List of butterflies of India (Pieridae)
The family Pieridae, or the whites and yellows are a family of butterflies of moderate or small size. The common names refer to the two predominant colours found on the wings of these butterflies along with markings in black.
Of the 1051 species of pierids occurring in the world, 81 species in 21 genera are found in India.
- 1 Distinguishing features
- 2 Classification
- 3 Subfamily Pierinae, whites
- 3.1 Genus Aporia, blackveins
- 3.2 Genus Baltia, dwarfs
- 3.3 Genus Pieris, whites
- 3.4 Genus Pontia, Bath whites
- 3.5 Genus Anaphaeis, pioneers
- 3.6 Genus Cepora, gulls
- 3.7 Genus Ixias, Indian orange tips
- 3.8 Genus Delias, Jezebels
- 3.9 Genus Prioneris, sawtooths
- 3.10 Genus Appias, puffins and albatrosses
- 3.11 Genus Leptosia, Psyche
- 3.12 Genus Euchloe, little whites
- 3.13 Genus Hebomoia, great orange tip
- 3.14 Genus Colotis, Arabs
- 3.15 Genus Pareronia, wanderers
- 4 Subfamily Coliadinae, yellows
- 5 Life cycle
- 6 Food plants
- 7 References
- 8 External links
- Outline of wings usually regular. Hindwings are never tailed.
- Forelegs are fully developed in both sexes.
- The hindwings are channelled at the abdomen to fit the abdomen.
Worldwide, family Pieridae has four subfamilies, of which the whites and the yellows are well represented in India.
Subfamily Pierinae, whites
- Tibet blackvein, Aporia peloria Hewitson, 1853
- Himalayan blackvein, Aporia leucodice (Eversmann, 1843)
- Dusky blackvein, Aporia nabellica (Boisduval, 1836)
- Bhutan blackvein, Aporia harrietae (de Nicéville, 1892)
- Great blackvein, Aporia agathon (Gray, 1832)
- Chumbi white, Pieris chumbiensis de Nicéville, 1897
- Green banded white, Pieris krueperi devta (de Nicéville, 1884)
- Greenvein white, Pieris napi Linnaeus, 1767
- Naga white, Pieris naganum Moore, 1884
- Kashmir white, Pieris deota (de Nicéville, 1884)
- Large cabbage-white, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, 1758
- Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Linnaeus, 1758
- Small cabbage white, Pieris rapae Linnaeus, 1758
- Lesser Bath white, Pontia chloridice (Hübner, 1813)
- Lofty Bath white, Pontia callidice (Hübner, 1800)
- Eastern Bath white, Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)
- Yellow Jezebel, Delias agostina Hewitson, 1852
- Common Jezebel, Delias eucharis Drury, 1773
- Painted Jezebel, Delias hyparete Linnaeus, 1758
- Hill Jezebel, Delias belladonna Fabricius, 1793
- Pale Jezebel, Delias sanaca (Moore,1857)
- Dark Jezebel, Delias berinda (Moore,1872)
- Redspot Jezebel, Delias descombesi Boisduval, 1836
- Redbase Jezebel, Delias pasithoe Linnaeus, ?
- Redbreast Jezebel, Delias acalis Godart, 1819
- Spotted sawtooth, Prioneris thestylis Doubleday, 1842
- Painted sawtooth, Prioneris sita C. Felder, 1865
- Redspot sawtooth, Prioneris clemanthe Doubleday, 1846
- Spot puffin, Appias lalage (Doubleday, 1842)
- Plain puffin, Appias indra Moore, 1857
- Western striped albatross, Appias libythea Fabricius, 1775
- Eastern striped albatross, Appias olferna Fabricius, 1775
- Chocolate albatross, Appias lyncida Cramer, 1777
- Common albatross, Appias albina Felder
- Lesser albatross, Appias wardii (Moore, 1884)
- Orange albatross, Appias nero galba (Wallace, 1867)
- Nicobar albatross, Appias panda chrysea Fruhstorfer, 1903
- Lemon white, Euchloe charlonia lucilla Butler, 1886
- Pearl white, Euchloe ausonia dephalis Hübner 1803
- Small salmon Arab, Colotis amata Fabricius, 1775
- Blue-spotted Arab, Colotis phisadia (Godart, 1819)
- White Arab, Colotis vestalis (Butler, 1876)
- Large salmon Arab, Colotis fausta (Olivier, 1804)
- Small orange-tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval, 1836
- Plain orange-tip, Colotis eucharis Fabricius, 1775
- Crimson-tip, Colotis danae (Fabricius, 1775)
- Pale wanderer, Pareronia avatar (Moore, 1858)
- Dark wanderer, Pareronia ceylanica (C. & R. Felder, 1865)
- Common wanderer, Pareronia valeria (Cramer, 1776)
Subfamily Coliadinae, yellows
Genus Catopsilia, emigrants
- Common emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius, 1775
- Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Latreille, 1758
Genus Gonepteryx, brimstones
- Common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni Latreille, 1758
- Lesser brimstone, Gonepteryx aspasia Ménétriés, 1859
- Small grass yellow, Eurema brigitta Cramer, 1780
- Spotless grass yellow, Eurema laeta Boisduval, 1836
- Scarce grass yellow, Eurema lacteola Distant, 1886
- One-spot grass yellow, Eurema andersonii Moore
- Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, 1758
- Three-spot grass yellow, Eurema blanda Boisduval, 1836
- Nilgiri grass yellow, Eurema nilgiriensis
- Lemon clouded yellow, Colias thrasibulus Fabricius, 1910
- Ladakh clouded yellow, Colias ladakensis C. Felder, 1865
- Everest clouded yellow, Colias berylla Fawcett, 1904
- Fawcett's clouded yellow, Colias nina Fawcett, 1904
- Pale clouded yellow, Colias hyale Linnaeus, 1758
- Fiery clouded yellow, Colias eogene C. Felder, 1865
- Orange clouded yellow, Colias stoliczkana Moore
- Dwarf clouded yellow, Colias dubia Elwes, 1906
- Dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus Geoffroy, 1785
- Nilgiri clouded yellow, Colias nilgiriensis
- Eggs - Tall, bottle-shaped eggs which are ribbed down the sides. They are generally white, eventually changing to yellow or orange, or, they may be blotched with red.
- Caterpillars - The caterpillars are cylindrical and smooth usually covered with hairy-ended tubercles. They are generally green and have pale longitudinal stripes. They are all generally similar and difficult to distinguish apart.
- Chrysalids - Angular with a pointed head which may be produced into a long snout. Supported by a tail hook and girth, some being suspended head upwards like the swallowtails and others being fastened horizontally to a leaf or other surface.
The food plants vary considerably, however there is a general trend, in that the whites mostly use capers, (family Capparidaceae) while the yellows usually prefer members of the family Leguminosae, which consist of peas, clover, Cassia and others.
- Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian Butterflies (2nd ed.). Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society.
- Gay, Thomas; Kehimkar, Isaac David; Punetha, Jagdish Chandra (1992). Common Butterflies of India. Nature Guides. Bombay, India: World Wide Fund for Nature-India by Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195631647.
- Haribal, Meena (1992). The Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya and Their Natural History. Gangtok, Sikkim, India: Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation.
- Kunte, Krushnamegh (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India. India, A Lifescape. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press. ISBN 978-8173713545.
- Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329.