationship to Queen Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

Coronations

  1. ^ George I was crowned on 20 October 1714.
  2. ^ George II was crowned on 11 October 1727 with Queen Caroline.
  3. ^ George III was crowned on 22 September 1761 with Queen Charlotte.
  4. ^ George IV was crowned on 19 July 1821.
  5. ^ William IV was crowned on 8 September 1831 with Queen Adelaide.
  6. ^ Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838.
  7. ^ Edward VII was crowned on 9 August 1902 with Queen Alexandra.
  8. ^ George V was crowned on 22 May 1911 with Queen Mary.
  9. ^ Edward VIII was not crowned.
  10. ^ George VI was crowned on 12 May 1937 with Queen Elizabeth.
  11. ^ Elizabeth II was crowned on 2 June 1953.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Coats of arms". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  2. ^ "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2018. 
  3. ^ "George I (r. 1714–1727)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  4. ^ "George II (r. 1727–1760)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  5. ^ "George III (r. 1760–1820)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  6. ^ "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  7. ^ "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  8. ^ "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  9. ^ "Edward VII (r.1901–1910)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  10. ^ "George V (r. 1910–1936)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  11. ^ "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  12. ^ "George VI (r.1936–1952)". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  13. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2018. 

External links[edit]