List of Canadian Victoria Cross recipients

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A black-and-white photograph of a man with a beard and short hair looking at the viewer and wearing a button-up jacket displaying four medals
Canadian William Hall was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces. It may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace.

Background[edit]

Established in 1856, the Victoria Cross has been awarded to service personnel for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could also be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[1] Six people were awarded Victoria Crosses under this clause – one Irish man in 1866 for actions taken during the Fenian raids; five (a Canadian, three Irish and an English man) for a single incident in 1867 during the Andaman Islands Expedition. In 1881, VC regulations were amended to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy".[1][2]

Since 1993, Canadians have no longer been eligible for the Victoria Cross: that medal has been superseded by the Canadian Victoria Cross – of equal honour, but yet to be awarded.[3] The scroll of the Canadian medal differs in that the inscription is in Latin rather than English; by using a language that is an ancestor of French and has greatly contributed to the development of English, the medal avoids linguistic discrimination between Canada's two official languages. The fleur-de-lis, in heraldry long associated with the French crown has been added at the end each scroll. The actual metal of the medal is a distinct Canadian composition.[4]

Summary[edit]

The Victoria Cross has been presented to 96 Canadians, or people closely associated with Canada, between its creation for acts performed during the Crimean War and 1993 when the Canadian Victoria Cross was instituted. No Canadian has received either honour since 1945.[5]

The first Canadian to be awarded the Victoria Cross was Alexander Roberts Dunn for his actions at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War in 1854. William Hall, a Nova Scotian, was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.[6] The last living Canadian recipient of the British Victoria Cross, "Smokey" Smith, died in August 2005.[7]

Seventy-three Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadians for their actions in the First World War, and Canadians won sixteen VCs during the Second World War. The remaining recipients were awarded the medal for actions performed in the Crimean War (Battle of Balaclava), the Indian Mutiny (the Indian Rebellion of 1857), a native uprising at a remote Indian Ocean island during the Andaman Islands Expedition, the Battle of Omdurman during the Sudan Campaign of 1896-99, and the Second Boer War.

Timothy O'Hea, a 23-year-old Irishman in the British army, fought a fire in a railway car containing 900 kilograms of ammunition stationed at Danville, Quebec during the Fenian raids.[8] O'Hea is the only VC recipient awarded for actions on Canadian soil.[9]

Seven Canadians were awarded VCs individually on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions they performed along the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France: Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Henry Metcalf, Claude Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck, Walter Leigh Rayfield and John Francis Young. Their acts of exceptional valour were performed during Canada's Hundred Days of successful offensive campaigning that helped end the war.

Recipients[edit]

(This list is arranged alphabetically when first opened but the order can be changed to other criteria such as date of valourous action, by clicking in box at top of each column.)

  This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously

Name Date of action Conflict Unit Perpetuating Unit Place of action Province of origin Notes
Wallace Algie 1918* First World War 20th Battalion, CEF The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC) Cambrai, France Ontario[10]
William Barker 1918 First World War No. 201 Squadron RAF None Forêt de Mormal, France Manitoba[11]
Colin Barron 1917 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Royal Regiment of Canada Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[12]
Ian Bazalgette 1944* Second World War No. 115 Squadron RAF No. 115 Squadron RAF Trossy St. Maximin, France Alberta[13]
Edward Bellew 1915 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Kerselaere, Belgium British Columbia[14]
Philip Bent 1917* First World War Leicestershire Regiment B Company, Second Battalion, Royal Anglian Regiment Polygon Wood, Belgium Nova Scotia[15]
William Bishop 1917 First World War No. 60 Squadron RAF No. 60 Squadron RAF Cambrai, France Ontario[16]
Rowland Bourke 1918 First World War Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Ostend, Belgium British Columbia[17]
Alexander Brereton 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Amiens, France Manitoba[18]
Jean Brillant 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Royal 22nd Regiment Meharicourt, France Quebec[19]
Harry Brown 1917* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders Loos, France Ontario[20]
Hugh Cairns 1918* First World War[note 1] 46th Battalion, CEF Saskatchewan Dragoons Valenciennes, France Saskatchewan[21]
Frederick Campbell 1915* First World War 1st Battalion, CEF Royal Canadian Regiment Givenchy, France Ontario[22]
William Clark-Kennedy 1918 First World War 24th Battalion, CEF Victoria Rifles of Canada Fresnes, France Quebec[23]
Leo Clarke 1916* First World War 2nd Battalion, CEF Governor General's Foot Guards Pozières, France Manitoba[24] [note 2]
Hampden Cockburn 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[25]
Robert Combe 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Acheville, France Saskatchewan[26]
Frederick Coppins 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Hackett Woods, France Manitoba[27]
Aubrey Cosens 1945* Second World War Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Mooshof, Germany Ontario[28]
John Croak 1918* First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Amiens, France Nova Scotia[29] .[note 3][30]
Robert Cruickshank 1918 First World War London Regiment London Regiment Jordan, Palestine Manitoba[31] [note 4]
David Currie 1944 Second World War 29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (South Alberta Regiment) South Alberta Light Horse Battle of Falaise, France Saskatchewan[32]
Raymond de Montmorency 1898 Battle of Omdurman, Sudan Campaign 21st Lancers 17th/21st Lancers Omdurman, Sudan Quebec[33] [note 5]
Edmund De Wind 1918* First World War Royal Irish Rifles Royal Irish Regiment (1992) Groagie, France Alberta[34] [note 6]
Thomas Dinesen 1918 First World War 42nd Battalion, CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Parvillers, France n/a[35] [note 7]
Campbell Douglas 1867 Bravery at Sea, Andaman Islands Expedition 24th Regiment of Foot South Wales Borderers Little Andaman, India Ontario[36] [note 8]
Alexander Dunn 1854 Battle of Balaclava, Crimean War 33rd Regiment of Foot Yorkshire Regiment Balaclava, Crimea Ontario[37] [note 4]
[note 9]
Frederick Fisher 1915* First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada St. Julien, Belgium Ontario[38]
Gordon Flowerdew 1918* First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Bois de Moreuil, France British Columbia[39]
John Foote 1942 Second World War 1st Battalion, The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) Dieppe, France Ontario[40]
Herman Good 1918 First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Hangard Wood, France New Brunswick[41]
Robert Gray 1945* Second World War Fleet Air Arm Fleet Air Arm Honshū, Japan British Columbia[42] [note 10]
Milton Gregg 1918 First World War Royal Canadian Regiment Royal Canadian Regiment Cambrai, France New Brunswick[43]
Frederick Hall 1915* First World War 8th Battalion (90th Winnipeg Rifles), CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Ypres, Belgium Manitoba[44] [note 2]
William Hall 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 HMS Shannon none Lucknow, India Nova Scotia[45]
Robert Hanna 1917 First World War 29th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Lens, France British Columbia[46]
Frederick Harvey 1917 First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Guyencourt, France Alberta[47]
Frederick Hobson 1917* First World War 20th Battalion, CEF Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC) Lens, France Ontario[48]
Charles Hoey 1944 Second World War Royal Lincolnshire Regiment Royal Anglian Regiment Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma (now Myanmar) British Columbia[49]
Edward Holland 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[50]
Thomas Holmes 1917 First World War 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Governor General's Horse Guards Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[51]
Samuel Honey 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Winnipeg Grenadiers Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[52]
David Hornell 1944* Second World War No. 162 Squadron RCAF Faroes, Atlantic Ontario[53]
Bellenden Hutcheson 1918 First World War 75th Battalion, CEF Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own) Arras, France Ontario[54] [note 11]
Joseph Kaeble 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Royal 22e Régiment Neuville-Vitasse, France Quebec[55]
George Kerr 1918 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Queen's Own Rifles of Canada and Royal Regiment of Canada Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[56]
John Kerr 1916 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry) Courcelette, France Nova Scotia[57] Alberta[note 12]
Cecil Kinross 1917 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry) Passchendaele, Belgium Alberta[58]
Arthur Knight 1918* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders Villers-les-Cagnicourt, France Saskatchewan[59]
Filip Konowal 1917 First World War 47th Battalion, CEF Royal Westminster Regiment Lens, France n/a [note 13]
Okill Learmonth 1917* First World War 2nd Battalion, CEF Governor General's Foot Guards Loos, France Quebec[59]
Graham Lyall 1918 First World War 102nd Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Cambrai, France Ontario[60]
Thain MacDowell 1917 First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own) Vimy Ridge, France Ontario[61]
John MacGregor 1918 First World War 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF British Columbia Dragoons Cambrai, France British Columbia[62]
John Mahony 1944 Second World War Westminster Regiment (Motor) Royal Westminster Regiment River Melfa, Italy British Columbia[63]
George McKean 1918 First World War 14th Battalion, CEF Royal Montreal Regiment Gavrelle Sector, France Alberta[64]
Hugh McKenzie 1917* First World War Canadian Machine Gun Corps Royal Canadian Armoured Corps Meetscheele Spur, Belgium Ontario Alberta[65] [note 14]
Alan McLeod 1918* First World War No. 2 Squadron RFC No. 2 Squadron RAF Albert, France Manitoba[66]
William Merrifield 1918 First World War 4th Battalion, CEF 56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) Abancourt, France Ontario[67]
Charles Merritt 1942 Second World War South Saskatchewan Regiment South Saskatchewan Regiment Dieppe, France British Columbia[68]
William Metcalf 1918 First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Arras, France n/a [note 11]
William Milne 1917* First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Thelus, France Saskatchewan[69]
Harry Miner 1918* First World War 58th Battalion, CEF Royal Regiment of Canada Demuin, France Ontario[70]
Coulson Norman Mitchell 1918 First World War 4th Battalion Canadian Engineers Canal de L'Escaut, France Manitoba[71]
George Mullin 1917 First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Passchendaele, Belgium Saskatchewan[72] [note 11]
Andrew Mynarski 1944* Second World War No. 419 Squadron RCAF 419 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron Cambrai, France Manitoba[73]
William Nickerson 1900 Second Boer War Royal Army Medical Corps Wakkerstroom, South Africa New Brunswick[74] [note 4]
Claude Nunney 1918* First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own) Drocourt-Queant Line, France Ontario[75]
Christopher O'Kelly 1917 First World War 52nd Battalion, CEF Lake Superior Scottish Regiment Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[76]
Michael O'Leary 1915 First World War Irish Guards Irish Guards Cuinchy, France Saskatchewan[77] [note 15]
Michael O'Rourke 1917 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Hill 70, France British Columbia[78]
John Osborn 1941 Second World War Winnipeg Grenadiers Winnipeg Grenadiers Mount Butler, Hong Kong Manitoba[79]
John Pattison 1917* First World War 50th Battalion, CEF King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC) Vimy Ridge, France Alberta[80]
George Pearkes 1917 First World War 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Sherbrooke Hussars Passchendaele, Belgium Yukon[81]
Cyrus Peck 1918 First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Cagnicourt, France New Brunswick[82]
Frederick Peters 1942 Second World War HMS Walney Oran, Algeria P.E.I[83]
Walter Rayfield 1918 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Arras, France Ontario[84]
Herbert Reade 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 61st Regiment of Foot The Rifles Delhi, India Ontario[85]
Arthur Richardson 1900 Second Boer War Strathcona's Horse Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Wolwespruit, South Africa Saskatchewan[86] [note 16] [note 17]
James Richardson 1916* First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Somme, France British Columbia[87]
James Peter Robertson 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Passchendaele, Belgium Nova Scotia Alberta[88] [note 18]
Charles Rutherford 1918 First World War 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Sherbrooke Hussars Monchy, France Ontario[89]
Francis Scrimger 1915 First World War Canadian Army Medical Corps St. Julien, Belgium Quebec[90]
Robert Shankland 1917 First World War 43rd Battalion, CEF Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[91] [note 2]
Ellis Sifton 1917* First World War 18th Battalion, CEF Essex and Kent Scottish Neuville-St.-Vaast, France Ontario[92]
John Sinton 1916 First World War Indian Medical Service Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia British Columbia[93] [note 4]
Ernest Smith 1944 Second World War Seaforth Highlanders of Canada Seaforth Highlanders of Canada River Savio, Italy British Columbia[94]
Robert Spall 1918* First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Parvillers, France Manitoba[95]
Harcus Strachan 1917 First World War Fort Garry Horse Fort Garry Horse Masnières, France Manitoba Alberta[96] [note 19]
James Tait 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Winnipeg Grenadiers Amiens, France Manitoba[97]
Frederick Tilston 1945 Second World War Essex Scottish Regiment Essex and Kent Scottish Hochwald Forest, Germany Ontario[98]
Frederick Topham 1945 Second World War 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion Rhine, Germany Ontario[99]
Paul Triquet 1943 Second World War Royal 22e Régiment Royal 22e Régiment Casa Berardi, Italy Quebec[100]
Richard Turner 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Quebec[101]
Thomas Wilkinson 1916* First World War Loyal North Lancashire Regiment Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire) La Boiselle, France British Columbia[102] [note 20]
John Young 1918 First World War 87th Battalion, CEF Canadian Grenadier Guards Dury-Arras Sector, France Quebec[103]
Raphael Zengel 1918 First World War 5th Battalion, CEF North Saskatchewan Regiment Warvillers, France Saskatchewan[104] [note 11]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ He was the last Canadian awarded the Victoria Cross for actions taken during WWI, His actions being made on Nov. 2, 1918, just nine days before the Armistice.
  2. ^ a b c One of three WWI Canadian VC recipients who lived on same block on Pine Street (now Valour Road) in Winnipeg: Leo Clarke, Frederick Hall and Robert Shankland
  3. ^ Born in the Dominion of Newfoundland, moved to Canada at age 2. Fellow recipient Thomas Ricketts, not included on this sub-list, was a citizen of the Dominion of Newfoundland in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment
  4. ^ a b c d Recipients were Canadians, but were serving in Other Army Units at the time of their VC act
  5. ^ He was the first Canadian awarded the Victoria Cross for actions subsequent to Canadian Confederation
  6. ^ Although born in Ireland, was enlisted in the Canadian army and is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal, and Albertan because he was working in an Edmonton bank when he enlisted.
  7. ^ Although a Danish citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, he is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  8. ^ Awarded VC for actions taken not in the face of the enemy, one of only six awarded this way
  9. ^ First Canadian to earn VC, during the Charge of the Light Brigade, 1854-Oct-25
  10. ^ Last Canadian to earn VC, in actions sinking Japanese escort ship Amakusa, 1945-Aug-9
  11. ^ a b c d Although an American citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  12. ^ Kerr was born in Nova Scotia and moved to farm in Alberta before enlisting in Edmonton unit.
  13. ^ Although a Ukrainian citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  14. ^ McKenzie was born in Liverpool, moved to Ontario before enlisting in Alberta unit.
  15. ^ Considered Irish, but listed here due to residency in Canada
  16. ^ living at time of enlistment at Battleford
  17. ^ first soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross for actions committed while serving with a Canadian unit (even though under British command)
  18. ^ lived most of his life in Medicine Hat
  19. ^ Strachan enlisted in a Winnipeg unit but was a farmer in Alberta
  20. ^ Wilkinson lived in Vancouver and enlisted in a Vancouver unit Overseas, he transeferred to the British Army.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Christopher McCreery (2015). The Canadian Honours System. Dundurn. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4597-2417-4.
  2. ^ "VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
  3. ^ "Victoria Cross (Canadian version)". Canadian Veterans affairs department. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2007.
  4. ^ "Gov. Gen., PM unveil Canadian Victoria Cross". 2008-05-16. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
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  6. ^ "Black History Month Starts Up Across the City". CTV. 30 January 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  7. ^ "Ottawa pays respect to Smokey Smith". CBC News. 9 August 2005. Retrieved 16 November 2007.
  8. ^ Philip A. Wilkins (2012). The History of the Victoria Cross: Being an account of the 520 acts of bravery for which the decoration has been awarded and portraits of 392 recipients. Andrews UK Limited. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-78151-673-7.
  9. ^ Mary Beacock Fryer (1986). Battlefields of Canada. Dundurn. p. 261. ISBN 978-1-55488-093-5.
  10. ^ "Lieutenant Wallace Lloyd Algie – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  11. ^ "Major William George Barker – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  12. ^ "Vc Burials Canada – Toronto". Victoriacross.org.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  13. ^ "Sqdn. Ldr. Ian Willoughby Bazalgette – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 7 March 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  14. ^ Carl Read. "Edward Donald Bellew (VC)". TheVictoriaCross.net. Retrieved 23 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
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  16. ^ Carl Read. "William Avery Bishop (VC)". TheVictoriaCross.net. Retrieved 23 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Carl Read. "Roland Richard Louis Bourke (VC)". TheVictoriaCross.net. Retrieved 23 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ "Alexander Picton Brereton". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  19. ^ "Jean Brillant". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  20. ^ "Search Details – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  21. ^ "Hugh Cairns". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  22. ^ "Search Details – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  23. ^ "William Hew Clark-Kennedy – Veterans Affairs Canada". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  24. ^ "Search Details – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  25. ^ "Lieutenant Hampden Zane Churchill Cockburn VC". Northeastmedals.co.uk. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
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  27. ^ "Frederick George Coppins". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
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  29. ^ "John Bernard Croak". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  30. ^ "Memorial to fallen Newfoundland soldiers declared National Historic Site". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 9 April 1997. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
  31. ^ "Robert Edward Cruickshank". Gocruickshanks.com. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  32. ^ "David Vivian Currie". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  33. ^ "Lieutenant Raymond Harvey Lodge Joseph de Montmorency". Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
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  35. ^ "Thomas Fasti Dinesen". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  36. ^ "Virtual Saskatchewan – Campbell Mellis Douglas". Virtualsk.com. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  37. ^ "Canada And The Victoria Cross: Of Rebellion And Rescue Part 2 of 18". Legion Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
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  39. ^ "Search Details – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  40. ^ "Rev. John Weir Foote – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  41. ^ "Herman James Good". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  42. ^ "Lt. Robert Hampton Gray – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 7 March 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  43. ^ "Milton Fowler Gregg". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  44. ^ "Fredrick William Hall". Veterans Canada. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  45. ^ "William Hall". Veterans Canada. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  46. ^ "Robert Hanna, V.C". Russiansinthecef.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  47. ^ Sevendust. "Lord Strathconas Horse (Royal Canadians) // Awards". Strathconas.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-01-12. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  48. ^ "Fredrick Hobson". Veterans Canada. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  49. ^ "The Canadian Virtual War Memorial". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  50. ^ "DHH – Victoria Cross Bios – Frederick Hobson". Cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  51. ^ "Thomas William Holmes". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  52. ^ "Samuel Lewis Honey". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  53. ^ "David Ernest Hornell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  54. ^ "Bellenden Hutcheson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  55. ^ "Joseph Kaeble". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  56. ^ "George Fraser Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  57. ^ "John Chipman Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  58. ^ "Cecil John Kinross". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  59. ^ a b "Arthur George Knight". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  60. ^ "Graham Thomson Lyall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  61. ^ "Thain Wendell MacDowell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Thain Wendell MacDowell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  63. ^ "John Keefer Mahony". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  64. ^ "George Burdon McKean". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  65. ^ "Hugh McKenzie". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  66. ^ "Alan Arnett McLeod". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  67. ^ "William Merrifield". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  68. ^ "Charles Cecil Ingersoll Merritt". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  69. ^ "William Johnstone Milne". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  70. ^ "Harry Garnet Bedford Miner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  71. ^ "Coulson Norman Mitchell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  72. ^ "George Mullin". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  73. ^ "Andrew Charles Mynarski". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  74. ^ "The Victoria Cross awarded to William Henry Snyder Nickerson". Memorials.inportsmouth.co.uk. 10 April 1954. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  75. ^ "Claude Joseph Patrick Nunney". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  76. ^ "Christopher O'Kelly". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  77. ^ "The Baldwin Project: Heroes of the Great War by G. A. Leask". Mainlesson.com. 26 June 1915. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  78. ^ "Michael James O'Rourke". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  79. ^ "John Robert Osbron". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  80. ^ "John George Pattison". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  81. ^ "George Randolph Pearkes". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  82. ^ "Cyrus Wesley Peck". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  83. ^ "The Canadian Virtual War Memorial". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  84. ^ "Walter Leigh Rayfield". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  85. ^ "Herbert Taylor Reade Historical Plaque". Ontarioplaques.com. 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  86. ^ "Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  87. ^ "James Cleland Richardson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  88. ^ "James Peter Robertson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  89. ^ "Charles Smith Rutherford". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  90. ^ "Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  91. ^ "Robert Shankland". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  92. ^ "Ellis Welwood Sifton". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  93. ^ Bob Sinton, Tandragee, Co. Armagh, Northern Ireland. "Sinton Family Trees – Details of Brig. John Alexander Sinton VC, OBE, DL, FRS, MD, DSc, MB, BCh, son of Walter Lyon Sinton and Isabella Mary Pringle, Born 1884, Died 1956". Bob-sinton.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  94. ^ "Ernest Alvia Smith". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  95. ^ "Robert Spall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  96. ^ "Harcus Strachan". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  97. ^ "James Edward Tait". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.; Canadian Virtual War Memorial website
  98. ^ "Frederick Albert Tilston". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  99. ^ "Frederick George Topham". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  100. ^ "Paul Triquet". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  101. ^ "Richard Ernest William Turner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  102. ^ "Thomas Orde Lawder Wilkinson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  103. ^ "John Francis Young". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  104. ^ "Raphael Louis Zengel". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.