List of Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation

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The Roman Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation are men and women executed under treason legislation in the English Reformation, between 1534 and 1680, and recognised as martyrs by the Roman Catholic Church. Though consequences of the English Reformation were felt in Ireland and Scotland as well, this article only covers those who died in the Kingdom of England.

On 25 February 1570, Pope Pius V's "Regnans in Excelsis" bull excommunicated the English Queen Elizabeth I, and any who obeyed her. This papal bull also required all Roman Catholics to rebel against the English Crown as a matter of faith. In response, in 1571 legislation was enacted making it treasonable to be under the authority of the Pope, including being a Jesuit, being Roman Catholic or harbouring a Roman Catholic priest. The standard penalty for all those convicted of treason at the time was execution by being hanged, drawn and quartered.

In the reign of Pope Gregory XIII (1572–85), authorisation was given for 63 recognised martyrs to have their relics honoured and pictures painted for Roman Catholic devotions. These martyrs were formally beatified by Pope Leo XIII, 54 in 1886 and the remaining nine in 1895. Further groups of martyrs were subsequently documented and proposed by Roman Catholic bishops of England and Wales and formally recognised by Rome.[1]

Numbers in various categories[edit]

In 1874 a Process was begun, containing 353 names, to which six were added in Rome, making 359.[2] Of those: -

  1. 54 were beatified in 1886, of whom two were canonized in 1935, and 11 in 1970.
  2. 9 were beatified in 1895.
  3. One (Oliver Plunkett) was beatified in 1920, and canonized in 1975.
  4. 136 were beatified in 1929, of whom 29 were canonized in 1970
  5. 85 were beatified in 1987.
  6. (So 285 were beatified at various times, of whom 43 were subsequently canonised).
  7. 30 were declared venerable, of whom one, John Travers, was executed in Dublin and appears in Irish Catholic Martyrs.
  8. (So 315 were declared venerable, of whom 285 were subsequently beatified).
  9. 44 were postponed ("dilati") - 36 died in prison and 8 were postponed for other reasons.

Canonised by Pope Pius XI on 19 May 1935[edit]

Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher
  1. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, 22 June 1535
  2. Thomas More, layman, 6 July 1535

Canonised by Pope Paul VI on 25 October 1970[edit]

John Houghton
  1. John Almond, priest, 1612[3]
  2. Edmund Arrowsmith, Jesuit priest, 1628
  3. Ambrose Edward Barlow, Benedictine priest, 10 September 1641[4]
  4. John Boste, priest, 24 July 1594[5]
  5. Alexander Briant, Jesuit priest, 1 December 1581
  6. Edmund Campion, Jesuit priest, 1 December 1581
  7. Margaret Clitherow, laywoman, 25 March 1586[6]
  8. Philip Evans, Jesuit priest, 1679
  9. Thomas Garnet, Jesuit priest, 1608
  10. Edmund Gennings, priest, 1591
  11. John Griffith (alias Jones, Buckley, or Griffith, or Godfrey Maurice), Franciscan friar, 1598
  12. Richard Gwyn (alias Richard White), layman, 1584
  13. John Houghton, Prior of the London Charterhouse, 4 May 1535
  14. Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, layman, 1595
  15. John Kemble, priest, 1679
  16. Luke Kirby, priest, 30 May 1582
  17. Robert Lawrence, Prior of the Beauvale Charterhouse, 4 May 1535[7]
  18. David Lewis, Jesuit priest, 1679[3]
  19. Anne Line, laywoman, 1601
  20. John Lloyd, priest, 1679
  21. Cuthbert Mayne, priest, 1577
  22. Henry Morse, Jesuit priest, 1645[3]
  23. Nicholas Owen, Jesuit lay-brother, 1606
  24. John Payne, priest, 1582
  25. Polydore Plasden, priest, 1591[3]
  26. John Plessington, priest, 1679
  27. Richard Reynolds, Brigittine monk of Syon Abbey, 4 May 1535[8]
  28. John Rigby, layman, 1600
  29. John Roberts, Benedictine priest, 1610
  30. Alban Bartholomew Roe, Benedictine priest, 1642
  31. Ralph Sherwin, priest, 1 December 1581
  32. John Southworth, priest, 1654
  33. Robert Southwell, Jesuit priest, 1595[3]
  34. John Stone, Augustinian friar
  35. John Wall, Franciscan priest, 1679[3]
  36. Henry Walpole, Jesuit priest, 1595[3]
  37. Margaret Ward, laywoman, 1588
  38. Augustine Webster, Prior of the Axholme Charterhouse, 4 May 1535
  39. Swithin Wells, layman, 1591
  40. Eustace White, priest, 1591[3]

Canonised by Pope Paul VI on 12 October 1975[edit]

  1. Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, 1 July 1681 (beatified in 1920).

Beatified 29 December 1886 by Pope Leo XIII[edit]

As well as those listed below, John Fisher and Thomas More were beatified on this date, as were 11 members of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, making a total of 54.

Beatified 13 May 1895 by Pope Leo XIII[edit]

Hugh Faringdon
  1. John Beche (or Thomas Marshall), Abbot of Colchester, 1 December 1539[11]
  2. John Eynon, priest, 14 November 1539
  3. Hugh Faringdon, Abbot of Reading, 14 November 1539
  4. Adrian Fortescue, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, 9 July 1539
  5. Roger James, Benedictine, 15 November 1539
  6. Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, layman, 1572 - Leader of the Rising of the North
  7. John Rugg (or Rugge), Benedictine monk, 15 November 1539
  8. John Thorne, Benedictine monk, 15 November 1539
  9. Richard Whiting, Abbot of Glastonbury, 15 November 1539

Beatified 15 December 1929 by Pope Pius XI[edit]

As well as those listed below, 29 members of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales were also beatified on that date, making a total of 136.

This beatification was attended by G.K. Chesterton as detailed in his book “The Resurrection of Rome.”

Beatified 22 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II[edit]

Thomas Bullaker
  1. John Adams, priest, 8 October 1586[25]
  2. Thomas Atkinson, priest, 1616
  3. Edward Bamber, priest, 1646[17]
  4. George Beesley, priest, 5 July 1591[26]
  5. Arthur Bell, Franciscan priest, 1643[17]
  6. Thomas Belson, layman, 5 July 1589[27]
  7. Robert Bickerdike, layman, 23 July 1586
  8. Alexander Blake, layman, 4 March 1590;[16]
  9. Marmaduke Bowes, layman, 26 November 1585[28]
  10. John Britton (alias Bretton), layman, 1 April 1598[29]
  11. Thomas Bullaker, Franciscan priest, 1642
  12. Edward Burden, priest, 1588
  13. Roger Cadwallador, priest, 1610
  14. William Carter, layman, 11 January 1584[30]
  15. Alexander Crow, priest, 30 November 1587
  16. William Davies, priest, 27 July 1593
  17. Robert Dibdale, priest, 8 October 1586[25]
  18. George Douglas, priest, 1587
  19. Robert Drury, priest, 1607
  20. Edmund Duke, priest, 27 May 1590[3]
  21. George Errington, layman, 1596
  22. Roger Filcock, priest, 1601
  23. John Finglow (Fingley), priest, 8 August 1586
  24. Matthew Flathers, priest, 1608
  25. Richard Flower, layman, 1588
  26. Nicholas Garlick, priest, 1588
  27. William Gibson, layman, 1596
  28. Ralph Grimston, layman, 1598
  29. Robert Grissold, layman, 1604
  30. John Hambley, priest, 1587
  31. Robert Hardesty, layman, 1589
  32. George Haydock, priest, 12 February 1584[3]
  33. Henry Heath, Franciscan priest, 1643
  34. Richard Hill, priest, 27 May 1590
  35. John Hogg, priest, 27 May 1590
  36. Richard Holiday, priest, 27 May 1590
  37. Nicholas Horner, layman, 4 March 1590
  38. Thomas Hunt, priest, 1600
  39. Thurstan Hunt, priest, 1601
  40. Francis Ingleby, priest, 3 June 1586
  41. William Knight, layman, 1596
  42. Joseph Lambton, priest, 24 July 1592[3]
  43. William Lampley, layman, 1588
  44. John Lowe, priest, 8 October 1586[25]
  45. Robert Ludlam, priest, 1588
  46. Charles Mahoney (alias Meehan), Franciscan priest, 1679
  47. Robert Middleton, priest, March 1601[3]
  48. George Nichols, priest, 1589
  49. John Norton, layman, 1600
  50. Robert Nutter, priest, 1600
  51. Edward Osbaldeston, priest, 1594
  52. Antony Page, priest, 1593
  53. Thomas Palasor, priest, 1600;
  54. William Pike, layman, 1591
  55. Thomas Pilchard, priest, 21 March 1587
  56. Thomas Pormort, priest, 20 February 1592[3]
  57. Nicholas Postgate, priest, 1679
  58. Humphrey Pritchard, layman, 1589
  59. Christopher Robinson, priest, 1597
  60. Stephen Rowsham, priest, 1587
  61. John Sandys, priest, 11 August 1586
  62. Montford Scott, priest, 1591
  63. Richard Sergeant, priest, 2 April 1586
  64. Richard Simpson, priest, 1588
  65. Peter Snow, priest, 1598
  66. William Southerne, priest, 1618
  67. William Spenser, priest, 1589
  68. Thomas Sprott, priest, 1600
  69. John Sugar, priest, 1604
  70. Robert Sutton, priest, 1587
  71. Edmund Sykes, priest, 23 March 1587
  72. John Talbot, layman, 1600
  73. Hugh Taylor, priest, 25 November 1585[28]
  74. William Thomson, priest, 20 April 1586
  75. Robert Thorpe, priest, 1591
  76. John Thulis, priest, 18 Mar 1616[3]
  77. Edward Thwing, priest, 26 July 1600[3]
  78. Thomas Watkinson, layman, 31 May 1591[3]
  79. Henry Webley, 28 August 1588
  80. Christopher Wharton, priest, 1600
  81. Thomas Whitaker, priest, 1646[17]
  82. John Woodcock, Franciscan priest, 7 August 1646[3]
  83. Nicholas Woodfen, priest, 21 January 1586
  84. Roger Wrenno, layman, 1616
  85. Richard Yaxley, priest, 1589

Declared venerable in 1886 and not subsequently beatified[edit]

  1. Thomas Ashby, layman, 19 March 1544 - "there was some doubt that he died as a Catholic"[31]
  2. Roger Ashton, soldier, 23 June 1592 - assisted Sir William Stanley in the surrender of Deventer to Spain
  3. Laurence Bailey, layman, August 1604
  4. Anthony Bates (alias Battie), layman, 22 March 1602
  5. Thomas Bedingfeld (also known as Thomas Downes),[32][17] 21 December 1678 (died in prison)
  6. Thomas Belchiam, Franciscan friar, 3 August 1538:[33][34][31]
  7. Edmund Brindholme, priest, 4 August 1540[35][36][31]
  8. Anthony Brookby, Franciscan, 7 July 1537:[33][31]
  9. Brian Cansfield (or Tansfield), 3 August 1645[3] (died of ill-treatment in prison)
  10. Thomas Cort, Franciscan, 27 July 1538:[33][31]
  11. Sir Thomas Dingley, layman, 9 July 1539[31]
  12. James Dowdall, layman, 13 August 1598
  13. John Goodman, priest, 8 April 1642[17] (died in prison)
  14. John Griffith (or Clark), priest, 8 July 1539[31]
  15. Thomas Hackshott (alias Hawkshaw), layman, 24 August 1601,
  16. James Harrison, priest, 22 March 1602
  17. Richard Horner, priest, 4 September 1598
  18. Francis Levison, Franciscan, 11 February 1680 (died in prison)
  19. John Lion, layman, 16 July 1598
  20. Edward Mico, Jesuit, 1678[3] (arrested, but too ill to be removed from sick-bed, where he died)
  21. Edward Morgan, priest, 26 April 1642[3]
  22. Francis Nevil, Jesuit, February 1679[17] (died in prison)
  23. Clement Philpott (or Philpot), layman, 4 August 1540[36][31]
  24. Robert Price (alias Aprece), layman, shot by Puritan soldiers, 7 May 1644
  25. Nicholas Tichborne, layman, 24 August 1601,
  26. Thomas Tichborne, priest, 20 April 1602[3]
  27. Friar Waire, Franciscan, 8 July 1539[37][31]
  28. Thomas Webley, layman, 6 July 1585[15]
  29. Richard Williams, priest, 21 February 1592

As stated above, John Travers was executed in Dublin and appears in Irish Catholic Martyrs. The total number of those declared venerable in 1886 and not subsequently beatified is therefore 30.

Dilati[edit]

They "were left with their fate still in suspense, and are called Dilati. [36 of them were] "Confessors", who certainly died in prison for their faith, though it is not yet proven that they died precisely because of their imprisonment...[the remaining eight - William Tyrrwhit, James Atkinson, Matthias Harrison, Fr. Henry Garnet, S.J., John Mawson, Thomas Dyer, Lawrence Hill and Robert Green were] put off for various causes."[38] Those 'put off' are listed below in italics.

  1. Robert Dymoke, layman, 1580 (died in prison)
  2. John Cooper, layman, 1580 (died in prison)
  3. William Tyrwhit, layman, 1580 (died in prison - named by error for his brother Robert)
  4. William Chaplin, seminary priest, 1583 (died in prison)
  5. Thomas Cotesmore, priest, 1584 (died in prison)
  6. Robert Holmes, priest, 1584 (died in prison)
  7. Roger Wakeman, priest, 1584 (died in prison)
  8. James Lomax, priest, 1584 (died in prison)
  9. Mr Ailworth, layman, 1584 (died in prison)
  10. Thomas Crowther, priest, 1585 (died in prison)
  11. Edward Pole, priest, 1585 (died in prison)
  12. Laurence Vaux, priest, 1585 (died in prison)
  13. John Jetter, priest, 1585 (died in prison)
  14. John Harrison, priest, 1586 (died in prison)
  15. Martin Sherson, priest, 1587 (died in prison)
  16. Gabriel Thimelby, layman, 1587 (died in prison)
  17. Thomas Metham, Jesuit, 1592 (died in prison)
  18. James Atkinson, layman, 1595 ("killed under torture by Topcliffe, but evidence is wanted of his constancy to the end")
  19. Matthew/Matthias Harrison, seminary priest, 1599 (not yet sufficiently distinguished from James Harrison)
  20. Eleanor Hunt, widow, 1600 (died in prison)
  21. Mrs Swithun Wells, widow, 1602 (died in prison)
  22. Henry Garnet, Jesuit, executed 1606 ("was he killed ex odio fidei, or was he believed to be guilty of the Powder Plot, by merely human misjudgment, not through religious prejudice?")[15]
  23. John Mawson, layman, executed 1614 (not yet sufficiently distinguished from John Mason, 1591)
  24. Thomas Dyer, Benedictine, c.1618-1630 - his identity 'has not been fully proved'[39][40]
  25. Edward Wilkes, priest, 1642 (died in prison)
  26. Boniface Kemp, priest, OSB, 1642 (died in prison)
  27. Ildephonse Hesketh (alias William Hanson), Benedictine, 1642 (died in prison)
  28. Thomas Vaughan, priest, probably 1644 (died in prison)
  29. Richard Bradley, Jesuit, 1645 (died in prison)
  30. John Felton, priest, SJ, 1646 (died in prison)
  31. Thomas Blount, priest, probably 1646[17] (died in prison)
  32. Robert Cox, Benedictine, 1650 (died in prison)
  33. Laurence Hill, layman, 1679 (Was it due to odium fidei, or an unprejudiced error?)
  34. Robert Green, layman, 1679 (Was it due to odium fidei, or an unprejudiced error?)
  35. Thomas Jennison, Jesuit, 1679[17] (died in prison)
  36. William Lloyd, seminary priest, 1679 (died in prison)
  37. Placid Adelham, Benedictine, 1680 (died in prison)
  38. Richard Birkett, priest, 1680 (died in prison)
  39. Richard Lacey, Jesuit, 1680 (died in prison)
  40. William Atkins, Jesuit, 1681 (died in prison)
  41. Edward Turner, Jesuit, 1681 (died in prison)
  42. William Allison, priest, 1681 (died in prison)
  43. Benedict Constable, Benedictine, 1683 (died in prison)
  44. William Bentney (alias Bennet), Jesuit, 1692 (died in prison)

Executed for their faith in England 1534–1680[edit]

1534–1547[edit]

During the reign of Henry VIII of England.

Decrees of Elizabeth I[edit]

During the reign of Mary I, papal authority was officially reinstated and under three hundred of the minority Protestant population were martyred.[49] Upon Elizabeth I's accession to the throne, an Act of Supremacy denied papal authority over the English church; but only a decade later, in February 1570, did Pope Pius V excommunicate Elizabeth and any who obeyed her, issuing the bull Regnans in Excelsis, which purported to "release[ Elizabeth I's] subjects from their allegiance to her".[50]

In the words of the New Catholic Encyclopedia, "Without question it was Elizabeth I's intention to supplant the old religion with the new in a bloodless manner. It is significant that there were no martyrs in the first 12 years of her reign, and only five in the years 1570 to 1577."[51] Of those five, Thomas Plumtree had been chaplain to the insurgents in the Rising of the North, John Felton had published Pope Pius V's Bull Regnans in Excelsis ("reigning on high"), excommunicating Queen Elizabeth, John Story was tried for high treason, for having supported the Rising of the North and encouraging the Duke of Alba to invade, Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland, had led the Rising of the North, and Thomas Woodhouse had declared in a letter to William Cecil that Elizabeth "for her own great disobedience is most justly deposed".[52]

The threat of invasion by a Roman Catholic country assisted by English subjects led the Crown to try to repress Roman Catholicism.[53] Responding to Pius V's action, Elizabeth I's government passed anti-Roman Catholic decrees in 1571 forbidding anyone from maintaining the jurisdiction of the pope by word, deed or act; requiring use of the Book of Common Prayer in all cathedrals, churches and chapels, and forbidding criticism of it; forbidding the publication of any bull, writing or instrument of the Holy See (the death penalty was assigned to this); and prohibiting the importing of Agnus Dei images, crosses, pictures, beads or other things from the Bishop of Rome.

Later laws made illegal the drawing of anyone away from the state church; non-attendance at a Church of England church; raising children with teachers who were not licensed by an Anglican diocesan bishop; and attending or celebrating the Roman Catholic Mass.

In 1585, a new decree made it a crime punishable by death to go overseas to receive the sacrament of Ordination to the Roman Catholic priesthood. Nicholas Devereux (who went by the alias of Nicholas Woodfen) and Edward Barber (see below Edward Stransham) were both put to death in 1586 under this law. William Thomson and Richard Lea (see below Richard Sergeant) were hanged, disembowelled and quartered under the same law. In 1588, eight priests and six laymen at Newgate were condemned and executed under this law.[53]

1570–1603[edit]

1606–1680[edit]

  • James Brown, Benedictine, 1645

Died in prison[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Pullan, Malcolm (2008). The Lives and Times of Forty Martyrs of England and Wales 1535–1680. Athena Press. pp. xvii–xxii. ISBN 978-1-84748-258-7.
  2. ^ Acts of English martyrs hitherto unpublished, page 384
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Edward MORGAN SJ". Sanalbano.org. 8 October 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  5. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. John Boste". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  6. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Margaret Clitherow". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  7. ^ "catholicnews.com". Archived from the original on 18 May 2005. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Lives of the English martyrs : declared blessed by Pope Leo XIII, in 1886 and 1895". Archive.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  10. ^ "CatholicSaints.Info » Blog Archive » Blessed Lawrence Richardson". Saints.sqpn.com. 24 May 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Lives of the English martyrs : declared blessed by Pope Leo XIII, in 1886 and 1895". Archive.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Catholic Encyclopedia: Ven. John Amias". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  13. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. Robert Anderton". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  14. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. William Andleby". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. Thomas Alfield". Newadvent.org. 1 July 1912. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  16. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. Christopher Bales". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n T.E. Muir, Stonyhurst, (St Omers Press, Gloucestershire. Second edition, 2006) ISBN 0-9553592-0-1 p.188
  18. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Venerable John Bodey". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. John Cornelius and Companions". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  20. ^ a b c d "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. William Dean". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  22. ^ Catholic Online (20 March 1912). "Bl. William Freeman - Saints & Angels - Catholic Online". Catholic.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  23. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Bl. German Gardiner". Newadvent.org. 1 September 1909. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  24. ^ Bunson, Matthew (2003). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints, Revised. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 712. ISBN 978-1-93170-975-0.
  25. ^ a b c "Catholic Encyclopedia: Ven. John Adams". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  26. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. George Beesley". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  27. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  28. ^ a b "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. Hugh Taylor". Newadvent.org. 1 July 1912. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  29. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. John Britton". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  30. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. William Carter". Newadvent.org. 1 October 1912. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i "[T]here was little hope of establishing sufficient evidence of martyrdom for ten Venerable martyrs who had suffered during the reign of Henry VIII" (the figure of ten includes John Travers, who was executed in Dublin) - see James Walsh, The Catholic Martyrs of England and wales, PP 7-8
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ a b c "Friaries: The observant friars of Greenwich | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  34. ^ "The Observant Friar Martyrs of Greenwich". Seattle Catholic. 27 July 2005. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  35. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ven. Edmund Brindholm". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  36. ^ a b c 'accused (perhaps from religious motives) of treason at Calais' - Lives of the English martyrs, declared, blessed by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and 1895 - P483
  37. ^ "London Martyrs List.PDF" (PDF). Academic.regis.edu. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  38. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "One name among the dilati, that of Thomas Dyer, O.S.B., has also been silently withdrawn, possibly because the year of his martyrdom is uncertain."Nuttall, Geoffrey F. (July 1971). "The English Martyrs 1535–1680: a statistical review". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 22 (3): 192, note 1. doi:10.1017/S0022046900058310.
  41. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: John Allen". Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  42. ^ Annales, or a general Chronicle of England, By John Stow, P575
  43. ^ a b Annales, or a general Chronicle of England, By John Stow, P576
  44. ^ a b The House of Commons, 1509-1558, Volume 1, By Stanley Thomas Bindoff, P117
  45. ^ a b "A complete history of the British martyrs : from the Roman occupation to Elizabeth's reign". Archive.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  46. ^ Catholic Magazine and Review, R.P. Stone, 1832, Volume 2, P276
  47. ^ John Stow, Annales, or a general Chronicle of England, P579
  48. ^ 'Martyrdoms at Calais in 1540?, The Downside Review, Vol 64, Issue 3, 1946
  49. ^ The Book of Martyrs (Foxe), Chapter XVI, Wikisource, accessed 1 February 2013
  50. ^ Barry, Patrick, "The Penal Laws", L'Osservatore Romano, p.8, 30 November 1987
  51. ^ "Martyrs of England and Wales", New Catholic Encyclopedia, 9:322 (1967).
  52. ^ Thomas M. McCoog (2004). "Woodhouse, Thomas (d. 1573)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 1 (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29927. Retrieved 8 September 2014. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  53. ^ a b Chapman, John H. "The Persecution under Elizabeth" Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Old Series Vol. 9 (1881), pp. 21-43. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  54. ^ The history and topography of the county of Clare, from the earliest times to the beginning of the 18th century, (1893), P67 - citing Anthony Bruodin, 'Propugnaculum Catholicae Veritatis', 1669

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]