List of Canis species and subspecies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Canis, the genus of mammals commonly known as wolves, dingos, dogs, coyotes, and jackals, contains several living species, many divided into numerous subspecies, as well as numerous recently extinct and extinct prehistoric species.

Domestic dogs are not usually granted taxonomic variety names below the level of either their trinomial name as, traditionally, subspecies of gray (timber) wolf, or their proposed binomial name as deriving from other ancestral canids, so they do not appear here with their popular breed names as individual entries. The New Guinea singing dog and any other varieties of subspecies appear as individual entries here when their taxonomic considerations now suggest that they are varieties of subspecies other than domestic dogs, such as of dingoes.

References for taxonomic classification, issues, and current considerations, especially in light of DNA revelations year to year, are found in the articles on individual canids; as this article is only a list, the extensive literature and specifics of these issues for each canid are beyond the scope of reference notes here. Furthermore, articles on the species in this list's section headings, and details of their evolutionary, divergent, interbreeding, geolocational and human-culture mediated shifts contain references on which this list relies when including and positioning its entries. References to this article are thus of two sorts, those pertaining to wholesale sourcing of entries,[1][2][3][4][5][6] especially those that don't yet have their own Wikipedia articles, and the far more extensive references in existing Wikipedia articles for each entry, header species, and other relevant taxon.

Living and recently extinct species, subspecies, and varieties[edit]

Side-striped jackal Golden (common) jackal Coyote
C. adustus (Side-striped jackal) C. aureus (Golden (common) jackal) C. latrans (Coyote)
C. adustus adustus (Sundevall jackal, nominate subspecies) C. aureus algirensis (Algerian jackal) C. latrans cagottis (Mexican coyote)
C. adustus bweha (Eastern Africa, Kisumu, Kenya) C. aureus anthus (Senegalese (grey) jackal) C. latrans clepticus (San Pedro Martir coyote)
C. adustus grayi (Morocco and Tunisia) C. aureus aureus (Common jackal, nominate subspecies) C. latrans dickeyi (Salvador coyote)
C. adustus kaffensis (Kafue jackal) C. aureus bea (Serengeti jackal) C. latrans frustror (Southeastern (US) coyote)
C. adustus lateralis (Kenya, Uasin Gishu Plateau, south of Gabon) C. aureus cruesemanni (Siamese jackal) C. latrans goldmani (Belize coyote)
C. adustus notatus (East African (side-striped) jackal) C. aureus indicus (Indian (Himalayan) jackal) C. latrans hondurensis (Honduras coyote)
C. aureus lupaster (Conventionally called Egyptian jackal, but mtDNA indicates a better name is the African (gray) wolf, see also ''Canis lupus lupaster'' variant taxonomy below under 'Gray wolf' major heading) C. latrans impavidus (Durango coyote)
C. aureus moreotica (European jackal, reed wolf) C. latrans incolatus (Northern coyote)
C. aureus naria (Sri Lankan (Southern Indian) jackal) C. latrans jamesi (Tiburón Island coyote)
C. aureus riparius (A dwarf species in Somalia and the coast of Ethiopia and Eritrea) C. latrans latrans (Plains coyote, nominate subspecies)
C. aureus soudanicus (Variegated jackal) C. latrans lestes (Mountain coyote)
C. aureus syriacus (Syrian jackal) C. latrans mearnsi (Mearns' coyote)
C. latrans microdon (Lower Rio Grande coyote)
C. latrans ochropus (California Valley coyote)
C. latrans peninsulae ((California) Peninsula coyote)
C. latrans texensis (Texas Plains coyote)
C. latrans thamnos (Northeastern coyote)
C. latrans umpquensis (Northwest Coast coyote)
C. latrans vigilis (Colima coyote)


Gray (timber) wolf (see also proposed segregates away from this gray wolf primary taxonomy below under 'Red wolf' and 'Proposed segregates of gray wolf' major headings) Black-backed jackal Ethiopian wolf
C. lupus (Gray (timber) wolf) C. mesomelas (Black-backed jackal) C. simensis (Ethiopian wolf)
C. lupus var. Beringian ecomorph (Beringian wolf, Late Pleistocene, may be a variety of Megafaunal wolf, but inconclusive) C. mesomelas mesomelas (Cape jackal, nominate subspecies) C. simensis citernii (Southern Ethiopian wolf)
possibly C. lupus var. Megafaunal ecomorph (Megafaunal wolf, Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene, may include Beringian and (European) cave wolves as varieties, but inconclusive) C. mesomelas schmidti (East African jackal) C. simensis simensis (Northern Ethiopian wolf, nominate subspecies)
C. lupus albus (Tundra wolf)
C. lupus alces (Kenai Peninsula wolf)
C. lupus arabs (Arabian wolf)
C. lupus arctos (Arctic wolf)
C. lupus baileyi (Mexican wolf)
C. lupus beothucus (Newfoundland wolf)
C. lupus bernardi (Bernard's wolf)
C. lupus campestris (Steppe wolf)
C. lupus chanco (Tibetan woolly wolf, see also ''Canis himalayensis'', previously considered a varietal of it, below under 'Proposed segregates of gray wolf' major heading)
C. lupus columbianus (British Columbia wolf)
C. lupus crassodon (Vancouver Island wolf)
C. lupus dingo (dingo, especially Australian dingo)
C. lupus dingo var. hallstromi (New Guinea singing dingo or dog)
C. lupus familiaris (domestic dog, see also ''Canis familiaris'' variant taxonomy below under 'Proposed segregates of gray wolf' major heading)
C. lupus floridanus (Florida black wolf, see also ''Canis rufus floridanus'' variant taxonomy below under 'Red wolf' major heading)
C. lupus fuscus (Cascade Mountain wolf)
C. lupus gregoryi (Gregory's (Mississippi Valley) (red) wolf, see also ''Canis rufus gregoryi'' variant taxonomy below under 'Red wolf' major heading. Declared extinct in the wild in 1970, it has been reintroduced in North Carolina, US and may also persist in captivity.[7])
C. lupus griseoalbus (Manitoba wolf)
C. lupus hattai (Hokkaidō wolf)
C. lupus hodophilax (Japanese wolf)
C. lupus hudsonicus (Hudson Bay wolf)
C. lupus irremotus (Northern Rocky Mountains wolf)
C. lupus italicus (Italian wolf)
C. lupus labradorius (Labrador wolf)
C. lupus ligoni (Alexander Archipelago wolf)
C. lupus lupaster (African (gray) wolf according to mtDNA, though conventionally called Egyptian jackal, see also ''Canis aureus lupaster'' variant taxonomy above under 'Golden (common) jackal' major heading)
C. lupus lupus (Eurasian (common) wolf, nominate subspecies)
C. lupus lycaon (Eastern (timber) wolf, see also ''Canis lycaon'' variant taxonomy below under 'Red wolf' major heading)
C. lupus mackenzii (Mackenzie River wolf, distinct from Northwestern, Northern timber or Mackenzie Valley wolf)
C. lupus manningi (Baffin Island (tundra) wolf)
C. lupus mogollonensis (Mogollon Mountain wolf)
C. lupus monstrabilis (Texas (gray) wolf, distinct from Texas red wolf Canis rufus var. "rufus")
C. lupus nubilus (Great Plains wolf)
C. lupus occidentalis (Northwestern, Northern timber or Mackenzie Valley wolf, distinct from Mackenzie River wolf)
C. lupus orion (Greenland wolf)
C. lupus pallipes (Indian wolf, see also ''Canis indica'' variant taxonomy below under 'Proposed segregates of gray wolf' major heading)
C. lupus pambasileus (Yukon wolf)
C. lupus rufus (Red wolf, see also ''Canis rufus'' variant taxonomy below under 'Proposed segregates of gray wolf' major heading)
C. lupus signatus (Iberian wolf)
C. lupus spelaeus ((European) cave wolf, Late Pleistocene, may be a variety of Megafaunal wolf, but inconclusive, see section in article on Megafaunal wolf)
C. lupus tundrarum (Alaskan tundra (barren-ground) wolf)
possibly C. lupus youngi (Southern Rocky Mountains wolf, possibly extinct)
Red wolf (see also ''Canis lupus rufus'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading) Proposed segregates of gray wolf (see also Gray wolf primary taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading)
C. rufus (Red wolf, see also ''Canis lupus rufus'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading) Canis familiaris (domestic dog, see also ''Canis lupus familiaris'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading)
C. rufus var. "rufus" (Texas red wolf, distinct from Texas (gray) wolf † ''Canis lupus monstrabilis''; no longer considered a subspecies but a variety) Canis himalayensis (Himalayan wolf, previously considered a variety of Tibetan woolly wolf ''Canis lupus chanco'', see ''Canis lupus chanco'' above under 'Gray wolf' major heading)
C. rufus floridanus (Florida black wolf, see also ''Canis lupus floridanus'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading) Canis indica (Indian wolf, see also ''Canis lupus pallipes'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading)
C. rufus gregoryi (Gregory's (Mississippi Valley) (red) wolf, see also ''Canis lupus gregoryi'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading; declared extinct in the wild in 1970, it has been reintroduced in North Carolina, US and may also persist in captivity).[7] Canis lycaon (Eastern (timber) wolf, see also ''Canis lupus lycaon'' variant taxonomy above under 'Gray wolf' major heading)

Extinct prehistoric species and subspecies[edit]

Common names from Kurtén and Anderson.[8]

C. acutus
C. antiquus
C. apolloniensis (Europe, specimen from Greece, Early Pleistocene epoch (1.81 Mya—781,000ya))
C. armbrusteri (Armbruster's wolf)
C. arnensis
C. atrox
C. avus
C. brachypus
C. brevirostris
C. cautleyi
C. cedazoensis (Cedazo dog)
C. chiliensis (Chilean wolf)
C. cipio
C. dirus (dire wolf)
C. edwardii (Edward's wolf)
C. etruscus
C. falconeri (Falconer's wolf)
C. ferox (North America, specimen from Mexico, Late Hemphillian stage (10.3 Mya) of Pliocene through Miocene epoch (5.33 Mya))
C. khomenkoi
C. kuruksaensis
C. lepophagus (Johnston's coyote)
C. majori
C. medius
C. michauxi
C. moreni
C. mosbachensis
C. nehringi
C. neschersensis
C. palaeoplatensis
C. petenyi
C. protoplatensis
C. robustus
C. strandi
C. suessi
C. terblanchei
C. ursinus
C. variabilis
C. velaunus
C. volgensis
C. yuanmoensis

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wolves, Coyotes, and Dogs (Genus Canis)". Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) Fact Sheet, 2014". San Diego Zoo Global Library. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  3. ^ "Types of Wolves". International Wolf Center. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  4. ^ "Canis: dogs, jackals, and wolves". Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  5. ^ "Classification of Mammals : Taxonomy table". Mammals' Planet. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  6. ^ "Family Canidae" (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Biology Department. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "The Swamp Wolf". Cosmosmith. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  8. ^ Kurtén, B. and E. Anderson (1980). Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03733-3.