List of Canadian flags

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The Canadian national flag flying next to a statue of Terry Fox
The national flag of Canada with the flags of the Canadian provinces and territories

This is a list of flags used in Canada. The Department of Canadian Heritage lays out protocol guidelines for the display of flags, including an order of precedence; these instructions are only conventional, however, and are generally intended to show respect for what are considered important symbols of the state or institutions.[1] The Queen's personal standard is supreme in the order of precedence, followed by those for the monarch's representatives (depending on jurisdiction), the personal flags of other members of the Royal Family,[2] and then the national flag and provincial flags.

Many museums across Canada display historic flags in their exhibits. The Canadian Museum of History, in Hull, Quebec has many culturally important flags in their collections. Settlers, Rails & Trails Inc., in Argyle, Manitoba holds the 2nd largest exhibit - known as the Canadian Flag Collection.

Royal[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Royal Standard of Canada.svg 1962–present Royal Standard of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada A banner of the Royal Arms of Canada defaced with a royal cypher of Queen Elizabeth II

Viceregal and administrative[edit]

Governor general[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Governor-General of Canada.svg 1981–1999
2002–present
Flag of the Governor General of Canada A blue field with the crest of the Royal Arms of Canada charged in the centre

Lieutenant governors and Commissioners[edit]

Civil and state[edit]

National[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of Canada.svg 1965–present National Flag of Canada
(Maple Leaf Flag, l'Unifolié)
A vertical bicolour triband of red, white, red with a red maple leaf emblem charged in the Canadian pale

Ceremonial[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg 1965–present Royal Union Flag National flag of the United Kingdom. The Cross of St. Andrew counterchanged with the Cross of St. Patrick and over all the Cross of St. George.

Provincial[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of Ontario.svg 1965–present Flag of Ontario A red field with the Royal Union Flag in the canton and the shield of the coat of arms of Ontario charged in the fly
Flag of Quebec.svg 1948–present Flag of Quebec
(The Fleurdelisé)
A blue field with an ordinary white cross and a white fleur-de-lis in each quadrant
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg 1858–present Flag of Nova Scotia A banner of arms of the coat of arms of Nova Scotia
Flag of New Brunswick.svg 1965–present Flag of New Brunswick A banner of the coat of arms of New Brunswick
Flag of Manitoba.svg 1965–present Flag of Manitoba A red field with the Royal Union Flag in the canton and the shield of the coat of arms of Manitoba charged in the fly
Flag of British Columbia.svg 1960–present Flag of British Columbia A banner of the coat of arms of British Columbia
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg 1964–present Flag of Prince Edward Island A banner of the coat of arms of Prince Edward Island within a bordure compony of red and white
Flag of Alberta.svg 1968–present Flag of Alberta A blue field with the shield of the coat of arms of Alberta charged in the centre
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg 1969–present Flag of Saskatchewan A field party per fess, green and yellow, with the shield of the coat of arms of Saskatchewan in the canton and western red lily emblem charged in the fly
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg 1980–present Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador A blue and white field party per pale (at nombril point) with a white border, white ordinary cross and white saltire, two triangular divisions in the fly lined in red, a golden arrow between two triangular divisions

Territorial[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg 1969–present Flag of the Northwest Territories A vertical bicolour triband of blue, white, blue with the shield of the coat of arms of the Northwest Territories charged in the Canadian pale
Flag of Yukon.svg 1968–present Flag of Yukon A vertical tricolour triband of green, white, blue with the shield of the coat of arms of Yukon above a wreath of fireweed charged in the Canadian pale
Flag of Nunavut.svg 1999–present Flag of Nunavut A field party per pale, yellow and white, with a red inukshuk charged in the centre and a blue star in the upper fly

Indigenous nations[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of Nunatsiavut.svg 2005–present Flag of Nunatsiavut A white field with a white, green, and blue inukshuk charged in the centre
NunatuKavut Flag.gif 2018–present Flag of NunatuKavut The flag features an ulu, a traditional Inuit knife used by women. Within the ulu image is a dog sled team, showing the importance of husky dogs, as well as a kudlik, a traditional seal oil lamp
Mikmaq State Flag (vertical).svg Unknown–present Flag of the Mi'kmaq Nation Grand Council A white field with a red Latin cross and a red star and moon in the left quadrants; white denotes purity of creation, the red cross represents mankind and infinity, the sun and moon the forces of day and night,[3] the flag is meant to be displayed hanging vertically as shown here[4]
Flag of the Iroquois Confederacy.svg 1980s–present Flag of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy A mauve field party per fess by a band of white squares joined and a stylized white "Tree of Peace" charged in the centre; design is adapted from the Hiawatha wampum belt, each element represents an original nation in the confederacy
InnuNation.svg Unknown–present Flag of the Innu Nation Horizontal bands of teal, white and light blue, within the blue sits a centre snowshoe flanked by reindeer skulls on both sides
Matimekush Lac John Band (Innu-Montagnais Nation), Quebec.gif Unknown–present Flag of the Matimekush Band A vertical tricolour triband of chartreuse, white, green with the coat of arms of the Matimekush Lac John Band charged in the Canadian pale
Anishinabe.svg Unknown–present Flag of the Anishinaabek A black pictographic thunderbird on a white field
Flag of Eel Ground First Nation.svg Mid-1980s–present Flag of the Natuaqanek Band A red field with yellow left and right borders, a quartered roundel charged in the centre[3]
Flag of the Stoney Nakoda Nation.PNG Unknown–present Flag of Ĩyãħé Nakón Mąkóce (Stoney Nakoda) Stoney Nakoda flag
Ktunaxa Flag.png 2005–present Flag of the Ktunaxa Nation Flag features a golden feathered staff on a brown field
Secwepemculecw.png Unknown–present Flag of Secwepemcúl̓ecw Flag features 17 feathers representing the 17 bands in the Secwépemc Nation. The feathers are mostly black, with a white portion in the middle. The white portion signifies those communities which were wiped out by disease and other trauma following contact
Nlaka'pamux Flag.png 1980–present Flag of the Nlaka'pamux Nation Circle wreath of Nlaka'pamux pictographs set on a grey field
Flag of Haida.svg Unknown–present Flag of the Haida Nation A red field with an eagle and raven headed bird, surrounded by a circlet, charged in the centre
Flag of the Teslin Tlingit Council.PNG 2012–present Flag of Deisleen Ḵwáan, Lingít Aaní Horizontally striped, red-white-red, 1-3-1, with five totems or emblems in the centre, from left to right: Kùkhhittàn (Raven Children), Ishklitàn (Frog), Yanyèdi (Wolf), Sèshitàn (Beaver), Dakhlʼawèdi (Eagle)
Kolīne Flag.png Unknown–present Flag of the Tahltan Nation Flag of Tahltan Kolīne representing the two clans: Crow (or Tseskʼiya) and Wolf (or Chʼioyone)
Bandera Nis'ga Nation.png 2001–present Flag of the Nisg̱aʼa Nation A vertical tricolour triband of black, white, and sanguine with the badge of the Nisga'a Nation,[5] surrounded by black and sanguine ovals, charged in the Canadian pale[6]
Metis Blue.svg Pre-1816–present Flag of the Métis Nation of Canada A blue field with a white symbol of infinity charged in the centre (French descent)
Metis Red.svg Pre-1816–present Flag of the Métis Nation of Alberta A red field with a white symbol of infinity charged in the centre (British descent)

Francophone peoples[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of Acadia.svg 1884–present Acadian flag Tri-colored flag, blue, white then red. A yellow star representing independence and unique culture from main land France.
Franco-Ontarian flag.svg 1975–present Flag of the Franco-Ontarians A field party per pale, green and white, with a white fleur-de-lys charged in the hoist and a green trillium emblem charged in the fly
Bandera dels Fransaskois.svg 1976–present Flag of the Fransaskois A yellow field with a green Nordic cross centred towards the upper hoist and a red fleur-de-lis charged in the lower fly
Flag of the Franco-Manitobains.svg 1980–present Flag of the Franco-Manitobans A white field with yellow over sanguine bars with a green plant emblem in four pieces charged in the hoist
Flag of the Franco-Colombiens.svg 1981–present Flag of the Franco-Columbians A white field party per pale by a bar gemelles and dancetty, a fleur-de-lys and Pacific Dogwood emblem charged in the fly; Dogwood is the floral emblem of British Columbia, the blue stripes evoke the Pacific Ocean and the rising mountains beside, the yellow centre of the Dogwood flower represents the sun
Flag of the Franco Albertains.svg 1982–present Flag of the Franco-Albertans A field party per bend sinister, blue and white, by a bend cotised white and blue with a white fleur-de-lys in the upper hoist and a red wild rose in the lower fly
Flag of the Franco-Yukonnais.svg 1985–present Flag of the Franco-Yukonnais A blue field and three diagonal stripes set from lower hoist to upper fly. The colours of the stripes are white and golden yellow. The effect created by the arrangement of the stripes is meant to represent Yukon's many mountains. Blue is for the French people and the sky. White is for winter and snow. Yellow represents the gold rush and the Franco-Yukonnais contributions to history of the territory.
Flag of Franco-Terreneuviens.svg 1986–present Flag of the Fédération des Francophones de Terre-Neuve et du Labrador (Franco-Terreneuviens) Three unequal panels of blue, white, and red, with two yellow sails set on the line between the white and red panels. The sail on top is charged with a spruce twig, while the bottom sail is charged with a pitcher flower.
Flag of the FrancoTenois.svg 1992–present Flag of the Franco-Ténois A polar bear on a snowy hill, looking forward towards a snowflake/Fleur-de-lis combined, representing the French community of the Northwest Territories of Canada.
Flag of the Franco-Nunavois.svg 2002–present Flag of the Franco-Nunavois Blue that represents the Arctic sky and white recalls the snow, abundantly present on the territory. The principal shape represent an igloo, and under this one, the inukshuk which symbolise the human presence. A single dandelion flower grows from beneath it.

Military, police, coast guard and border services[edit]

Canada Border Services Agency[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Canada Border Services Agency.svg 2012–present Flag of the Canada Border Services Agency A Blue field with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and the Canada Border Services Agency badge charged in the fly

Canadian Armed Forces[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Canadian Forces.svg 1968–present Flag of the Canadian Armed Forces A white field with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and the Canadian Armed Forces badge charged in the fly
Naval Ensign of Canada.svg 1968–present Canadian Naval Ensign A white field with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and charged in the fly with an anchor, eagle and naval crown in blue
Naval Auxiliary Jack of Canada.svg 1968–present Canadian Forces Auxiliary Jack A blue field with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and charged in the fly with an anchor, eagle and naval crown in white
Flag of the Canadian Army.svg 2016–present Flag of the Canadian Army A scarlet red field with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and the Canadian Army badge charged in the fly
Air Force Ensign of Canada.svg 1982–present Royal Canadian Air Force Ensign A field of air force blue with the National Flag of Canada in the canton and the Royal Canadian Air Force roundel charged in the fly
Flag of the Canadian Navy Board.svg c. 1964–present Flag of the Canadian Navy Board A field party per bend, blue and sanguine, with a fouled anchor in gold charged in the centre
Flag of the Royal Military College of Canada.svg 1920–present Flag of the Royal Military College of Canada A field tierced per pale, red, white, and red with the badge of the Royal Military College of Canada charged in the centre
Drapeau du Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean.svg 1920–present Flag of the Royal Military College Saint-Jean A field tierced per pale, blue, white, and blue with the badge of the Royal Military College Saint-Jean charged in the centre
Canada Commander in Chief Unit Banner.svg 2000–present Banner of the Commander-in-Chief Unit Commendation A field tierced per pale, blue, red, and azure, with the crest of the Royal Arms of Canada charged in the centre
Camp flag of the Cadet Instructors Cadre.png 2009–present Camp flag of the Cadet Instructors Cadre The badge of the Cadet Instructors Cadre, with the traditional colours of the Navy, Army and the Air Force. The golden border represents the young people that CIC officers work for.

Coast Guard[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Coastguard Flag of Canada.svg 1962–present Flag of the Canadian Coast Guard A banner of the arms of the Canadian Coast Guard: vertical diband of white and blue, a red maple leaf emblem charged in the hoist and a pair of fish in gold and facing opposite directions charged in the fly

Police[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the RCMP.svg 1991–present Ensign of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police A red field with a blue canton bordered yellow with a representation of the Badge of the RCMP
1998–present Flag of the Ontario Provincial Police Blue with the heraldic badge of the OPP
1983–present Flag of the Sûreté du Québec A green field, on a Canadian Pale Yellow charged with the badge of the Sûreté du Québec

Canadian Cadet Organizations, Cadet Leagues and the Navy League Cadets[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Ensign of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets.svg 1976–present[7] Flag of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets A white flag with a Canadian Flag at the canton, with the badge of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets at the fly.
Ensign of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets (1953-1976).svg 1953–1976[7] Former flag of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets A white flag with a Union Flag at the canton, with the badge of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets at the fly. This is the basis of the current flag of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets.
NLC Flag 2011.svg 2009–present[8] Flag of the Navy League of Canada A white flag with a Canadian Flag at the canton, with the current badge of the Navy League of Canada at the fly.
Banner of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets.png 1985–present[9] Banner of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets A Canadian Flag in the same shape as a Queen's Colours used in the Canadian Armed Forces, with the maple leaf modified with the badge of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. At the canton, the cypher of General HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. At the fly, a badge representing the Canadian Army (the crown of Saint Edward above crossed swords).
Royal Canadian Army Cadets Flag.png January 1973–present Flag of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets used by individual Army Cadet Corps.
Royal Canadian Army Cadets Flag (Union Flag Pattern).png 1944–1973 Flag of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets used by individual Army Cadet Corps used before 1973.
Camp Flag of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets.png ?? Camp Flag of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets. On a white field, the badge of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets in the centre.
Flag of the Army Cadet League of Canada.png 1995–present [10] Flag of the Army Cadet League of Canada. A banner of the shield of the arms of the Army Cadet League of Canada. According to the heraldic grant, the shield of the arms of the Army Cadet League of Canada is "Argent two swords in saltire Argent fimbriated Gules hilted and pommelled Or surmounted by a maple leaf Gules veined Or all within an orle of twelve maple leaves stems inward Gules."[11] The web site of the Governor General of Canada explains this description as follows: "The white shield, bearing a maple leaf and crossed broad swords, alludes to a central Canadian entity with direct connection to the military. The twelve smaller maple leaves show singleness of purpose but at the Branch level.[11]
Banner of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets.png 1991–present [12][9] Banner of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets Based on the design of Queen's Colours for the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the badge of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets replacing the maple leaf. At the canton, the cypher of General HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh as Air Commodore in Chief of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets. On the bottom fly, the first badge of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, a golden maple leaf above an eagle.
Royal Canadian Air Cadet Ensign.png 1971–present [12] Ensign of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets An Air Force blue flag, with a Canadian flag at the canton, with the historical badge of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets.
Royal Canadian Air Cadet Squadron Banner (643 St-Hubert).png ??? Squadron Banner of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets An Air Force blue flag, with the badge of the Royal Canadian Air Cadets and a scroll stating the squadron's name and number (this example, 643 St-Hubert Squadron.

Municipal[edit]

Crown corporations[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Royal Canadian Mint.svg 1978-present Flag of the Royal Canadian Mint A red field with the logo of the Royal Canadian Mint charged in the centre; logo was first introduced in 1978

Historical flags[edit]

National flags[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of England.svg 1497–1707 Flag on John Cabot's ship, and used during the English colonization of the Americas before the Act of Union. White Ensign, St George's Cross.
Flag of Scotland (1542–2003).svg 1621–1707 Flag used during the Scottish colonization of the Americas before the Act of Union. White saltire on blue ensign, St. Andrew's Cross.
Pavillon royal de la France.svg 1534–1763 Royal Banner of France or "Bourbon Flag" was the most commonly used flag in New France.[13][14][15][16] The banner flag has three gold fleur-de-lis on a dark blue field arranged two and one.
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg 1643 Royal Standard of France.
Naval Flag of the Kingdom of France (Civil Ensign).svg 1689 Merchant Flag of France
Flag of Great Britain (1707–1800).svg 1763–1801 Flag of Great Britain
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg 1801–1964 Flag of the United Kingdom (1801–1964); Canadian Royal Union Flag (1964–present)
Flag of Canada (1868–1921).svg 1868-1921 Canadian version Red Ensign and civil flag until 1921.
Canadian Red Ensign (1905–1922).svg 1905-1922 1907 Canadian Red Ensign commonly used in western Canada. Note the inclusion of all the provincial emblems.
Flag of Canada (1921–1957).svg 1921-1957 Canadian version Red Ensign and civil flag until 1957.
Flag of Canada (1957–1965).svg 1957-1965 1957 version of the Canadian Red Ensign that had evolved as the de facto national flag until 1965.

Vice-regal flags[edit]

Military flags[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg RCN (1911–1965)

RCSCC (1905–1965)

Used as the ensign of the Royal Canadian Navy and some Royal Canadian Sea Cadets corps. Used throughout the entire British Empire by the Royal Navy and by several former British colonies even after they became independent and established their own navies. White Ensign, St George's Cross with the Union Flag in the canton.
Canadian Blue Ensign (1921–1957).svg RCN (1921–1957)

RCSCC (1929–1953)

The Blue Ensign, worn as a jack by the Royal Canadian Navy and used by the RCSCC Blue Ensign defaced with the Royal Arms of Canada. The maple leaves at the bottom of the shield are green.
Flag of the Canadian Army (1939–1944).svg 1939–1944 Canadian Army Battle Flag White Ensign. Designed by Colonel Archer Fortescue Duguid, Director of Historical Section, General Staff, National Defence Headquarters.
Flag of the Canadian Army (1968–1998).svg 1989–1998 Force Mobile Command flag
Flag of Land Force Command (1998–2013).svg 1998–2013 Canadian Forces Land Force Command (known as Canadian Army from 2011–) flag
Canadian Blue Ensign (1957–1965).svg 1957–1965 Final version of the Blue Ensign, worn as a jack by the Royal Canadian Navy and as an ensign by royal yacht clubs in Canada Blue Ensign defaced with the Royal Arms of Canada. The maple leaves at the bottom of the shield are red.
Air Force Ensign of Canada (1941-1968).svg 1941–1965 Royal Canadian Air Force Ensign A field of air force blue with the Union Flag in the canton and the Canadian roundel in the middle of the fly.
King's Colour of Royal Military College of Canada.jpg ?−1965 Based King's Colour, as used by the Royal Military College of Canada King's Colour of the Royal Military College of Canada with the Union Flag.

Civil flags[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Air Board of Canada (1922–1923).svg 1922–1923 Canadian Civil Aviation Ensign, briefly used by the Air Board. A field of light blue with the Union Flag in the canton and a shield with white albatross superimposed upon three maple leaves in the middle of the fly.

Hudson's Bay Company[edit]

Other and non-official flags[edit]

Cultural[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Canadian Gaelic Flag.png 2008–present Flag of Gaelic Canadians Adopted by the Comhairle na Gàidhlig (The Gaelic Council of Nova Scotia), the salmon represents the gift of knowledge in the Gaelic storytelling traditions of Nova Scotia, Scotland and Ireland and the Isle of Man. The “G” represents the Gaelic language and the ripples are the manifestations of the language through its rich culture of song, story, music, dance and custom and belief system.

Regional[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Newfoundland Tricolour.svg 1880s–present Newfoundland Tricolour A field tierced per pale green, white, and pink
Flag of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean.svg 1938–present Flag of Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean A field party per fess, green and yellow, with a red-bordered grey ordinary cross; green represents the region's forests, yellow its agriculture, grey its industry and commerce, and red the vitality of the population
Flag of Labrador.svg 1974–present Flag of Labrador A field party per fess, white and azure, with a green horizontal band across the centre and a spruce twig in the upper hoist
Flag of Vancouver Island.svg 1988–present Flag of Vancouver Island A Blue Ensign defaced with the great seal of the Colony of Vancouver Island. Used informally today.[17] This unofficial flag was designed in the 1980s to retroactively represent the colony (1849–1866). In 1865 the Crown gave colonies permission to place their badges on the fly of the Blue Ensign; thus vexillologists could argue that this flag is official.[18]
Flag of Western Canada.png 1988–present Flag of Western Canada Originally used by the Western Independence Party, it was designed in 1988 ahead of the party's first election.
Cape Breton Island Flag (Popular).svg Disputed-present Flag of Cape Breton Island A field tierced per forest green and white, with a green saltire and yellow circle reading "Cape Breton Island" on the top, and "Canada" on the bottom, with a green stylized map of Cape Breton Island in the middle. The green is taken from the island's tartan.

Though being the most commonly used flag it is not the official flag and is disputed by supporters of the officially recognized 1993 flag designed by Kelly Gooding[19]

Historical and proposed[edit]

Flag Date Use Description
Flag of the Patriote movement (Lower Canada).svg 1832–present Patriote flag The proposed flag for the Republic of Lower Canada (1838). It is still used today by some souverainists, in mostly 4 variants: the original, and three versions with the yellow star in the top left corner. Of which, two of them have Henri Julien's Patriot painting of 1904, one in colour and the other stylised in black and white.
Flag of the Republic of Canada.svg 1837–1838 Flag of the Republic of Canada Two white stars representing the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada on the upper half with "LIBERTY" inscribed on the lower half.
1946 Canadian flag proposal.svg 1946 Proposed flag for Canada A red British ensign defaced with a large golden maple leaf outlined in white in the fly.
Native Sons of Canada Flag.svg 1965 Proposed flag for Canada by the Native Sons of Canada Party per bend Gules and Argent a maple leaf Gules
Canada Pearson Pennant 1964.svg 1965 Proposed flag for Canada, known as the Pearson Pennant A blue field with a white square containing a three-leaf maple. The blue sides were meant to represent John A. Macdonald's description of the Canadian Pacific Railway and Canada's geography, "From sea to sea".
Canadian Duality Flag.svg 1994 Proposed flag for Canada, known as the Canadian Unity Flag Blue vertical stripes replacing part of the red bands, in approximate proportion to population of French heritage.
Flag of Nunavik (Thomassie Mangiok).svg 2013–present Proposed flag for Nunavik The bird with wings spread, reaching for the sky, represents self-governance and freedom. The large size of the wings represent strength. Each feather represents a community in Nunavik. The symmetry of the wings represent equality. The dot represents a head and mind fully supported by the body. The wings both have five feathers, representing the fingers of human hands, symbolic of pulling yourself up and pushing yourself forward. The wings are also similar to caribou antlers, which may represent protection. The two colours represent the co-existence of being and nature, which complement each other equally

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > Flag Etiquette in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  2. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > Personal Flags and Standards". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Canada > Index of Pages > First Nations > Mikmaq". Flags of the World. ISSN 1712-9842. Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  4. ^ "Flags of the World". Archived from the original on 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  5. ^ Canadian Heraldic Authority. "The Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada > Nisga'a Nation". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  6. ^ "Canada > Index of Pages > First Nations > Nisga'a Nation". Flags of the World. ISSN 1712-9842. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
  7. ^ a b http://fraser.cc/FlagsCan/Nation/NatDefence.html
  8. ^ http://reg.gg.ca/heraldry/pub-reg/project.asp?lang=e&ProjectID=1985
  9. ^ a b https://www.canada.ca/en/services/defence/caf/military-identity-system/heritage-manual/chapter-4/annex-a.html
  10. ^ https://reg.gg.ca/heraldry/pub-reg/project-pic.asp?lang=e&ProjectID=526&ProjectElementID=1845
  11. ^ a b https://reg.gg.ca/heraldry/pub-reg/project-pic.asp?lang=e&ProjectID=526&ProjectElementID=1841
  12. ^ a b Department of National Defence (2001-01-05). A-AD-200-000/AG-000 The Honours, Flags and Heritage Structure of the Canadian Forces Chap 4 Annex A. Directorate of History and Heritage.
  13. ^ New York State Historical Association (1915). Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association with the Quarterly Journal: 2nd-21st Annual Meeting with a List of New Members. The Association. It is most probable that the Bourbon Flag was used during the greater part of the occupancy of the French in the region extending southwest from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi , known as New France... The French flag was probably blue at that time with three golden fleur - de - lis ....
  14. ^ "Fleur-de-lys | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. At the time of New France (1534 to the 1760s), two flags could be viewed as having national status. The first was the banner of France — a blue square flag bearing three gold fleurs-de-lys. It was flown above fortifications in the early years of the colony. For instance, it was flown above the lodgings of Pierre Du Gua de Monts at Île Sainte-Croix in 1604. There is some evidence that the banner also flew above Samuel de Champlain’s habitation in 1608. ..... the completely white flag of the French Royal Navy was flown from ships, forts and sometimes at land-claiming ceremonies.
  15. ^ "INQUINTE.CA | CANADA 150 Years of History ~ The story behind the flag". inquinte.ca. When Canada was settled as part of France and dubbed "New France," two flags gained national status. One was the Royal Banner of France. This featured a blue background with three gold fleurs-de-lis. A white flag of the French Royal Navy was also flown from ships and forts and sometimes flown at land-claiming ceremonies.
  16. ^ W. Stewart Wallace (1948). The Encyclopedia of Canada, Vol. II, Toronto, University Associates of Canada. pp. 350–351. During the French régime in Canada, there does not appear to have been any French national flag in the modern sense of the term. The "Banner of France", which was composed of fleur-de-lys on a blue field, came nearest to being a national flag, since it was carried before the king when he marched to battle, and thus in some sense symbolized the kingdom of France. During the later period of French rule, it would seem that the emblem...was a flag showing the fleur-de-lys on a white ground.... as seen in Florida. There were, however, 68 flags authorized for various services by Louis XIV in 1661; and a number of these were doubtless used in New France
  17. ^ FOTW Flags of the World: Vancouver Island (British Colony, Canada)
  18. ^ Flags of Canada: British Columbia
  19. ^ www.capebretonpost.com https://www.capebretonpost.com/sports/football/woman-wants-cape-breton-flag-designed-by-her-daughter-recognized-17897/. Retrieved 2020-09-30. Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links[edit]