List of C-family programming languages
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Due to the success of the C programming language and some of its derivatives, C-family programming languages span a large variety of programming paradigms, conceptual models, and run-time environments.
|Language||Year started||Created by (at)||Comments||References|
|E||1997||Mark S. Miller, Dan Bornstein (Electric Communities)||Designed with secure computing in mind, accomplished chiefly by strict adherence to the object-oriented computing model.|
|C||1969-1973||Dennis Ritchie (Bell Labs)||Was an enhancement of Ken Thompson's B language.|
|Ratfor||1974||Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs)||A hybrid of C and Fortran, implemented as a preprocessor for environments without easy access to C compilers.|
|C shell/tcsh||late 1970s||Bill Joy (UC Berkeley)||Scripting language and standard Unix shell.|
|C++||1979||Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell Labs)||Named as "C with Classes" and renamed C++ in 1983; it began as a reimplementation of static object orientation in the tradition of Simula 67, and through standardization and wide use has grown to encompass generic programming as well as its original object-oriented roots.|||
|AMPL||1985||Robert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs)||It is an algebraic modeling language with elements of a scripting language.|
|Objective-C||1986||Brad Cox and Tom Love||It is an object-oriented dynamic language based heavily on Smalltalk. A loosely defined de facto standard library by the original developers has now largely been displaced by variations on the OpenStep FoundationKit.|||
|C*||1987||Thinking Machines||object-oriented, data-parallel superset of ANSI C|
|Perl||1988||Larry Wall||Scripting language used extensively for system administration, text processing, and web server tasks.|||
|Java||1991||James Gosling (Sun Microsystems)||Created as Oak, and released to the public in 1995. It is an OODL based inspired heavily by Objective-C, though with a syntax based somewhat on C++. It also compiles to its own bytecode, a standard part of the language specification. It is strongly typed, a feature that is enforced by the VM.|||
|S-Lang||1991||John E. Davis||A library with a powerful interpreter that provides facilities required by interactive applications such as display/screen management, keyboard input, keymaps, etc.|||
|SAC||1994||(Germany)||Development spread to several institutions in Germany, Canada, and the UK. Functional language with C syntax.|||
|Alef||1995||Phil Winterbottom (Bell Labs)||Created for systems programming on the Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating system; it was published in 1995 but eventually abandoned. It provided substantial language support for concurrent programming.|||
|Limbo||1995||Limbo succeeded Alef and is used in Inferno as Alef was used in Plan9.|
|PHP||1995||Rasmus Lerdorf||Widely used as a server-side HTML scripting language. C-like syntax.|
|C--||1997||Simon Peyton Jones, Norman Ramsey||generated mainly by compilers for very high-level languages|
|C#||1999||Anders Hejlsberg (Microsoft)||Created under the name "Cool", it is syntactically very similar to Java, though with a Smalltalk-like unified type system.|
|Ch||2001||Harry Cheng||A C/C++ scripting language with extensions for shell programming and numerical computing.|||
|D||2001||Walter Bright (Digital Mars)||Based on C++, but with an incompatible syntax having traits from other C-like languages like Java and C#.|
|eC||2004||Jérôme Jacovella-St-Louis (Ecere)||A super-set of C adding object-oriented features (inspired by C++), properties, dynamic modules and reflection developed as part of the Ecere SDK project, an open-source cross-platform SDK.|
|Cyclone||2001||Greg Morrisett (AT&T Labs)||Intended to be a safe dialect of the C language. It is designed to avoid buffer overflows and other vulnerabilities that are endemic in C programs, without losing the power and convenience of C as a tool for system programming.|
|LSL||2003||?||Created for the Second Life virtual world by Linden Lab.|
|Squirrel||2003||Alberto Demichelis||A light-weight scripting language|
|Go||2007||Rob Pike, Ken Thompson, and Robert Griesemer (Google)||Released to public in 2009, it is a concurrent language with fast compilations, Java-like syntax, but no object-oriented features and strong typing.|
|OpenCL C||2009||Apple, Khronos Group||OpenCL specifies a modified subset of the C programming language for writing programs to run on various compute devices (e.g. GPUs, DSPs)|
|C0||2010||Rob Arnold (CMU)||A safe subset of C with checked pointers and bounds-checked arrays. Created for CMU introductory computer courses.|||
|Swift||2014||Chris Lattner (Apple)||Swift can import any C library, optionally annotating C headers to map C types to Swift objects and import libraries as Swift modules. Swift has two-way bridging with Objective-C on platforms which support Apple's Objective-C runtime. Unlike Objective-C, Swift does not currently support C++ interoperation or exposing Swift types as C structs.|
|AWK||1977||Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger & Brian Kernighan (Bell Labs)||Designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.|
|BitC||2006||Johns Hopkins University||Aims to support formal program verification.|
|LPC||1995||Lars Pensjö||Developed originally to facilitate MUD building on LPMuds. Though designed for game development, its flexibility has led to it being used for a variety of purposes.|
|Pike||1994||Fredrik Hübinette||An interpreted, general-purpose, high-level, cross-platform, dynamic programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C.|
|Seed7||2005||Thomas Mertes||An extensible general-purpose programming language.|
|Processing||2001||Casey Reas, Benjamin Fry||An open source programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities.|
|Split-C||1993||?||A parallel extension of the C programming language.|
|Unified Parallel C||2003||?||An extension of the C programming language designed for high-performance computing on large-scale parallel machines.|
|Cilk||1994||MIT Laboratory for Computer Science||General-purpose programming language designed for multithreaded parallel computing.|
|Chapel||2009||Cray Inc.||Aims to improve the programmability of parallel computers in general and the Cray Cascade system in particular.|
|Fortress||2006||Sun Labs||An experimental programming language for high-performance computing, created by Sun Microsystems with funding from DARPA's High Productivity Computing Systems project.|||
|Agora||1993||?||A reflective, prototype-based, object-oriented programming language that is based exclusively on message passing and not delegation.|
|Falcon||2003||Giancarlo Niccolai||An open source, multi-paradigm programming language.|
|BCPL||1966||Martin Richards||A procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.|
|B||1969||Ken Thompson||Designed for recursive, non-numeric, machine independent applications, such as system and language software.|
|Nim||2008||Andreas Rumpf||An imperative, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language.|
|Nemerle||2003||Andreas Rumpf||A general-purpose high-level statically typed programming language designed for platforms using the Common Language Infrastructure (.NET/Mono).|
|ApeScript||?||?||An interpreted procedural dynamic-typed language.|
|Amiga E||1993||Wouter van Oortmerssen||A combination of many features from a number of languages, but follows the original C programming language most closely in terms of basic concepts.|
|Lite-C||2007||Atari Inc||A programming language for multimedia applications and personal computer games, using a syntax subset of the C language with some elements of the C++ language.|
|Newsqueak||early 1980s||Rob Pike||A concurrent programming language for writing application software with interactive graphical user interfaces. Newsqueak's syntax and semantics are influenced by the C language, but its approach to concurrency was inspired by CSP.|||
|Not eXactly C (NXC)||2006||John Hansen||A high-level programming language for the Lego Mindstorms NXT. NXC, which is short for Not eXactly C, is based on Next Byte Codes, an assembly language. NXC has a syntax like C. It is part of the BricX IDE that integrates editor, tools for interfacing with the brick, and the compiler, but supports more languages.|||
|Not Quite C (NQC)||~1998||David Baum||An embedded systems programming language, application programming interface (API), and native bytecode compiler toolkit for the Lego Mindstorms RCX platform, Cybermaster and LEGO Spybotics systems. It is intended as a drop-in replacement for the LabVIEW-based ROBOLAB IDE. It is based primarily on the C language but has specific limitations, such as the maximum number of subroutines and variables allowed. Later replaced with NXC, an enhanced version created for the Mindstorms NXT platform.|||
|Oak||1991||James Gosling (Sun Microsystems)||A programming language created initially for Sun Microsystems set-top box project. The language later evolved to become Java.|
|PROMAL||1985||Systems Management Associates||A C-like programming language for MS-DOS, Commodore 64, and Apple II.|
|Handel-C||1996||Oxford University Computing Laboratory||A high-level programming language which targets low-level hardware, most commonly used in the programming of FPGAs. It is a rich subset of C.|
|Dart||2013||Lars Bak and Kasper Lund (Google)||A class-based, single inheritance, object-oriented language with C-style syntax.|
|CINT||1997-1999?||Masaharu Goto||An interpreted version of C/C++, much in the way BeanShell is an interpreted version of Java.|
|Cg||2002||Nvidia||Based on the C programming language and although they share the same syntax, some features of C were modified and new data types were added to make Cg more suitable for programming graphics processing units. This language is only suitable for GPU programming and is not a general programming language.|
|nesC||?||?||A component-based, event-driven programming language used to build applications for the TinyOS platform.|
|R||1993||Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman||A programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics.|
|Hack||2014||Julien Verlaguet, Alok Menghrajani, Drew Paroski (Facebook)||A programming language for the HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM).|
|Charm||1996||?||An object oriented computer programming language with similarities to the RTL/2, Pascal and C languages in addition to containing some unique features of its own.|
|Claire||1994||Yves Caseau||A high-level functional and object-oriented programming language with rule processing abilities.|
|Noop||2009||Attempts to blend the best features of "old" and "new" languages, while syntactically encouraging good programming practice.|
|Neko||2005||Nicolas Cannasse (Motion-Twin)||A high-level dynamically typed programming language|
|Axum||2009||Microsoft||A domain specific concurrent programming language, based on the Actor model.|
|Umple||2008||University of Ottawa||A language for both object-oriented programming and modeling with class diagrams and state diagrams.|
|TOM (object-oriented programming language)||1990s||?||An object-oriented programming language that built on the lessons learned from Objective-C.|
|Telescript||1990||Marc Porat||An object-oriented programming language.|
- "The C Family". linuxfinances.info. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- "Programming language". www.cs.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
- "S-Lang Library Information Page".
- "Alef Language Reference Manual".
- "Scientific Numerical Computing".
- "cross platform Ch Shell Programming".
- "Project Fortress: Wiki: Home — Project Kenai".
- "NXC - Not eXactly C".
- "NQC - Not Quite C".