List of Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation

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This article is about the Catholic martyrs. For the Protestant martyrs, see List of Protestant martyrs of the English Reformation.

The Catholic martyrs of the English Reformation are men and women executed under treason legislation in the English Reformation, between 1534 and 1680, and recognised as martyrs by the Catholic Church.

On 25 February 1570, Pope Pius V's "Regnans in Excelsis" bull excommunicated both the English Queen Elizabeth I and any who obeyed her. This papal bull also required all Catholics to rebel against the English Crown as a matter of faith. In response, in 1571 legislation was enacted making it treasonable to be under the authority of the Pope, including being a Jesuit, being Catholic or harbouring a Catholic priest. The standard penalty for all those convicted of treason at the time was execution by being hanged, drawn and quartered.

In the reign of Pope Gregory XIII (1572–85), authorisation was given for 63 recognised martyrs to have their relics honoured and pictures painted for Roman Catholic devotions. These martyrs were formally beatified by Pope Leo XIII, 54 in 1886 and the remaining nine in 1895. Further groups of martyrs were subsequently documented and proposed by the Catholic bishops of England and Wales, and formally recognised by Rome.[1]

Canonised by Pope Pius XI on 19 May 1935[edit]

See also: Pope Pius XI
  1. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, 22 June 1535
  2. Thomas More, layman, 6 July 1535

Canonised by Pope Paul VI on 25 October 1970[edit]

See also: Pope Paul VI
John Houghton
  1. John Almond, priest, 1612[2]
  2. Edmund Arrowsmith, Jesuit priest, 1628
  3. Ambrose Edward Barlow, Benedictine priest, 10 September 1641[3]
  4. John Boste, priest, 24 July 1594[4]
  5. Alexander Briant, Jesuit priest, 1 December 1581
  6. Edmund Campion, Jesuit priest, 1 December 1581
  7. Margaret Clitherow, laywoman, 25 March 1586[5]
  8. Philip Evans, Jesuit priest, 1679
  9. Thomas Garnet, Jesuit priest, 1608
  10. Edmund Gennings, priest, 1591
  11. John Griffith (alias Jones), Franciscan friar, 1598
  12. Richard Gwyn, layman, 1584
  13. John Houghton, Prior of the London Charterhouse, 4 May 1535
  14. Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, layman, 1595
  15. John Kemble, priest, 1679
  16. Luke Kirby, priest, 30 May 1582
  17. Robert Lawrence, Prior of the Beauvale Charterhouse, 4 May 1535[6]
  18. David Lewis, Jesuit priest, 1679[2]
  19. Anne Line, laywoman, 1601
  20. John Lloyd, priest, 1679
  21. Cuthbert Mayne, priest, 1577
  22. Henry Morse, Jesuit priest, 1645[2]
  23. Nicholas Owen, Jesuit lay-brother, 1606
  24. John Payne, priest, 1582
  25. Polydore Plasden, priest, 1591[2]
  26. John Plessington, priest, 1679
  27. Richard Reynolds, Brigittine monk of Syon Abbey, 4 May 1535[7]
  28. John Rigby, layman, 1600
  29. John Roberts, Benedictine priest, 1610
  30. Alban Bartholomew Roe, Benedictine priest, 1642
  31. Ralph Sherwin, priest, 1 December 1581
  32. John Southworth, priest, 1654
  33. Robert Southwell, Jesuit priest, 1595[2]
  34. John Stone, Augustinian friar
  35. John Wall, Franciscan priest, 1679[2]
  36. Henry Walpole, Jesuit priest, 1595[2]
  37. Margaret Ward, laywoman, 1588
  38. Augustine Webster, Prior of the Axholme Charterhouse, 4 May 1535
  39. Swithin Wells, layman, 1591
  40. Eustace White, priest, 1591[2]

Beatified 29 December 1886 by Pope Leo XIII[edit]

See also: Pope Leo XIII
Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher

As well as those listed below, John Fisher and Thomas More were beatified on this date, as were the following 11 members of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales - Alexander Briant, Edmund Campion, John Houghton, Luke Kirby, Robert Lawrence, Cuthbert Mayne, John Payne, Richard Reynolds, Ralph Sherwin, John Stone, Augustine Webster - making a total of 54.

  1. Thomas Abell, priest, 30 July 1540[8]
  2. Richard Bere, Carthusian monk, 9 August 1537
  3. Thomas Cottam, Jesuit priest, 30 May 1582
  4. John Davy, Carthusian, 8 June 1537
  5. William Exmew, Carthusian monk, 19 June 1535
  6. Richard Featherstone, Archdeacon, 30 July 1540
  7. John Felton, layman, 8 August 1570
  8. William Filby, 30 May 1582
  9. Thomas Ford, 28 May 1582
  10. John Forest, Franciscan friar, 22 May 1538
  11. German Gardiner, layman, 7 March 1544
  12. Thomas Green, Carthusian, 10 June 1537
  13. William Greenwood, Carthusian brother, 6 June 1537
  14. John Haile (or Hale), priest, 4 May 1535
  15. Everard Hanse, priest, 1581
  16. William Hart, priest, 1583
  17. William Horne, Carthusian lay brother, 4 August 1540
  18. Robert Johnson, priest, 1582
  19. Thomas Johnson, Carthusian, 20 September 1537
  20. Richard Kirkman, priest, 1582
  21. William Lacy (or Lacey), priest, 22 August 1582
  22. John Larke, priest, 7 March 1544
  23. Humphrey Middlemore, Carthusian monk, 19 June 1535
  24. John Nelson, priest, 1577
  25. Sebastian Newdigate, Carthusian monk, 19 June 1535
  26. Walter Pierson, Carthusian brother, 10 June 1537
  27. Thomas Plumtree, priest, 1570 - Chaplain to the Rising of the North
  28. Margaret Pole, laywoman, 27 May 1541
  29. Edward Powell, 30 July 1540
  30. Thomas Redyng, Carthusian, 16 June 1537
  31. Laurence Richardson (also known as Laurence Johnson[9]), 30 May 1582
  32. John Rochester, Carthusian monk, 11 May 1537
  33. Robert Salt, Carthusian brother, 9 June 1537
  34. Thomas Scryven, Carthusian, 15 June 1537
  35. John Shert, priest, 1582
  36. Thomas Sherwood, layman, 1579
  37. John Storey, Chancellor to Bishop Bonner, 1571 - for high treason (for having supported the Northern Rebellion of 1569 and encouraging the Duke of Alba to invade)
  38. Richard Thirkeld, priest, 1583
  39. James Tompson, priest, York, 1582
  40. James Walworth, Carthusian monk, 11 May 1537
  41. Thomas Woodhouse, priest, 1573

Beatified 13 May 1895 by Pope Leo XIII[edit]

Hugh Faringdon
  1. John Beche, Abbot of Colchester, 1 December 1539[10]
  2. John Eynon, priest, 14 November 1539
  3. Hugh Faringdon, Abbot of Reading, 14 November 1539
  4. Adrian Fortescue, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem, 9 July 1539
  5. Roger James, Benedictine, 15 November 1539
  6. Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland, layman, 1572 - Leader of the Rising of the North
  7. John Rugg (or Rugge), Benedictine monk, 15 November 1539
  8. John Thorne, Benedictine monk, 15 November 1539
  9. Richard Whiting, Abbot of Glastonbury, 15 November 1539

Beatified 15 December 1929 by Pope Pius XI[edit]

See also: Pope Pius XI

As well as those listed below, 29 members of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales were also beatified on that date, making a total of 137.

  1. Henry Abbot, layman, 4 July 1597
  2. Thomas Alfield, priest, 6 July 1585[11]
  3. John Amias, priest, 16 March 1589[12]
  4. Robert Anderton, priest, 25 April 1586.[13]
  5. William Andleby, priest, 4 July 1597[14]
  6. Ralph Ashley, Jesuit priest, 7 April 1607[3]
  7. Christopher Bales, priest, 4 March 1590 [15]
  8. Mark Barkworth, Benedictine, 27 February 1601[3]
  9. William Barrow (Jesuit),[16] alias William Harcourt, 20 June 1679
  10. James Bell, priest, 1584
  11. James Bird (or Byrd or Beard), layman, 25 March 1592
  12. John Bodey, priest, 2 November 1583[17]
  13. Thomas Bosgrave, layman, 4 July 1594[18]
  14. William Browne, layman, 1605
  15. Christopher Buxton, priest, died Canterbury, 1 October 1588[19]
  16. John Carey, Dublin born lay helper of John Cornelius S.J., 4 July 1594[18]
  17. Edmund Catheriok, priest, 1642
  18. James Claxton (Clarkson), priest, 1588
  19. Edward Colman (or Coleman), layman, 1678
  20. Ralph Corby, Jesuit, 7 September 1644[3]
  21. John Cornelius, Jesuit priest, 4 July 1594[18]
  22. Ralph Crockett, priest, 1 October 1588
  23. Robert Dalby, priest, York, 16 March 1589[12]
  24. William Dean, priest, 28 August 1588 [20]
  25. Francis Dicconson, priest, 1590
  26. Roger Dicconson, priest, 7 July 1591
  27. James Duckett, layman, 1601
  28. John Duckett, priest, 1644
  29. Gerard Edwards (also known as Edward Campion), 1 October 1588[19]
  30. Thomas Felton, Franciscan, 1588
  31. James Fenn, priest, 1584
  32. John Fenwick, Jesuit priest, 1679[16]
  33. John Finch, 1584
  34. William Freeman, priest, 1595[21]
  35. Edward Fulthrop, layman, 1597
  36. John Gavan, Jesuit priest, 1679[16]
  37. Miles Gerard, priest, 1590
  38. George Gervase, Benedictine, 1608
  39. David Gonson (or Gunston), layman, 12 July 1541
  40. Hugh Green, priest, 1642
  41. John Grove, layman, 1679
  42. William Gunter, priest, 1588
  43. William Harrington, priest, 1594
  44. William Hartley, priest, 1588
  45. Thomas Hemerford, priest, 1584[2]
  46. Richard Herst (Hurst), layman, 29 August 1628
  47. John Hewitt, priest, 1588
  48. Sydney Hodgson, layman, 10 December 1591
  49. Thomas Holford, priest, 1588
  50. Thomas Holland, priest, 12 December 1642[3]
  51. William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, layman, 29 December 1680
  52. Laurence Humphreys (or Humphrey), layman, 1591
  53. John Ingram, priest, 1594[2]
  54. John Ireland, priest, 7 March 1544[22]
  55. William Ireland, Jesuit priest, 1679[16]
  56. Edward James, priest, 1588[2]
  57. Edward Jones, priest, 1590
  58. Brian Lacey, layman, 1591
  59. Richard Langhorne, layman, 1679
  60. Richard Langley, layman, 1586
  61. Richard Leigh, priest, 1588[2]
  62. John Lockwood, priest, 1642[2]
  63. William Marsden, priest, 25 April 1586[13]
  64. Richard Martin, layman, 30 August 1588
  65. John Mason, layman, 1591
  66. Thomas Maxfield, priest, 1616
  67. Anthony Middleton, priest, 1590
  68. Ralph Milner, layman, 7 July 1591
  69. Hugh More, layman, 28 August 1588
  70. Robert Morton, priest, 1588[2]
  71. John Munden, priest, 1584[2]
  72. George Napper, priest, Oxford, 1610
  73. John Nutter, priest, 1584
  74. Edward Oldcorne, Jesuit priest, 1606[2]
  75. Francis Page, Jesuit, 1602
  76. William Patenson, priest, 1592
  77. John Pibush, priest, 1601
  78. Thomas Pickering, Benedictine, 1679
  79. Philip Powel, Benedictine, 1646
  80. Alexander Rawlins, priest, 1595
  81. Richard (Thomas) Reynolds (alias Green), priest, 1 January 1642[3]
  82. William Richardson, priest, 1603[3]
  83. John Robinson, priest, 1588
  84. John Roche, layman, 1588
  85. Patrick Salmon, layman, 4 July 1594[18]
  86. William Scot (Maurus Scott) 1612
  87. Edward Shelley, 30 August 1588,
  88. John Slade, layman, 1583
  89. Richard Smith, (also known as Richard Newport), priest, 1612 [23]
  90. Thomas Somers, priest, 1610
  91. John Speed, layman, 4 February 1594
  92. Edward Stransham, priest, 1586
  93. Robert Sutton, layman, 5 October 1588
  94. George Swallowell, layman, 26 July 1594
  95. Thomas Thwing, priest, 1679[16]
  96. Thomas Tunstall, priest, 1616
  97. Anthony Turner, Jesuit, 1679[2]
  98. Thomas Warcop, layman, 4 July 1597
  99. William Ward, priest, 1641
  100. Edward Waterson, priest, 1593
  101. Robert Watkinson, priest, 1602
  102. William Way (alias May or Flower), priest, 1588
  103. Thomas Welbourne, layman, 1 August 1605
  104. Thomas Whitbread, Jesuit, 1679[16]
  105. Robert Widmerpool, layman, 1 October 1588[19]
  106. Robert Wilcox, priest, 1 October 1588[19]
  107. John Woodcock, Franciscan, 1646
  108. Peter Wright, Jesuit, 1651

Beatified 22 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II[edit]

Thomas Bullaker
  1. John Adams, priest, 8 October 1586[24]
  2. Thomas Atkinson, priest, 1616
  3. Edward Bamber, priest, 1646[16]
  4. George Beesley, priest, 5 July 1591[25]
  5. Arthur Bell, Franciscan priest, 1643[16]
  6. Thomas Belson, layman, 5 July 1589[26]
  7. Robert Bickerdike, layman, 23 July 1586
  8. Alexander Blake, layman, 4 March 1590;[15]
  9. Marmaduke Bowes, layman, 26 November 1585[27]
  10. John Bretton, layman, 1 April 1598[28]
  11. Thomas Bullaker, Franciscan priest, 1642
  12. Edmund Burden, priest, 1588
  13. Roger Cadwallador, priest, 1610
  14. William Carter, layman, 11 January 1584[29]
  15. Alexander Crowe, priest, 30 November 1587
  16. William Davies, priest, 27 July 1593
  17. Robert Dibdale, priest, 8 October 1586[24]
  18. George Douglas, priest, 1587
  19. Robert Drury, priest, 1607
  20. Edmund Duke, priest, 27 27 May 1590[2]
  21. George Errington, layman, 1596
  22. Roger Filcock, priest, 1601
  23. John Finglow (Fingley), priest, 8 August 1586
  24. Matthew Flathers, priest, 1608
  25. Richard Flower, layman, 1588
  26. Nicholas Garlick, priest, 1588
  27. William Gibson, layman, 1596
  28. Ralph Grimston, layman, 1598
  29. Robert Grissold, layman, 1604
  30. John Hambley, priest, 1587
  31. Robert Hardesty, layman, 1589
  32. George Haydock, priest, 12 February 1584[2]
  33. Henry Heath, Franciscan priest, 1643
  34. Richard Hill, priest, 27 May 1590
  35. John Hogg, priest, 27 May 1590
  36. Richard Holiday, priest, 27 May 1590
  37. Nicholas Horner, layman, 4 March 1590
  38. Thomas Hunt, priest, 1600
  39. Thurstan Hunt, priest, 1601
  40. Francis Ingleby, priest, 3 June 1586
  41. William Knight, layman, 1596
  42. Joseph Lambton, priest, 24 July 1592[2]
  43. William Lampley, layman, 1588
  44. John Lowe, priest, 8 October 1586[24]
  45. Robert Ludlam, priest, 1588
  46. Charles Mahoney (alias Meehan), Franciscan priest, 1679
  47. Robert Middleton, priest, March 1601[2]
  48. George Nichols, priest, 1589
  49. John Norton, layman, 1600
  50. Robert Nutter, priest, 1600
  51. Edward Osbaldeston, priest, 1594
  52. Antony Page, priest, 1593
  53. Thomas Palasor, priest, 1600; beatified 1987
  54. William Pike, layman, 1591
  55. Thomas Pilchard, priest, 21 March 1587
  56. Thomas Pormort, priest, 20 February 1592[2]
  57. Nicholas Postgate, priest, 1679
  58. Humphrey Pritchard, layman, 1589
  59. Christopher Robinson, priest, 1597
  60. Stephen Rowsham, priest, 1587
  61. John Sandys, priest, 11 August 1586
  62. Montford Scott, priest, 1591
  63. Richard Sergeant, priest, 2 April 1586
  64. Richard Simpson, priest, 1588
  65. Peter Snow, priest, 1598
  66. William Southerne, priest, 1618
  67. William Spenser, priest, 1589
  68. Thomas Sprott, priest, 1600
  69. John Sugar, priest, 1604
  70. Robert Sutton, priest, 1587
  71. Edmund Sykes, priest, 23 March 1587
  72. John Talbot, layman, 1600
  73. Hugh Taylor, priest, 25 November 1585[27]
  74. William Thomson, priest, 20 April 1586
  75. Robert Thorpe, priest, 1591
  76. John Thulis, priest, 18 Mar 1616[2]
  77. Edward Thwing, priest, 26 July 1600[2]
  78. Thomas Watkinson, layman, 31 May 1591[2]
  79. Henry Webley, 28 August 1588
  80. Christopher Wharton, priest, 1600
  81. Thomas Whitaker, priest, 1646[16]
  82. John Woodcock, Franciscan priest, 7 August 1646[2]
  83. Nicholas Woodfen, priest, 21 January 1586
  84. Roger Wrenno, layman, 1616
  85. Richard Yaxley, priest, 1589

Executed for their faith in England 1534–1680[edit]

1534–1547[edit]

The Nun of Kent and her companions[edit]

After the pilgrimage of grace and the rising of Lincolnshire[edit]

  • 1537: George ab Alba Rose, Augustinian
  • George Ashby (Asleby), monk;[32]
  • Ralph Barnes, monk;
  • Laurence Blonham, monk;
  • William Burraby, priest;
  • James Cockerell, Prior of Gisborough Priory;
  • William Coe, monk;
  • William Cowper, monk;
  • The Lord Darcy de Darcy;
  • John Eastgate, monk;
  • Richard Eastgate, monk;
  • John Francis, monk;
  • William Gylham, monk;
  • Richard Harrison, Abbot of Jervaulx;
  • William Haydock, monk;
  • Nicholas Heath, Prior of Lenton;
  • John Henmarsh, priest;
  • Robert Hobbes, Abbot of Woburn;
  • Henry Jenkinson, monk;
  • Thomas Kendal, priest;
  • Richard Laynton, monk;
  • Robert Leeche, layman;
  • Hugh Londale, monk;
  • Matthew Mackerel, Premonstratensian abbot, titular bishop of Chalcedon;
  • James Mallet, priest;
  • Thomas Moyne
  • John Paslew, Abbot of Whatley;
  • John Pickering, Benedictine, prior of York;
  • 25 May 1537: John Pickering, priest[33]
  • Thomas Redforth, priest;
  • 26 May 1537: Adam Sedbar, Abbot of Jervaulx;
  • William Swale, monk;
  • John Tenant, monk;
  • William Thyrsk, Cistercian;[33]
  • William Trafford, Abbot of Sawley;
  • Richard Wade, monk

Other martyrs[edit]

  • Anthony Brookby, Franciscan (Venerable) 7 July 1537:[34]
  • Thomas Cort, Franciscan (Venerable) 27 July 1538:[34]
  • Thomas Belchiam, Franciscan friar (Venerable) 3 August 1538:[34][35]
  • John Allen, priest;1538:[36]
  • John Collins, priest 1538:
  • George Croft, priest 1538:
  • Martin Condres, Augustinian monk December 1538:[37]
  • Paul of Saint William, Augustinian monk December 1538:[37]
  • John Griffith (or Clark), priest, 8 July 1539 (Venerable)
  • Friar Waire, Franciscan, 8 July 1539 (Venerable) [33]
  • Sir Thomas Dingley, layman, 9 July 1539 (Venerable)
  • Edmund Brindholme, priest, 4 August 1540 (Venerable);[38]
  • Clement Philpott (or Philpot), layman, 4 August 1540 (Venerable)
  • Robert Bird, layman; 4 August 1540:
  • William Bird, priest; 4 August 1540:
  • Thomas Empson, Benedictine; 4 August 1540:
  • William Peterson, priest 1540:
  • Thomas Ashby, layman, 19 March 1544 (Venerable)

Decrees of Elizabeth I[edit]

During the reign of Mary I, the Papal authority was officially reinstated and many Protestants were martyred.[39] After Elizabeth I's accession to the throne, the Act of Supremacy 1558 was enacted denying Papal authority but it was not until more than a decade later in February 1570 that Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth and any who obeyed her and called on all Catholics to rebel.

In the words of the New Catholic Encyclopedia, 'Without question it was Elizabeth I's intention to supplant the old religion with the new in a bloodless manner. It is significant that there were no martyrs in the first 12 years of her reign, and only five in the years 1570 to 1577.' [40] Of those five, Thomas Plumtree had been chaplain to the insurgents in the Rising of the North, John Felton had published Pope Pius V's Bull Regnans in Excelsis ("reigning on high"), excommunicating Queen Elizabeth, John Story was tried for high treason, for having supported the Rising of the North and encouraging the Duke of Alba to invade, Thomas Percy, Earl of Northumberland had led the Rising of the North and Thomas Woodhouse had declared in a letter to William Cecil that Elizabeth 'for her own great disobedience is most justly deposed'.[41]

The threat of invasion by a Catholic country assisted by English subjects led the Crown to try to stamp out Catholicism with repressive measures.[42] Elizabeth I's government passed anti-Catholic decrees in 1571: forbidding anyone from maintaining the jurisdiction of the pope by word, deed or act; requiring use of the Book of Common Prayer in all cathedrals, churches and chapels, and forbidding criticism of it; forbidding the publication of any bull, writing or instrument of the Holy See (the death penalty was assigned to this); and, prohibiting the importing of Agnus Dei images, crosses, pictures, beads or other things from the Bishop of Rome.

Later laws made the following activities illegal: to draw anyone away from the state religion; non-attendance at a Church of England church; raising children with teachers that were not licensed by an Anglican diocesan bishop; and, attending or celebrating the Catholic Mass.

In 1585 a new decree was issued that made it a crime punishable by death to go overseas to receive the sacrament of Ordination to the Catholic priesthood. Nicholas Devereux (who went by the alias of Nicholas Woodfen) and Edward Barber (see below Edward Stransham) were both put to death in 1586 under this law. William Thompson and Richard Lea (see below Richard Sergeant) were hanged, disembowelled and quartered under the same law. In 1588, eight priests and six laymen at Newgate were condemned and executed under this law.[42]

1570–1603[edit]

1606–1680[edit]

  • James Brown, Benedictine, 1645
  • Henry Garnet, Jesuit, 1606 'was he killed ex odio fidei, or was he believed to be guilty of the Powder Plot, by merely human misjudgment, not through religious prejudice?' [43]
  • Edward Morgan, priest, 1642 (Venerable)[2]
  • Brian Tansfield, 1643, (Venerable)[2]

Died in prison[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pullan, Malcolm (2008). The Lives and Times of Forty Martyrs of England and Wales 1535–1680. Athena Press. pp. xvii–xxii. ISBN 978-1-84748-258-7. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "The College Martyrs", The Venerable English College, Rome
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "College Saints and Martyrs" Royal English College Valladolid
  4. ^ Camm, Bede. "St. John Boste." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 23 Mar. 2013
  5. ^ Camm, Bede. "St. Margaret Clitherow." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 23 Mar. 2013
  6. ^ Caldwell, Simon, "Catholic, Anglican bishops honor first English martyr of Reformation", Catholic News Service, 5 May 2005.
  7. ^ "About St. Richard Reynolds", St. Richard Reynolds Catholic College
  8. ^ Morris, John et al, "Decree of the Congregation of Sacred Rites, 29 December, 1886", Lives of the English Martyrs: declared blessed by Pope Leo XIII, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1914
  9. ^ Blessed Lawrence Richardson
  10. ^ Morris, John et al, "Decree of the Congregation of Sacred Rites, 13 May, 1895", Lives of the English Martyrs: declared blessed by Pope Leo XIII, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1914
  11. ^ a b Ryan, Patrick W.F. "Ven. Thomas Alfield." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 13 Mar. 2013
  12. ^ a b Ryan, Patrick W.F. "Ven. John Amias." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 2 Feb. 2013
  13. ^ a b Ryan, Patrick W.F. "Ven. Robert Anderton." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 13 Mar. 2013
  14. ^ Ryan, Patrick W.F. "Ven. William Andleby." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 13 Mar. 2013
  15. ^ a b Camm, Bede. "Ven. Christopher Bales." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 22 Mar. 2013
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m T.E. Muir, Stonyhurst, (St Omers Press, Gloucestershire. Second edition, 2006) ISBN 0-9553592-0-1 p.188
  17. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. John Bodey." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 22 Mar. 2013
  18. ^ a b c d Mershman, Francis. "Venerables John Cornelius and Companions." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 23 Mar. 2013
  19. ^ a b c d The Oaten Hill Martyrs at RC.net
  20. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. William Dean." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 23 Mar. 2013
  21. ^ Bl. William Freeman at Catholic Online
  22. ^ Pollen, John Hungerford. "Bl. German Gardiner." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 11 Mar. 2013
  23. ^ Bunson, Matthew (2003). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints, Revised. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 712. ISBN 978-1-93170-975-0. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c Ryan, Patrick W.F. "Ven. John Adams." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 13 Mar. 2013
  25. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. George Beesley." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 22 Mar. 2013
  26. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. Thomas Belson." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 22 Mar. 2013
  27. ^ a b Wainewright, John. "Ven. Hugh Taylor." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 23 Mar. 2013
  28. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. John Britton." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 23 Mar. 2013
  29. ^ Wainewright, John. "Ven. William Carter." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 23 Mar. 2013
  30. ^ "Elizabeth Barton" The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Accessed 12 Jan. 2013.
  31. ^ a b c Wainewright, John. "Richard Risby." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 11 Mar. 2013
  32. ^ Pollen, John Hungerford. "George Ashby" The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Accessed 12 Jan. 2013.
  33. ^ a b c "The Blood of the Martyrs: Seed of the Church" Tyburn Convent
  34. ^ a b c The Observant Friars of Greenwich at British History Online places certain executions in 1534, citing Bourchier, Hist. Eccl. de Martyrio Fratrum
  35. ^ http://www.seattlecatholic.com/a050727.html
  36. ^ A'Becket, John Joseph. "John Allen." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 11 Mar. 2013
  37. ^ a b A complete history of the British martyrs page 126
  38. ^ Camm, Bede. "Ven. Edmund Brindholm" The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Accessed 12 Jan. 2013.
  39. ^ The Book of Martyrs (Foxe), Chapter XVI, Wikisource, accessed 1 February 2013
  40. ^ "Martyrs of England and Wales" New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. 1967. P 322.
  41. ^ Thomas M. McCoog, ‘Woodhouse, Thomas (d. 1573)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 8 Sept 2014
  42. ^ a b Chapman, John H. "The Persecution under Elizabeth" Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Old Series Vol. 9 (1881), pp. 21-43. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
  43. ^ Pollen, John Hungerford. "English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)" The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company, . 31 Mar. 2013
  44. ^ Original Catholic Encyclopedia - English Confessors and Martyrs
  45. ^ Original Catholic Encyclopedia - Thomas Downes

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