List of rulers of China

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Qin Shi Huang – the first emperor of China

The list of rulers of China includes rulers of China with various titles. From the Zhou dynasty to the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive. Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of ancient Chinese emperorsChinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors[edit]

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one", denoting demigod status) and five (帝, generally translated "emperor", but denoting much more reverential status than the modern term "emperor"). Their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals such as the Yellow Emperor being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shihuang to form the new title huángdì (皇帝, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself. These figures are all legendary, not historical.

Sovereigns/Emperors Title Other names Years of reign
Sovereign1,4,5 (Empress3) Nǚwā 女媧 (180,000 Years)
Sovereign (Emperor3) Yǒucháo 有巢 (110,000 Years)
(Sovereign4) Emperor3 Suìrén 燧人 (456,000 Years)
Sovereign1,4,5 (Emperor2,3) Fúxī 伏羲 2852–2737 BC
Sovereign1 (Emperor2,3) Yán Emperor 炎帝 Shennong (神農) 2737–2699 BC
(Sovereign5) Emperor1,2 Yellow Emperor 黃帝 Gongsun Xuanyuan (公孫軒轅) 2699–2588 BC
Emperor2 Shǎohào 少昊 Jintian-shi (金天氏) 2587–2491 BC
Emperor1,2 Zhuānxū 顓頊 Gaoyang (高陽) 2490–2413 BC
Emperor1 Gaoxin-shi (高辛氏) 2412–2343 BC
Emperor1 Zhì Qingyang-shi (青陽氏) 2343–2333 BC
Emperor1 Yáo Tangyao (唐堯) 2333–2234 BC
Emperor1 Shùn Youyu (有虞) 2233–2184 BC
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 — According to the Chu Ci.
3 — According to the Book of Rites.
4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義).
5 — According to the Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)
Traditional dates are provided.

Xia dynasty[edit]

Main article: Xia dynasty

C. 2070–1600 BCE1

Reign name² Given name Notes
Also known as: Dà Yǔ, 大禹 (Yǔ the Great)
Son of Yǔ; beginning of hereditary succession
Tài Kāng 太康 Kāng  
Zhòng Kāng 仲康 Kāng  
Xiāng  
No king About 40 years
Shào Kāng 少康 Kāng  
Zhù  
Huái  
Máng  
Xiè  
Jiàng  
Jiōng  
Yìn Jiǎ 胤甲 Jǐn  
Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲  
Gāo  
 
Lǚ Guǐ 履癸 Jié  Reign ended in Battle of Mingtiao
1 — The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 — The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xià (夏).

Shang dynasty[edit]

Main article: Shang dynasty

C. 1600–1046 BCE1

Temple name Regnal name² Given name³ Reign years1 Capital
Tiān Yǐ 天乙 Tāng 1600–1300 BC
Wài Bǐng 外丙 Shèng
Zhòng Rén 仲壬 Yōng
Tàizōng 太宗 Tài Jiǎ 太甲 Zhì
Wò Dīng 沃丁 Xuàn
Tài Gēng 太庚 Biàn
Xiǎo Jiǎ 小甲 Gāo
Yōng Jǐ 雍己 Zhòu
Tài Wù 太戊
Zhòng Dīng 仲丁 Zhuāng Áo
Wài Rén 外壬
Jiān Jiǎ 戔甲 Zhěng Xiàng
Zhōngzōng 中宗 Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 Téng
Zǔ Xīn 祖辛 Dàn
Wò Jiǎ 沃甲
Zǔ Dīng 祖丁 Xīn
Nán Gēng 南庚 Gēng Yǎn
Yáng Jiǎ 陽甲
Pán Gēng4 盤庚 Xún 1300–1251 BC Yīn
Xiǎo Xīn 小辛 Sòng
Xiǎo Yǐ 小乙 Liǎn
Gāozōng 高宗 Wǔ Dīng 武丁 Zhāo 1250–1192 BC
Zǔ Gēng 祖庚 Yuè 1191–1148 BC
Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲 Zài
Lǐn Xīn 廩辛 Xiān
Kāng Dīng 康丁 Xiāo
Wǔ Yǐ 武乙 1147–1113 BC
Wén Dīng5 文丁 Tuō 1112–1102 BC
Dì Yǐ 帝乙 Xiàn 1101–1076 BC
Di Xin (King Zhou of Shang) 帝辛 Shòu 1075–1046 BC
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Shang (商).
3 The Shang royal family name was Zǐ (子).
4 The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.
5 Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty[edit]

Main article: Zhou dynasty

Circa 10461–256 BC, traditionally divided into:

Posthumous name Given name Reign years1 Common name
Pinyin Chinese Pinyin Chinese
Wǔ Wáng 武王 1046–1043 BC1 King Wu of Zhou
Chéng Wáng 成王 Sòng 1042–1021 BC1 King Cheng of Zhou
Kāng Wáng 康王 Zhāo 1020–996 BC1 King Kang of Zhou
Zhāo Wáng 昭王 Xiá 995–977 BC1 King Zhao of Zhou
Mù Wáng 穆王 Mǎn 滿 976–922 BC1 King Mu of Zhou
Gōng Wáng 共王 Yīhù 繄扈 922–900 BC1 King Gong of Zhou
Yì Wáng 懿王 Jiān 899–892 BC1 King Yi of Zhou (Jian)
Xiào Wáng 孝王 Bìfāng 辟方 891–886 BC1 King Xiao of Zhou
Yí Wáng 夷王 Xiè 885–878 BC1 King Yi of Zhou (Xie)
Lì Wáng 厲王 877–841 BC1 King Li of Zhou
Gonghe 共和 (regency) 841–828 BC Gonghe
Xuān Wáng 宣王 Jìng 827–782 BC King Xuan of Zhou
Yōu Wáng 幽王 Gōngshēng 宮湦 781–771 BC King You of Zhou
Ping Wang 平王 Yijiu 宜臼 770–720 BC King Ping of Zhou
Huan Wang 桓王 Lin 719–697 BC King Huan of Zhou
Zhuang Wang 莊王 Tuo 696–682 BC King Zhuang of Zhou
Xi Wang 釐王 Huqi 胡齊 681–677 BC King Xi of Zhou
Hui Wang 惠王 Lang 676–652 BC King Hui of Zhou
Xiang Wang 襄王 Zheng 651–619 BC King Xiang of Zhou
Qing Wang 頃王 Renchen 壬臣 618–613 BC King Qing of Zhou
Kuang Wang 匡王 Ban 612–607 BC King Kuang of Zhou
Ding Wang 定王 Yu 606–586 BC King Ding of Zhou
Jian Wang 簡王 Yi 585–572 BC King Jian of Zhou
Ling Wang 靈王 Xiexin 泄心 571–545 BC King Ling of Zhou
Jing Wang 景王 Gui 544–521 BC King Jing of Zhou (Gui)
Dao Wang 悼王 Meng 520 BC King Dao of Zhou
Jing Wang 敬王 Gai 519–476 BC King Jing of Zhou (Gai)
Yuan Wang 元王 Ren 475–469 BC King Yuan of Zhou
Zhending Wang 貞定王 Jie 468–442 BC King Zhending of Zhou
Ai Wang 哀王 Quji 去疾 441 BC King Ai of Zhou
Si Wang 思王 Shu 441 BC King Si of Zhou
Kao Wang 考王 Wei 440–426 BC King Kao of Zhou
Weilie Wang 威烈王 Wu 425–402 BC King Weilie of Zhou
An Wang 安王 Jiao 401–376 BC King An of Zhou
Lie Wang 烈王 Xi 375–369 BC King Lie of Zhou
Xian Wang 顯王 Bian 368–321 BC King Xian of Zhou
Shenjing Wang 慎靚王 Ding 320–315 BC King Shenjing of Zhou
Nan Wang 赧王 Yan 314–256 BC King Nan of Zhou
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

Qin dynasty[edit]

Sovereigns of the Qin dynasty 221–207 BC
Title Given Name Period of Reign
Qin Shi Huang1 秦始皇 Zhèng 221–210 BC
Qin Er Shi 秦二世 Húhài 胡亥 209–207 BC
Qin San Shi (King Ziying)2 秦三世 Ziyīng 子嬰 207 BC
1Qin Shi Huang became king of the State of Qin in 246 BC, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BC.
2 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).

Han dynasty[edit]

Han dynasty Sovereigns
Posthumous Name Personal Name Period of Reign Era Name Range of years
Convention: "Han" + posthumous name, excepting Liu Gong, Liu Hong, Ruzi Ying, the Prince of Changyi, the Marquess of Beixiang, and the Prince of Hongnong.
Western Han dynasty 206 BC – 9 AD
Gao Zu (Emperor Gaozu) 高祖 Liu Bang 劉邦 206–195 BC Did not exist
Hui Di (Emperor Hui) 惠帝 Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Liu Gong, the Emperor Shao/Young Emperor) 少帝 Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Liu Hong, the Emperor Shao/Young Emperor) 少帝 Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC Did not exist
Wen Di (Emperor Wen) 文帝 Liu Heng 劉恆 179–157 BC Hòuyuán 後元 163–156 BC
Jing Di (Emperor Jing) 景帝 Liu Qi 劉啟 156–141 BC Zhōngyuán 中元 149–143 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 143–141 BC
Wu Di (Emperor Wu) 武帝 Liu Che 劉徹 140–87 BC Jiànyuán 建元 140–135 BC
Yuánguāng 元光 134–129 BC
Yuánshuò 元朔 128–123 BC
Yuánshòu 元狩 122–117 BC
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116–111 BC
Yuánfēng 元封 110–105 BC
Tàichū 太初 104–101 BC
Tiānhàn 天漢 100–97 BC
Tàishǐ 太始 96–93 BC
Zhēnghé 征和 92–89 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 88–87 BC
Zhao Di (Emperor Zhao) 昭帝 Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 86–74 BC Shǐyuán 始元 86–80 BC
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80–75 BC
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
The Prince of Changyi 昌邑王 or 海昏侯 Liu He 劉賀 74 BC Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
Xuan Di (Emperor Xuan) 宣帝 Liu Xun 劉詢 73–49 BC Běnshǐ 本始 73–70 BC
Dìjié 地節 69–66 BC
Yuánkāng 元康 65–61 BC
Shénjué 神爵 61–58 BC
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57–54 BC
Gānlù 甘露 53–50 BC
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BC
Yuan Di (Emperor Yuan) 元帝 Liu Shi 劉奭 48–33 BC Chūyuán 初元 48–44 BC
Yǒngguāng 永光 43–39 BC
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38–34 BC
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BC
Cheng Di (Emperor Cheng) 成帝 Liu Ao 劉驁 32–7 BC Jiànshǐ 建始 32–28 BC
Hépíng 河平 28–25 BC
Yángshuò 陽朔 24–21 BC
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20–17 BC
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16–13 BC
Yuányán 元延 12–9 BC
Suīhé 綏和 8–7 BC
Ai Di (Emperor Ai) 哀帝 Liu Xin 劉欣 6–1 BC Jiànpíng 建平 6–3 BC
Yuánshòu 元壽 2–1 BC
Ping Di (Emperor Ping) 平帝 Liu Kan 劉衎 1 BC – 5 AD Yuánshǐ 元始 1 BC – 5 AD
Ruzi Ying (Child Ying) 孺子嬰 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–8 Jùshè 居攝 6 – Oct. 8
Chūshǐ 初始 Nov. 8 – Dec. 8
Xin dynasty (AD 9–23)
Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (王莽) 9–23 Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9–13
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14–19
Dìhuáng 地皇 20–23
Continuation of Han dynasty
Geng Shi Emperor 更始帝 Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 Gēngshǐ 更始 23–25
Eastern Han dynasty 25–220
Guang Wu Di (Emperor Guangwu) 光武帝 Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 Jiànwǔ 建武 25–56
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56–57
Ming Di (Emperor Ming) 明帝 Liu Zhuang 劉莊 58–75 Yǒngpíng 永平 58–75
Zhang Di (Emperor Zhang) 章帝 Liu Da 劉炟 76–88 Jiànchū 建初 76–84
Yuánhé 元和 84–87
Zhānghé 章和 87–88
He Di (Emperor He) 和帝 Liu Zhao 劉肇 89–105 Yǒngyuán 永元 89–105
Yuánxīng 元興 105
Shang Di (Emperor Shang) 殤帝 Liu Long 劉隆 106 Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106
An Di (Emperor An) 安帝 Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 Yǒngchū 永初 107–113
Yuánchū 元初 114–120
Yǒngníng 永寧 120–121
Jiànguāng 建光 121–122
Yánguāng 延光 122–125
Shao Di, the Marquess of Beixiang 少帝 or 北鄉侯 Liu Yi 劉懿 125 Yánguāng 延光 125
Shun Di (Emperor Shun) 順帝 Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 Yǒngjiàn 永建 126–132
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132–135
Yǒnghé 永和 136–141
Hàn'ān 漢安 142–144
Jiànkāng 建康 144
Chong Di (Emperor Chong) 沖帝 Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 Yōngxī 永嘉 145
Zhi Di 質帝 Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 Běnchū 本初 146
Huan Di (Emperor Huan) 桓帝 Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 Jiànhé 建和 147–149
Hépíng 和平 150
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151–153
Yǒngxīng 永興 153–154
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155–158
Yánxī 延熹 158–167
Yǒngkāng 永康 167
Ling Di (Emperor Ling) 靈帝 Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 Jiànníng 建寧 168–172
Xīpíng 熹平 172–178
Guānghé 光和 178–184
Zhōngpíng 中平 184–189
Emperor Shao, the Prince of Hongnong 少帝 or 弘農王 Liu Bian 劉辯 189 Guīngxī 光熹 189
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189
Xian Di (Emperor Xian) 獻帝 Liu Xie (liú xié) 劉協 189–220 Yǒnghàn 永漢 189
Chūpíng 初平 190–193
Xīngpíng 興平 194–195
Jiàn'ān 建安 196–220
Yánkāng 延康 220

Three Kingdoms Period[edit]

Three Kingdoms Sovereigns
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Wei(魏) or [Cao Wei(曹魏)] established by Cao Cao 220–265
Convention: "Wei" + posthumous name, sometimes except Cao Pi who was referred using personal names.
Emperor Wen 文帝 曹丕 Cáo Pī 220–226 Huángchū 黃初 220–226
Emperor Ming 明帝 曹叡 Cáo Ruì 226–239 Tàihé 太和 227–233
Qīnglóng 青龍 233–237
Jǐngchū 景初 237–239
Prince Qi 齊王 曹芳 Cáo Fāng 239–254 Zhèngshǐ 正始 240–249
Jiāpíng 嘉平 249–254
Duke Gaoguixiang 高貴鄉公 曹髦 Cáo Máo 254–260 Zhèngyuán 正元 254–256
Gānlù 甘露 256–260
Emperor Yuan 元帝 曹奐 Cáo Huàn 260–265 Jǐngyuán 景元 260–264
Xiánxī 咸熙 264–265
Shu(蜀) or Shu Han(蜀漢) 221–263
Convention: use personal name
Emperor Zhaolie 昭烈帝 劉備 Liú Bèi 221–223 Zhāngwǔ 章武 221–223
Last Emperor (Hòuzhǔ) 後主 劉禪 Liú Shàn 223–263 Jiànxīng 建興 223–237
Yánxī 延熙 238–257
Jǐngyào 景耀 258–263
Yánxīng 炎興 263
Wu(吳) 222–280
Convention: use personal name
Great Emperor (Da Di) 大帝 孫權 Sūn Quán 222–252 Huángwǔ 黃武 222–229
Huánglóng 黃龍 229–231
Jiāhé 嘉禾 232–238
Chìwū 赤烏 238–251
Tàiyuán 太元 251–252
Shénfèng 神鳳 252
Prince Kuaiji 會稽王 孫亮 Sūn Liàng 252–258 Jiànxīng 建興 252–253
Wǔfèng 五鳳 254–256
Tàipíng 太平 256–258
Emperor Jing 景帝 孫休 Sūn Xiū 258–264 Yǒngān 永安 258–264
Marquis Wucheng (Wūchéng Hóu) 烏程侯 孫皓 Sūn Hào 264–280 Yuánxīng 元興 264–265
Gānlù 甘露 265–266
Bǎodǐng 寶鼎 266–269
Jiànhéng 建衡 269–271
Fènghuáng 鳳凰 272–274
Tiāncè 天冊 275–276
Tiānxǐ 天璽 276
Tiānjì 天紀 277–280

Jin dynasty[edit]

Jin dynasty (265–420) Sovereigns
Posthumous Names
(Shi Hao 諡號)
Personal Names Period
of Reigns
Era Names (Nian Hao 年號)
and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Jin Dynasty in English
Xi (Western) Jin dynasty 西晉/西晋 265–317
Emperor Wu 武帝 Sīmǎ Yán 司馬炎 265–290 Tàishǐ 泰始 265–274
Xiánníng 咸寧 275–280
Tàikāng 太康 280–289
Tàixī 太熙 290
Emperor Hui 惠帝 Sīmǎ Zhōng 司馬衷 290–306 Yǒngxī 永熙 290
Yǒngpīng 永平 291
Yuánkāng 元康 291–299
Yǒngkāng 永康 300–301
Yǒngníng 永寧 301–302
Tàiān 太安 302–303
Yǒngān 永安 304
Jiànwǔ 建武 304
Yǒngān 永安 304
Yǒngxīng 永興 304–306
Guāngxī 光熙 306
Emperor Huai 懷帝 Sīmǎ Chì 司馬熾 307–313 Yǒngjiā 永嘉 307–313
Emperor Min 愍帝 Sīmǎ Yè 司馬鄴 313–317 Jiànxīng 建興 313–317
Dong (Eastern) Jin dynasty 東晉/东晋 317–420
Emperor Yuan 元帝 Sīmǎ Ruì 司馬睿 317–322 Jiànwǔ 建武 317–318
Dàxīng 大興 318–321
Yǒngchāng 永昌 321–322
Emperor Míng 明帝 Sīmǎ Shào 司馬紹 322–325 Yǒngchāng 永昌 322–323
Tàiníng 太寧 323–325
Emperor Cheng 成帝 Sīmǎ Yǎn 司馬衍 325–342 Tàiníng 太寧 325
Xiánhé 咸和 326–334
Xiánkāng 咸康 335–342
Emperor Kang 康帝 Sīmǎ Yuè 司馬岳 342–344 Jiànyuán 建元 343–344
Emperor Mu 穆帝 Sima Dān 司馬聃 345–361 Yǒnghé 永和 345–356
Shēngpíng 升平 357–361
Emperor Ai 哀帝 Sīmǎ Pī 司馬丕 361–365 Lónghé 隆和 362–363
Xīngníng 興寧 363–365
Emperor Fei 廢帝 Sīmǎ Yì 司馬奕 365–371 Tàihé 太和 365–371
Emperor Jianwen 簡文帝 Sīmǎ Yù 司馬昱 371–372 Xiánān 咸安 371–372
Emperor Xiaowu 孝武帝 Sīmǎ Yào 司馬曜 372–396 Níngkāng 寧康 373–375
Tàiyuán 太元 376–396
Emperor An 安帝 Sīmǎ Dézōng 司馬德宗 396–418 Lóngān 隆安 397–401
Yuánxīng 元興 402–404
Yìxī 義熙 405–418
Emperor Gong 恭帝 Sīmǎ Déwén 司馬德文 419–420 Yuánxī 元熙 419–420

Sixteen Kingdoms Period[edit]

Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Han Zhao 漢趙 304–329 (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han 漢 and Former Zhao 前趙)
Han 304–318
Gao Zu
高祖
Emperor Guangwen
光文帝
Liu Yuan
劉淵
304–310 Jiànxīng (建興) 304–307

Yǒngfèng (永鳳) 308
Héruì (河瑞) 309
Guāngxīng (光興) 310

Did not exist Prince Liang
梁王
Liu He
劉和
7 days in 310 Guāngxīng (光興) 310 (continuation)
Lie Zong
烈宗
Emperor Zhaowu
昭武帝
Liu Cong
劉聰
310–318 Guāngxīng (光興) 310 (continuation)

Jiāpíng (嘉平) 311–315
Jiànyuán (建元) 316
Línjiā (麟嘉) 317–318

Did not exist Emperor Yin
隱帝
Liu Can
劉粲
a month and days in 318 Hànchāng (漢昌) 318 (until renaming as Former Zhao)
Qian (Former) Zhao 前趙 318–329
Did not exist Last Emperor
後主
Liu Yao
劉曜
318–329 Guāngchū (光初) 318–329 (until conquest by Later Zhao)
Hou (Later) Zhao Empire 后趙 319–351
Gaozu Emperor
高祖
Emperor Ming
明帝
Shi Le
石勒
319–333 Prince Zhao (趙王) 319–327

Tàihé (太和) 328–329
Jiànpíng (建平) 330–332
Yánxī (延熙) 333

Did not exist Prince Haiyang
海陽王
Shi Hong
石弘
333–334 Yánxī (延熙) 333 (continuation)

Jiànwǔ (建武) 334

Taizu Emperor
太祖
Emperor Wu
武帝
Shi Hu
石虎
334–349 Jiànwǔ (建武) 334–348

Taìníng (太寧) 349

Did not exist Prince Qiao
譙王
Shi Shi
石世
73 days in 349 Taìníng (太寧) 349 (continuation)
Did not exist Prince Pangcheng
彭城王
Shi Zun
石遵
183 days in 349 Taìníng (太寧) 349 (continuation)
Did not exist Prince Yiyang
義陽王
Shi Jian
石鑒
103 days within 349–350 Qīnglóng (青龍) (changed mid-year)
Did not exist Prince Xinxing
新興王
Shi Zhi
石祗
350–351 Yǒngníng (永寧) 350–351 (until Ran Min's coup)
Cheng Han 成漢 303–347 (addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng and Han)
Cheng 303–338
Shízu Emperor
始祖 or
Shìzu Emperor

世祖

Emperor Jing
景帝
Li Te
李特
303 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303
Did not exist Prince Qin Wen
秦文王
Li Liu
李流
several months in 303 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303 (continuation)
Taizong Emperor
太宗
Emperor Wu
武帝
Li Xiong
李雄
303–334 Jiànchū (建初) or Jǐngchū (景初) 303 (continuation)

Jiànxīng (建興) 304–305
Yànpīng (晏平) 306–310
Yùhéng (玉衡) 311–334

Did not exist Emperor Ai
哀帝
Li Ban
李班
7 months in 334 Yùhéng (玉衡) 334 (continuation)
Did not exist Duke You
幽公
Li Qi
李期
334–338 Yùhéng (玉恆) 334–337 (continuation)

Hànxīng (漢興)

Han 338–347
Zhongzong Emperor
中宗
Emperor Zhaowen
昭文帝
Li Shou
李壽
338–343 Hànxīng (漢興) 338–343 (continuation)
Did not exist Marquis Guiyi

歸義侯

Li Shi
李勢
343–347 Hànxīng (漢興) 343 (continuation)

Tàihé (太和) 344–345
Jiāníng (嘉寧) 346–347 (until conquest by Jin)

Qian (Former) Yan 前燕 337–370
Taizu Emperor
太祖
Emperor Wenming
文明帝
Murong Huang
慕容皝
337–348 Yànwáng (燕王) 337–348
Liezong Emperor
烈宗)
Emperor Jingzhao
景昭帝
Murong Jun
慕容俊
348–360 Yànwáng (燕王) 348 (continuation)

Yànyuán (燕元) 349–351
Yuánxǐ (元璽) 352–357
Shēngpíng (升平) 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Guāngshòu (光壽) 357–359
Jiànxī (建熙) 360

Did not exist Prince You
幽帝
Murong Wei
慕容暐
360–370 Jiànxī (建熙) 360–365 (continuation)

Jiànyuán (建元) 366–370

Hou (Later) Yan 后燕 384–407
Shizu Emperor
世祖
Emperor Wucheng
武成帝
Murong Chui
慕容垂
384–396 Yànwáng (燕王) 384–385

Jianxing (建興) 386–396

Liezong Emperor
烈宗
Emperor Huimin
惠愍帝
Murong Bao
慕容寶
396–398 Yongkang (永康 yǒng kāng) 396–398
Zhongzong Emperor
中宗
Emperor Zhaowu
昭武帝
Murong Sheng
慕容盛
398–401 Jianping (建平) 398

Changle (長樂) 399–401

Did not exist Emperor Zhaowen
昭文帝
Murong Xi
慕容熙
401–407 Guangshi (光始) 401–406

Jianshi (建始) 407

Nan (Southern) Yan 南燕 398–410
Shi Zong
世宗
Emperor Xianwu
獻武帝
Murong De
慕容德
398–405 Yanwang (燕王) 398–400

Jianping (建平) 400–405

Did not exist Last Emperor
後主
Murong Chao
慕容超
405–410 Taishang (太上) 405–410
Bei (Northern) Yan 北燕 407–436
Did not exist Emperor Huiyi
惠懿帝
Gao Yun
高雲
407–409 Zhengshi (正始) 407–409
Taizu
太祖
Emperor Wencheng
文成帝
Feng Ba
馮跋
409–430 Taiping (太平) 409–430
Did not exist Emperor Zhaocheng
昭成帝
Feng Hong
馮弘
430–436 Daxing (大興) 430–436
Qian (Former) Liang 前凉 320–376
Did not exist Duke Cheng
成公
Zhang Mao
張茂
320–324 Jianxing (建興) 320–324
Did not exist Duke Zhongcheng
忠成公
Zhang Jun
張駿
324–346 Jianxing (建興) 324–346
Did not exist Duke Huan
桓公
Zhang Chonghua
張重華
346–353 Jianxing (建興) 346–353
Did not exist Duke Ai
哀公
Zhang Yaoling
張曜靈
3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興) 353
Did not exist Prince Wei
威王
Zhang Zuo
張祚
353–355 Jianxing (建興) 353–354

Heping (和平) 354–355

Did not exist Duke Jingdao
敬悼公 or
Duke Chong
沖公
Zhang Xuanjing
張玄靖
355–363 Jianxing (建興) 355–361

Shengping (升平) 361–363

Did not exist Duke Dao
悼公
Zhang Tianxi
張天錫
364–376 Shengping (升平) 364–376
Hou (Later) Liang 后凉 386–403
Taizu
太祖
King Yiwu
懿武王
Lü Guang
呂光
386–399 Taian (太安) 386–389

Linjia (麟嘉 389–396
Longfei (龍飛) 396–399

Did not exist King Yin
隱王
Lü Shao
呂紹
399 Longfei (龍飛) 399
Did not exist King Ling
靈王
Lü Zuan
呂纂
399–401 Xianning (咸寧) 399–401
Did not exist Duke Shangshu
尚書公 or
Duke Jiankang
建康公
Lü Long
呂隆
401–403 Shending (神鼎) 401–403
Nan (Southern) Liang 南凉 397–414
Lie Zu
烈祖
King Wu
武王
Tufa Wugu
禿髮烏孤
397–399 Taichu (太初) 397–399
Did not exist King Kang
康王
Tufa Lilugu
禿髮利鹿孤
399–402 Jianhe (建和) 399–402
Did not exist King Jǐng
景王 or
King Jìng
敬王
Tufa Rutan
禿髮傉檀
402–414 Hongchang (弘昌) 402–404

Jiaping (嘉平) 409–414

Bei (Northern) Liang 北凉 397–439 (as Kings of Gaochang 442–460)
Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye
段業
397–401 Shenxi (神璽) 397–399

Tianxi (天璽) 399–401

Tai zu
太祖
King Wuxuan
武宣王
Juqu Mengxun
沮渠蒙遜
401–433 Yongan (永安) 401–412

Xuanshi (玄始) 412–428
Chengxuan (承玄) 428–430
Yihe (義和) 430–433

Did not exist King Ai
哀王
Juqu Mujian
沮渠牧犍
433–439 Yonghe (永和) 433–439
Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Wuhui
沮渠無諱
442–444 Chengping (承平) 442–443

Qianshou (乾壽) 443–444

Did not exist Did not exist Juqu Anzhou
沮渠安周
444–460 Chengping (承平) 444–460
Xi (Western) Liang 西凉 400–421
Tai zu
太祖
King Wuzhao
武昭王
Li Gao
李暠
400–417 Gengzi (庚子) 400–405

Jianchu (建初) 406–416

Did not exist Later King
後主
Li Xin
李歆
417–420 Jiaxing (嘉興) 417–420
Did not exist Last King
後主
Li Xun
李恂
420–421 Yongjian (永建) 420–421
Qian Former Qin Empire 前秦 351–394
Gao Zu
高祖
Emperor Jing Ming
景明帝
Fu Jian
苻健
351–355 Huangshi (皇始) 351–355
Did not exist King Li
厲王
Fu Sheng
苻生
355–357 Shouguang (壽光) 355–357
Shi Zu
世祖
Emperor Xuan Zhao
宣昭帝
Fu Jian
苻堅
357–385 Yongxing (永興) 357–359

Ganlu (甘露) 359–364
Jianyuan (建元) 365–385

Did not exist Emperor Ai Ping
哀平帝
Fu Pi
苻丕
385–386 Taian (太安) 385–386
Tai Zong
太宗
Emperor Gao
高帝
Fu Deng
苻登
386–394 Taichu (太初) 385–394
Did not exist Last Emperor
後主
Fu Chong
苻崇
several months in 394 Yanchu (延初) 394
Hou (Later) Qin 后秦 384–417
Tai zu
太祖
Emperor Wu Zhao
武昭帝
Yao Chang
姚萇
384–393 Baique (白雀) 384–386

Jianchu (建初) 386–393

Gao Zu
高祖
Emperor Wen Huan
文桓帝
Yao Xing
姚興
394–416 Huangchu (皇初) 394–399

Hongshi (弘始) 399–416

Did not exist Last Emperor
後主
Yao Hong
姚泓
416–417 Yonghe (永和) 416–417
Xi (Western) Qin 西秦 385–400, 409–431
Lie Zu
烈祖
King Xuanlie
宣烈王
Qifu Guoren
乞伏國仁
385–388 Jianyi (建義) 385–388
Gao Zu
高祖
King Wu Yuan
武元王
Qifu Gangui
乞伏乾歸
388–400, 409–412 Taichu (太初) 388–400

Gengshi (更始) 409–412

Tai Zu
太祖
King Wen Zhao
文昭王
Qifu Chipan
乞伏熾磐
412–428 Yongkang (永康) 412–419

Jianhong (建弘) 420–428

Did not exist Last King
後主
Qifu Mumo
乞伏暮末
428–431 Yonghong (永弘) 428–431
Xia 夏 407–431
Shi Zu
世祖
Emperor Wulie
武烈帝
Helian Bobo
赫連勃勃
407–425 Longsheng (龍升) 407–413

Fengxiang (鳳翔) 413–418
Changwu (昌武) 418–419
Zhenxing (真興) 419–425

Did not exist Prince Qin
秦王
Helian Chang
赫連昌
425–428 Chengguang (承光) 425–428
Did not exist Prince Pingyuan
平原王
Helian Ding
赫連定
428–431 Shengguang (勝光) 425–428
Other sovereignties traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use personal name
Ran Wei 冉魏 350–352 (addressed as Wei in traditional texts)
Wudao Tianwang (Wudao Heavenly King)

武悼天王

Ran Min
冉閔
350–352 Yongxing (永興) 350–352
Xi (Western) Yan 西燕 384–394
Emperor Wei
威帝
Murong Hong
慕容泓
384 Yanxing (燕興) 384
Did not exist Murong Chong
慕容沖
384–386 Yanxing (燕興) 384–385

Gengshi (更始) 385–386

Did not exist Duan Sui
段隨
386 Changping (昌平) 386
Did not exist Murong Yi
慕容顗
386 Jianming (建明) 386
Did not exist Murong Yao
慕容瑤
386 Jianping (建平) 386
Did not exist Murong Zhong
慕容忠
386 Jianwu (建武) 386
Did not exist Murong Yong
慕容永
386–394 Zhongxing (中興) 386–394
Shu 蜀 405–413
King Chengdu
成都王
Qiao Zong
譙縱
405–413 Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe 匈奴支系鐵弗部首領 (mid-3rd century – 391)
Did not exist Liu Qubei
劉去卑
mid-3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Gaoshengyuan
劉誥升爰
mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Hu
劉虎
early 4th century (309?) – 341 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wuheng
劉務恒
341–356 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Eloutou
劉閼陋頭
356–358 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Xiwuqi
劉悉勿祈
358–359 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Weichen
劉衛辰
359–391 Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe 宇文部鮮卑首領 (late-3rd century – 345)
Did not exist Yuwen Mohuai
宇文莫槐
late 3rd century – 293 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Puhui
宇文普回 or
Yuwen Pubo
宇文普撥
293 – late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qiubuqin
宇文丘不勤
late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Mogui
宇文莫圭
late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Xiduguan
宇文悉獨官
early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qidegui
宇文乞得歸
early 3rd century – 333 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Yidougui
宇文逸豆歸
333–345 Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 遼西公 303–338
Did not exist Duan Wuwuchen
段務勿塵
303 – 310 or 311 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Jilujuan
段疾陸眷
310 or 311 – 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Shefuchen
段涉復辰
318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Pidi
段匹磾
318–321 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Mopei
段末柸
318–325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ya
段牙
325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Liao
段遼
326–338 Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid-6th century (555?))
First Phase of Chouchi 前仇池 (late 2nd century – 371)
Did not exist Yang Teng
楊騰
late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ju
楊駒
early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Qianwan
楊千萬
early 3rd century – mid-3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Feilong
楊飛龍
mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Maosou
楊茂搜
late 3rd century – 317 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nandi
楊難敵
317–334 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yi
楊毅
334–337 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chu
楊初
337–355 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Guo
楊國
355–356 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jun
楊俊
356–360 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shi
楊世
360–370 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Cuan
楊篡
370–371 Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 后仇池 385–473
King Wǔ
武王
Yang Ding
楊定
385–394 Did not exist
King Huìwén
惠文王
Yang Sheng
楊盛
394–425 Did not exist
King Xiàozhāo
孝昭王
Yang Xuan
楊玄
425–429 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Baozong
楊保宗
429 and 443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nandang
楊難當
429–441 Jianyi (建義) 436–440
Did not exist Yang Baochi
楊保熾
442–443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wende
楊文德
443–454 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yuanhe
楊元和
455–466 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Sengsi
楊僧嗣
466–473 Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 武興王 473–506 and 534–555
Did not exist Yang Wendu
楊文度
473–477 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wenhong
楊文弘
477–482 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Houqi
楊後起
482–486 Did not exist
An Wang
安王
Yang Jishi
楊集始
482–503 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shaoxian
楊紹先
503–506, 534–535 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Zhihui
楊智慧
535–545 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Bixie
楊辟邪
545–553 Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 陰平王 477 – mid-6th century
Did not exist Yang Guangxiang
楊廣香
477–483? Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jiong
楊炯
483–495 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chongzu
楊崇祖
495-before 502 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Mengsun
楊孟孫
before 502–511 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ding
楊定
511- ? Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 索頭部鮮卑族首領 219–377 (as Kings of Dai 代王 305?–377)
The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wáng) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
King Shényuán
神元王
Tuoba Liwei
拓拔力微
219–277 Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu 始祖. He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
King Zhāng
章王
Tuoba Xilu
拓拔悉鹿
277–286 Did not exist
King Píng
平王
Tuoba Chuo
拓拔綽
286–293 Did not exist
King Sī
思王
Tuoba Fu
拓拔弗
293–294 Did not exist
King Zhāo
昭王
Tuoba Luguan
拓拔祿官
294–307 Did not exist
Emperor Huán
桓帝
Tuoba Yituo
拓拔猗㐌
295–305 Did not exist
King Mù
穆王
Tuoba Yilu
拓拔猗盧
295–316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba Pugen
拓拔普根
316 Did not exist
Did not exist ?

拓拔?

316 Did not exist
King Píngwén
平文王
Tuoba Yulü
拓拔鬱律
316–321 Did not exist
King Huì
惠王
Tuoba Heru
拓拔賀傉
321–325 Did not exist
King Yáng
煬王
Tuoba Hena
拓拔紇那
325–329 and 335–337 Did not exist
King Liè
烈王
Tuoba Yihuai
拓拔翳槐
329–335 and 337–338 Did not exist
King Zhāochéng
昭成王
Tuoba Shiyijian
拓拔什翼健
338–377 Jianguo (建國) 338–377

Northern and Southern Dynasties[edit]

Sovereigns in the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Northern dynasties 北朝
Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty 北魏 386–535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Wei in English
The Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of Xiaowen Di in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.
Emperor Daowu
道武帝
Tuoba Gui
拓拔珪
386–409 Dengguo (登國) 386–396
Huangshi (皇始) 396–398
Tianxing (天興) 398–404
Tianci (天賜) 404–409
Emperor Mingyuan
明元帝
Tuoba Si
拓拔嗣
409–423 Yongxing (永興) 409–413
Shenrui (神瑞) 414–416
Taichang (泰常) 416–423
Emperor Taiwu
太武帝
Tuoba Tao
拓拔燾
424–452 Shiguang (始光) 424–428
Shenjia (神䴥) 428–431
Yanhe (延和) 432–434
Taiyan (太延) 435–440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君) 440–451
Zhengping (正平) 451–452
Prince Nan'an
南安王
Tuoba Yu
拓拔余
452 Chengping (承平) 452
Emperor Wencheng
文成帝
Tuoba Jun
拓拔濬
452–465 Xingan (興安) 452–454
Xingguang (興光) 454–455
Tai'an (太安) 455–459
Heping (和平) 460–465
Emperor Xianwen
獻文帝
Tuoba Hong
拓拔弘
466–471 Tian'an (天安) 466–467
Huangxing (皇興) 467–471
Emperor Xiaowen
孝文帝
Yuan Hong (Tuoba Hong)
元宏 (拓跋宏)
471–499 Yanxing (延興) 471–476
Chengming (承明) 476
Taihe (太和) 477–499
Emperor Xuanwu
宣武帝
Yuan Ke
元恪
499–515 Jingming (景明) 500–503
Zhengshi (正始) 504–508
Yongping (永平) 508–512
Yanchang (延昌) 512–515
Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Yuan Xu
元詡
516–528 Xiping (熙平) 516–518
Shengui (神龜) 518–520
Zhengguang (正光) 520–525
Xiaochang (孝昌) 525–527
Wutai (武泰) 528
The Young Emperor
幼主
Yuan Zhao
元釗
528 None
Emperor Xiaozhuang
孝莊帝
Yuan Ziyou
元子攸
528–530 Jianyi (建義) 528
Yong'an (永安) 528–530
Prince Changguang
長廣王
Yuan Ye
元曄
530–531 Jianming (建明) 530–531
Emperor Jianmin
節閔帝
Yuan Gong
元恭
531–532 Putai (普泰) 531–532
Prince Anding
安定王
Yuan Lang
元朗
531–532 Zhongxing (中興) 531–532
Emperor Xiaowu
孝武帝 or
Emperor Chu
出帝
Yuan Xiu
元脩
532–535 Taichang (太昌) 532
Yongxing (永興) 532
Yongxi (永熙) 532–535
Dong (Eastern) Wei dynasty 東魏 534–550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Eastern Wei in English
Emperor Xiaojing
孝靜帝
Yuan Shanjian
元善見
534–550 Tianping (天平) 534–537
Yuanxiang (元象) 538–539
Xinghe (興和) 539–542
Wuding (武定) 543–550
Bei (Northern) Qi dynasty 北齊 550–577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Qi in English
Emperor Wenxuan
文宣帝
Gao Yang
高洋
550–559 Tianbao (天保) 550–559
Emperor Fei
廢帝
Gao Yin
高殷
559–560 Qianming (乾明) 560
Emperor Xiaozhao
孝昭帝
Gao Yan
高演
560–561 Huangjian (皇建) 560–561
Emperor Wucheng
武成帝
Gao Zhan
高湛
561–565 Taining (太寧) 561–562
Heqing (河清) 562–565
Last Emperor
後主
Gao Wei
高緯
565–577 Tiantong (天統) 565–569
Wuping (武平) 570–576
Longhua (隆化) 576
The Young Emperor
幼主
Gao Heng
高恆
577 Chengguang (承光) 577
Prince Fanyang
范陽王
Gao Shaoyi
高紹義
577–579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei dynasty 西魏 535–556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Western Wei in English
Emperor Wen
文帝
Yuan Baoju
元寶炬
535–551 Datong (大統) 535–551
Emperor Fei
廢帝
Yuan Qin
元欽
552–554 Did not exist
Emperor Gong
恭帝
Tuoba Kuo
拓拔廓
554–556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou dynasty 北周 557–581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Zhou in English
Emperor Xiaomin
孝閔帝
Yuwen Jue
宇文覺
557 Did not exist
Emperor Ming
明帝 or
Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Yuwen Yu
宇文毓
557–560 Wucheng (武成) 559–560
Emperor Wu
武帝
Yuwen Yong
宇文邕
561–578 Baoding (保定) 560–565
Tianhe (天和) 566–572
Jiande (建德) 572–578
Xuanzheng (宣政) 578
Emperor Xuan
宣帝
Yuwen Yun
宇文贇
578–579 Dacheng (大成 dà chéng) 579
Emperor Jing
靜帝
Yuwen Chan
宇文闡
579–581 Daxiang (大象) 579–581
Dading (大定) 581
Southern dynasties 南朝 420–589
Liu Song dynasty
劉宋 (420–479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Liu Song in English. Liu Yu is sometimes referred using personal name.
Emperor Wu
武帝
Liu Yu
劉裕
420–422 Yongchu (永初) 420–422
Emperor Shao
少帝
Liu Yifu
劉義符
423–424 Jingping (景平) 423–424
Emperor Wen
文帝
Liu Yilong
劉義隆
424–453 Yuanjia (元嘉) 424–453
Emperor Xiaowu
孝武帝
Liu Jun
劉駿
454–464 Xiaojian (元嘉) 454–456

Daming (大明) 457–464

Emperor Qian Fei
前廢帝
Liu Ziye
劉子業
465 Yongguang (永光) 465

Jinghe (景和) 465

Emperor Ming
明帝
Liu Yu
劉彧
465–472 Taishi (泰始) 465–471

Taiyu (泰豫) 472

Emperor Hou Fei
後廢帝 orPrince Cangwu
蒼梧王
Liu Yu
劉昱
473–477 Yuanhui (元徽) 473–477
Emperor Shun
順帝
Liu Zhun
劉準
477–479 Shengming (昇明) 477–479
Southern Qi dynasty 南齊 479–502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Southern Qi in English
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi
Gao Di 高帝
Xiao Daocheng


蕭道成

479–482 Jianyuan (建元) 479–482
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi
Wu Di 武帝
Xiao Ze
蕭賾
482–493 Yongming (永明) 483–493
Prince of Yulin
Yulin Wang 鬱林王
Xiao Zhaoye
蕭昭業
493–494 Longchang (隆昌) 494
Prince of Hailing
Hailing Wang 海陵王
Xiao Zhaowen
蕭昭文
494 Yanxing (延興) 494
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi
Ming Di 明帝
Xiao Luan
蕭鸞
494–498 Jianwu (建武) 494–498
Yongtai (永泰) 498
Marquess of Donghun
Donghun Hou 東昏侯
Xiao Baojuan
蕭寶卷
499–501 Yongyuan (永元) 499–501
Emperor He of Southern Qi
He Di 和帝
Xiao Baorong
蕭寶融
501–502 Zhongxing (中興) 501–502
Liang dynasty 梁 (502–557)
Convention: Liang + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Liang in English
Emperor Wu of Liang
Wu Di 武帝
Xiao Yan
蕭衍
502–549 Tianjian (天監) 502–519
Putong (普通) 520–527
Datong (大通) 527–529
Zhongdatong (中大通) 529–534
Datong (大同) 535–546
Zhongdatong (中大同) 546–547
Taiqing (太清) 547–549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang
Jianwen Di 簡文帝
Xiao Gang
蕭綱
549–551 Dabao (大寶) 550–551
Prince of Yuzhang
Yuzhang Wang 豫章王
Xiao Dong
蕭棟
551–552 Tianzheng (天正) 551–552
Emperor Yuan of Liang
Yuan Di 元帝
Xiao Yi
蕭繹
552–555 Chengsheng (承聖) 552–555
Marquess of Zhenyang
Zhenyang Hou 貞陽侯
Xiao Yuanming
蕭淵明
555 Tiancheng (天成) 555
Emperor Jing of Liang
Jing Di 敬帝
Xiao Fangzhi


蕭方智

555–557 Shaotai (紹泰) 555–556
Taiping (太平) 556–557
Chen dynasty 陳 557–589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Chen in English
Emperor Wu of Chen
Wu Di 武帝
Chen Baxian
陳霸先
557–559 Yongding (永定) 557–559
Emperor Wen of Chen
Wen Di 文帝
Chen Qian
陳蒨
559–566 Tianjia (天嘉) 560–566
Tiankang (天康) 566
Emperor Fei of Chen
Fei Di 廢帝
Chen Bozong
陳伯宗
566–568 Guangda (光大) 566–568
Emperor Xuan of Chen
Xuan Di 宣帝
Chen Xu
陳頊
569–582 Taijian (太建) 569–582
Houzhu
後主
Chen Shubao
陳叔寶
583–589 Zhide (至德) 583–586
Zhenming (禎明) 587–589
Nan (Southern) Liang dynasty 南梁 555–587
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: Nan (Southern)/Xi (Western) Liang + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Western Liang in English
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang dynasty.
Zhong Zong
中宗
Emperor Xuan
宣帝
Xiao Cha
蕭詧
555–562 Dading (大定) 555–562
Shi Zong
世宗
Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Xiao Kui
蕭巋
562–585 Tianbao (天保) 562–585
Did not exist Emperor XIaojing
孝靖帝 or

Duke Ju
莒公

Xiao Cong
蕭琮
585–587 Guangyun (廣運) 562–585

Sui dynasty[edit]

Sui dynasty 隋 581–618
Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) Range of years
Convention: "Sui" + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Sui Dynasty in English
Emperor Wen 文帝(Wén Dì) 楊堅 Yáng Jiān 581–604 Kāihuáng 開皇 581–600
Rénshòu 仁壽 601–604
Emperor Yang 煬帝 (Yáng Dì) 楊廣 Yáng Guǎng 605–617 Dàyè 大業 605–617
Emperor Gong1 恭帝 楊侑 Yáng Yòu 617–618 Yìníng 義寧 617–618
Prince Qin2 楊浩 Yáng Hào 618
Huangtai Lord3 恭帝 (皇泰主) 楊侗 Yáng Tóng 618–619 Huángtài 皇泰 618–619
1 Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.
2 Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.
3 After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty[edit]

Main article: List of Tang Emperors
Tang dynasty 唐 618–690, 705–907
Temple Names (Miao Hao 庙号) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年号) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Tang" + temple name in Chinese, or temple name + of Tang Dynasty in English, except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong (唐玄宗) is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty (唐明皇)
Emperor Gaozu (高祖) Lǐ Yuān

李渊

618–626 Wude (武德) 618–626
Emperor Taizong (太宗) Lǐ Shìmín

李世民

627–649 Zhenguan (貞觀) 627–649
Emperor Gaozong (高宗) Lǐ Zhì

李治

650–683 Yonghui (永徽) 650–655

Xianqing (顯慶) 656–661
Longshuo (龍朔) 661–663
Linde (麟德) 664–665
Qianfeng (乾封) 666–668
Zongzhang (總章) 668–670
Xianheng (咸亨) 670–674
Shangyuan (上元) 674–676
Yifeng (儀鳳) 676–679
Tiaolu (調露) 679–680
Yonglong (永隆) 680–681
Kaiyao (開耀) 681–682
Yongchun (永淳) 682–683
Hongdao (弘道) 683

Emperor Zhongzong (中宗) Li Xian

李显 or

Li Zhe

李哲

684, 705–710 Sisheng (嗣聖) 684

Shenlong (神龍) 705–707
Jinglong (景龍) 707–710

Emperor Ruizong (睿宗) Li Dan

李旦

684–690, 710–712 Wenming (文明) 684–690

Jingyun (景雲) 710–711
Taiji (太極) 712
Yanhe (延和) 712

Wu Zhou Period (690 - 705)
Convention: family name + posthumous name
Wu Zetian (武则天)

(no official temple name)

Wǔ Zhào

武曌

690–705 Tianshou (天授) 690–692

Ruyi (如意) 692
Changshou (長壽) 692–694
Yanzai (延載) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲) 695–696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天) 696–697
Shengong (神功) 697
Shengli (聖曆) 698–700
Jiushi (久視) 700
Dazu (大足) 701
Chang'an (長安) 701–705

Continuation of Tang dynasty
Emperor Shang (殤帝)1 Li Chongmao

李重茂

710 Tanglong (唐隆) 710
Emperor Xuanzong (玄宗) Li Longji

李隆基

712–756 Xiantian (先天) 712–713

Kaiyuan (開元) 713–741
Tianbao (天寶) 742–756

Emperor Suzong (肅宗) Li Heng

李亨

756–762 Jide (至德) 756–758

Qianyuan (乾元) 758–760
Shangyuan (上元) 760–761

Emperor Daizong (代宗) Li Yu

李豫

762–779 Baoying (寶應) 762–763

Guangde (廣德) 763–764
Yongtai (永泰) 765–766
Dali (大曆) 766–779

Emperor Dezong (德宗) Li Gua

李适

780–805 Jianzhong (建中) 780–783

Xingyuan (興元) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元) 785–805

Emperor Shunzong (順宗) Li Song

李誦

805 Yongzhen (永貞) 805
Emperor Xianzong (憲宗) Li Chun

李純

806–820 Yuanhe (元和) 806–820
Emperor Muzong (穆宗) Li Heng

李恆

821–824 Changqing (長慶) 821–824
Emperor Jingzong (敬宗) Li Zhan

李湛

824–826 Baoli (寶曆) 824–826
Emperor Wenzong (文宗) Li Ang

李昂

826–840 Baoli (寶曆) 826

Dahe (大和) or Taihe (太和) 827–835
Kaicheng (開成) 836–840

Emperor Wuzong (武宗) Li Yan

李炎

840–846 Huichang (會昌) 841–846
Emperor Xuanzong (宣宗) Li Chen

李忱

846–859 Dachong (大中) 847–859
Emperor Yizong (懿宗) Li Cui

李漼

859–873 Dachong (大中) 859

Xiantong (咸通) 860–873

Emperor Xizong (僖宗) Li Xuan

李儇

873–888 Xiantong (咸通) 873–874

Qianfu (乾符) 874–879
Guangming (廣明) 880–881
Zhonghe (中和) 881–885
Guangqi (光啟) 885–888
Wende (文德) 888

Emperor Zhaozong (昭宗) Li Ye

李曄

888–904 Longji (龍紀) 889

Dashun (大順) 890–891
Jingfu (景福) 892–893
Qianning (乾寧) 894–898
Guanghua (光化) 898–901
Tianfu (天復) 901–904
Tianyou (天佑) 904

Emperor Ai (哀帝)1
or Emperor Zhaoxuan
(昭宣帝)1
Li Zhu

李柷

904–907 Tianyou (天佑) 904–907
1 Shao Di 少帝, Ai Di >哀帝 and Zhaoxuan Di 昭宣帝 are posthumous names, not temple names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms[edit]

Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国 907–960
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
the Five Dynasties 五代
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang dynasty 后梁 907–923
Taizu

太祖

Emperor Xianwu (獻武) Zhū Wēn (朱溫) 907–912 Kaīpíng (開平) 907–911
Qiánhuà (乾化) 911–912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪 912–913 Qiánhuà (乾化) 912–913
Fengli 913
Did not exist Final Emperor (末帝) Zhū Zhèn (朱瑱) 913–923 Qiánhuà (乾化) 913–915
Zhēnmíng (貞明) 915–921
Lóngdé (龍德) 921–923
Hou (Later) Tang dynasty 后唐 923–936
Emperor Zhuangzong
莊宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Cúnxù (李存勗) 923–926 Tongguang (同光) 923–926
Emperor Mingzong
明宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Sìyuán (李嗣源) or Lǐ Dǎn (李亶) 926–933 Tiancheng (天成) 926–930

Changxing (長興) 930–933

Did not exist Emperor Min
閔帝
Lǐ Cónghòu (李從厚) 933–934 Yingshun (應順) 913–915
Did not exist Final Emperor
末帝
Lǐ Cóngkē (李從珂) 934–936 Qingtai (清泰) 934–936
Hou (Later) Jin dynasty 后晋 936–947
Emperor Gaozu 高祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jingtang (石敬瑭) 936–942 Tianfu (天福) 936–942
Did not exist Emperor Chu
出帝
Shi Chonggui (石重貴) 942–947 Tianfu (天福) 942–944

Kaiyun (開運) 944–947

Hou (Later) Han dynasty 后汉 947–950
Emperor Gaozu 高祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠) 947–948 Tianfu (天福) 947

Qianyou (乾祐) 948

Did not exist Emperor Yin (隱帝) Liu Chengyou (劉承祐) 948–950 Qianyou (乾祐) 948–950
Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty 后周 951–960
Emperor Taizu 太祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei (郭威) 951–954 Guangshun (廣順) 951–954

Xiande (顯德) 954

Emperor Shizong 世宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong (柴榮) 954–959 Xiande (顯德) 954–959
Did not exist Emperor Gong (恭帝 Chai Zongxun (柴宗訓) 959–960 Xiande (顯德) 959–960
the Ten Kingdoms 十国
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 吳越 904–978
Emperor Tai Zu

太祖

King Wusu

武肅王

Qian Liu
錢鏐
904–932 Tianbao (天寶) 908–923

Baoda (寶大) 923–925
Baozheng (寶正) 925–932

Emperor Shi Zong

世宗

King Wenmu

文穆王

Qian Yuanguan
錢元瓘
932–941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong

成宗

King Zhongxian

忠獻王

Qian Zuo
錢佐
941–947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhongxun

忠遜王

Qian Zong
錢倧
947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhongyi

忠懿王

Qian Chu
錢俶
947–978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 閩 909–945 including Yin Kingdom 殷 943–945
Emperor Taizu

太祖

King Zhongyi

忠懿王

Wang Shenzhi
王審知
909–925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wang Yanhan
王延翰
925–926 Did not exist
Emperor Tai Zong

太宗

Emperor Hui

惠帝

Wang Yanjun
王延鈞
926–935 Longqi (龍啟) 933–935

Yonghe (永和) 935

Emperor Kang Zong
康宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jipeng
王繼鵬
935–939 Tongwen (通文) 936–939
Emperor Jing Zong
景宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yanxi
王延羲
939–944 Yonglong (永隆) 939–944
Did not exist Emperor Tiande
天德帝 (as Emperor of Yin)
Wang Yanzheng
王延政
943–945 Tiande (天德) 943–945
Jingnan 荆南 or Nanping Kingdom 南平 906–963
Did not exist King Wuxin

武信王

Gao Jixing
高季興
909–928 Did not exist
Did not exist King Wenxian

文獻王

Gao Conghui
高從誨
928–948 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhenyi

貞懿王

Gao Baorong
高寶融
948–960 Did not exist
Did not exist Emperor Shizhong

侍中

Gao Baoxu
高寶勗
960–962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Gao Jichong
高繼沖
962–963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 楚 897–951
Did not exist King Wumu

武穆王

Ma Yin
馬殷
897–930 Did not exist
Did not exist King Hengyang

衡陽王

Ma Xisheng
馬希聲
930–932 Did not exist
Did not exist King Wenzhao

文昭王

Ma Xifan
馬希範
932–947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Fei

廢王

Ma Xiguang
馬希廣
947–950 Did not exist
Did not exist King Gongxiao

恭孝王

Ma Xi'e
馬希萼
950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Ma Xichong
馬希崇
950–951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 吳 904–937
Emperor Taizu

太祖

Emperor Xiaowu

孝武帝

Yang Xingmi
楊行密
904–905 Tianyou (天祐) 904–905
Liezong

烈宗

Emperor Jing

景帝

Yang Wo
楊渥
905–908 Tianyou (天祐) 905–908
Gaozu

高祖

Emperor Xuan

宣帝

Yang Longyan
楊隆演
908–921 Tianyou (天祐) 908–919

Wuyi (武義) 919–921

Did not exist Emperor Rui

睿帝

Yang Pu
楊溥
921–937 Shunyi (順義) 921–927

Qianzhen (乾貞) 927–929
Dahe (大和) 929–935
Tianzuo (天祚) 935–937

Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 南唐 937–975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Houzhu (李後主).
Emperor Xianzhu 先主 or

Emperor Lie Zu 烈祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian
李昪
937–943 Shengyuan (昇元) 937–943
Emperor Zhongzhu 中主 or

Emperor Yuanzong 元宗

Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing
李璟
943–961 Baoda (保大) 943–958

Jiaotai (交泰) 958
Zhongxing (中興) 958

Emperor Houzhu of Southern Tang 後主 King Wu

武王

Li Yu

李煜

961–975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 南漢 917–971
Gaozu

高祖

Tianhuang Dadi

天皇大帝

Liú Yán 劉巖
or
Liú Yǎn 劉龑
917–925 Qiánhēng (乾亨) 917–925

Báilóng (白龍) 925–928
Dàyǒu (大有) 928–941

Did not exist Emperor Shang

殤帝

Liú Bīn
劉玢
941–943 Guāngtiān (光天) 941–943
Zhongzong

中宗

Not used when referring to this sovereign Liú Shèng
劉晟
943–958 Yìngqián (應乾) 943

Qiánhé (乾和) 943–958

Hou Zhu

後主

Did not exist Liú Chǎng
劉鋹
958–971 Dàbǎo (大寶) 958–971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 北漢 951–979
Emperor Shizu

世祖

Emperor Shenwu

神武帝

Liu Min
劉旻
951–954 Qianyou (乾祐) 951–954
Emperor Ruizong

睿宗

Xiaohe Di

孝和帝

Liu Chengjun
劉承鈞
954–970 Qianyou (乾祐) 954–957

Tianhui (天會) 957–970

Emperor Shaozhu

少主

Did not exist Liu Jien
劉繼恩
970 Did not exist
Did not exist Emperor Yingwu

英武帝

Liu Jiyuan
劉繼元
970–982 Guangyun (廣運) 970–982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 前蜀 907–925
Emperor Gaozu

高祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian
王建
907–918 Tianfu (天復) 907

Wucheng (武成) 908–910
Yongping (永平) 911–915
Tongzheng (通正) 916
Tianhan (天漢) 917
Guangtian (光天) 918

Last Emperor

後主

Did not exist Wang Zongyan
王宗衍
918–925 Qiande (乾德) 918–925

Xiankang (咸康) 925

Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 后蜀 934–965
Emperor Gaozu

高祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhixiang
孟知祥
934 Mingde (明德) 934
Last Emperor

後主

Did not exist Meng Chang
孟昶
938–965 Mingde (明德) 934–938

Guangzheng (廣政) 938–965

Independent Regimes during Ten Kingdoms[edit]

local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Military Commissioner of Wuping/Hunan (武平/湖南節度使)
Military Commissioner of Wuping

武平節度使

Liu Yan
劉言
950–953
Military Commissioner of Wuping

武平節度使

Wang Kui
王逵 or

Wang Jinkui

王進逵

953–956
Military Commissioner of Hunan

湖南節度使

Zhou Xingfeng
周行逢
956–962
Military Commissioner of Hunan

湖南節度使

Zhou Baoquan
周保權
962–963
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang (泉漳節度使)
Commader-in-Chief of Quanzhang

泉漳都指揮使

Liu Congxiao
留從效
945–962
Regent of Quanzhang

泉漳留守

Liu Shaozi
留紹鎡
962
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang

泉漳節度使

Zhang Hansi
張漢思
962–963
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang

泉漳節度使

Chen Hongjin
陳洪進
963–978

Liao dynasty[edit]

Liao dynasty 907–1125
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Emperor Taizu太祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Ābǎojī

耶律阿保機

907–926 Shence (神冊) 916–922

Tianzan (天贊) 922–926
Tianxian (天顯) 926

Emperor Taizong太宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Déguāng

耶律德光

926–947 Tianxian (天顯) 927–938

Huitong (會同) 938–947
Datong (大同) 947

Emperor Shizong世宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Ruǎn

耶律阮

947–951 Tianlu (天祿) 947–951
Emperor Muzong穆宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Jǐng

耶律璟

951–969 Yingli (應曆) 951–969
Emperor Jingzong景宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Xián

耶律賢

969–982 Baoning (保寧) 969–979

Qianheng (乾亨) 979–982

Emperor Shengzong聖宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Lóngxù

耶律隆緒

982–1031 Qianheng (乾亨) 982

Tonghe (統和) 983–1012
Kaitai (開泰) 1012–1021
Taiping (太平) 1021–1031

Emperor Xingzong興宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn

耶律宗真

1031–1055 Jingfu (景福) 1031–1032

Chongxi (重熙) 1032–1055

Emperor Daozong道宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yēlǜ Hóngjī

耶律洪基

1055–1101 Qingning (清寧) 1055–1064

Xianyong (咸雍) 1065–1074
Taikang (太康) or Dakang (大康) 1075–1084
Da'an (大安) 1085–1094
Shouchang (壽昌) or Shoulong (壽隆) 1095–1101

Did not exist Emperor Tianzuo天祚帝 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ

耶律延禧

1101–1125 Qiantong (乾統) 1101–1110

Tianqing (天慶) 1111–1120
Baoda (保大) 1121–1125

(Continued as Western Liao in Central Asia)

Western Liao[edit]

See also: Qara Khitai
Sovereigns of Western Liao dynasty
Temple Names (廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names (諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Convention[citation needed] Period of Reign Era Names (年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
1. Dezong (德宗 Dézōng) Emperor Tianyou Wulie (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòu Wǔliè Dì) Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1 use birth name 1124–1144 Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125–1134
Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134–1144
Not applicable Empress Gantian (感天皇后 Gǎntiān Huánghòu) (regent) Xiao Tabuyan (蕭塔不煙 Xiāo Tǎbùyān) "Western Liao" + posthumous name 1144–1150 Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144–1150
2. Emperor Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè) "Western Liao" + temple name 1150–1164 Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) or Xuxing (Xùxīng 續興)2 1150–1164
Not applicable Empress Dowager Chengtian (承天太后 Chéngtiān Tàihòu) (regent) Yelü Pusuwan (耶律普速完 Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán) "Western Liao" + posthumous name 1164–1178 Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164–1178
3. Did not exist Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ "Last Lord") or Modi (末帝 Mòdì "Last Emperor") Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ) use birth name 1178–1211 Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178–1218
Did not exist Did not exist Kuchlug (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ) use birth name 1211–1218
1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]


Song dynasty[edit]

Song dynasty 宋 960–1279
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (short form)(Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty 北宋, 960- 1127
Emperor Taizu
太祖
Xiao Di

孝帝

Zhao Kuangyin

趙匡胤

960–976 Jianlong (建隆) 960–963

Qiande (乾德) 963–968
Kaibao (開寶) 968–976

Emperor Taizong
太宗
De Di

德帝

Zhao Kuangyi 趙匡義 or

Zhao Guangyi 趙光義 or

Zhao Jiong 趙炅

976–997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國) 976–984

Yongxi (雍熙) 984–987
Duangong (端拱) 988–989
Chunhua (淳化) 990–994
Zhidao (至道) 995–997

Emperor Zhenzong
真宗
Zhang Di

章帝

Zhao Heng

趙恆

997–1022 Xianping (咸平) 998–1003

Jingde (景德) 1004–1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符) 1008–1016
Tianxi (天禧) 1017–1021
Qianxing (乾興) 1022

Emperor Renzong
仁宗
Wen Di

文帝

Zhao Zhen

趙禎

1022–1063 Tiansheng (天聖) 1023–1032

Mingdao (明道) 1032–1033
Jingyou (景祐) 1034–1038
Baoyuan (寶元) 1038–1040
Kangding (康定) 1040–1041
Qingli (慶曆) 1041–1048
Huangyou (皇祐) 1049–1054
Zhihe (至和) 1054–1056
Jiayou (嘉祐) 1056–1063

Emperor Yingzong
英宗
Xuan Di

宣帝

Zhao Shu

趙曙

1063–1067 Zhiping (治平) 1064–1067
Emperor Shenzong
神宗
Qin Di

欽帝

Zhao Xu

趙頊

1067–1085 Xining (熙寧) 1068–1077

Yuanfeng (元豐) 1078–1085

Emperor Zhezong
哲宗
Zhao Di

昭帝

Zhao Xu

趙煦

1085–1100 Yuanyou (元祐) 1086–1094

Shaosheng (紹聖) 1094–1098
Yuanfu (元符) 1098–1100

Emperor Huizong
徽宗
Xian Di

顯帝

Zhao Ji

趙佶

1100–1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國) 1101

Chongning (崇寧) 1102–1106
Daguan (大觀) 1107–1110
Zhenghe (政和) 1111–1118
Chonghe (重和) 1118–1119
Xuanhe (宣和) 1119–1125

Emperor Qinzong
欽宗
Ren Di

仁帝

Zhao Huan

趙桓

1126–1127 Jingkang (靖康) 1125–1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty 南宋, 1127–1279
Emperor Gaozong
高宗
Xian Di

憲帝

Zhao Gou

趙構

1127–1162 Jianyan (建炎) 1127–1130

Shaoxing (紹興) 1131–1162

Emperor Xiaozong
孝宗
Cheng Di

成帝

Zhao Shen

趙昚

1162–1189 Longxing (隆興) 1163–1164

Qiandao (乾道) 1165–1173
Chunxi (淳熙) 1174–1189

Emperor Guangzong
光宗
Ci Di

慈帝

Zhao Dun

趙惇

1189–1194 Shaoxi (紹熙) 1190–1194
Emperor Ningzong
寧宗
Gong Di

恭帝

Zhao Kuo

趙擴

1194–1224 Qingyuan (慶元) 1195–1200

Jiatai (嘉泰) 1201–1204
Kaixi (開禧) 1205–1207
Jiading (嘉定) 1208–1224

Emperor Lizong
理宗
An Di

安帝

Zhao Yun

趙昀

1224–1264 Baoqing (寶慶) 1225–1227

Shaoding (紹定) 1228–1233
Duanping (端平) 1234–1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙) 1237–1240
Chunyou (淳祐) 1241–1252
Baoyou (寶祐) 1253–1258
Kaiqing (開慶) 1259
Jingding (景定) 1260–1264

Emperor Duzong
度宗
Jing Di

景帝

Zhao Qi

趙禥

1264–1274 Xianchun (咸淳) 1265–1274
Emperor Gongzong
恭宗
Gong Di

恭帝

Zhao Xian

趙顯

1274–1276 Deyou (德祐) 1275–1276
Emperor Duanzong
端宗
not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi

趙昰

1276–1278 Jingyan (景炎) 1276–1278
did not exist Di 帝 (The Emperor) or
Prince Wei 衛王
Zhao Bing

趙昺

1278–1279 Xiangxing (祥興) 1278–1279

Western Xia[edit]

Western Xia 1032–1227
Temple names Posthumous names Chinese family name and first names Reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: "Western Xia" + temple name or "family name + first names"
Emperor Jǐngzōng
景宗
Wǔlièdì
武烈帝
Lǐ Yuánhào

李元昊

1032–1048 Xiǎndào (顯道) 1032–1034

Kāiyùn (開運) 1034
Guǎngpíng (廣平) 1035–1036
Dàqìng (大慶) 1036–1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò (天授禮法延祚) 1038–1048

Emperor Yìzōng
毅宗
Zhāoyīngdì

昭英帝

Lǐ Liàngzuò

李諒祚

1048–1067 Yánsìníngguó (延嗣寧國) 1048–1049

Tiānyòuchuíshèng (天祐垂聖) 1050–1052
Fúshèngchéngdào (福聖承道) 1053–1056
Duǒdū (奲都) 1036–1038
Gǒnghuà (拱化) 1063–1067

Emperor Huìzōng
惠宗
Kāngjìngdì
康靖帝
Lǐ Bǐngcháng

李秉常

1067–1086 Qiándào (乾道) 1067–1069

Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng (天賜禮盛國慶) 1070–1074
Dà'ān (大安) 1075–1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng (天安禮定) 1085–1086

Emperor Chóngzōng
崇宗
Shèngwéndì
聖文帝
Lǐ Qiánshùn
李乾順
1086–1139 Tiānyízhìpíng (天儀治平) 1086–1089

Tiānyòumín'ān (天祐民安) 1090–1097
Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098–1100
Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101–1113
Yōngníng (雍寧) 1114–1118
Yuándé (元德) 1119–1127
Zhèngdé (正德) 1127–1134
Dàdé (大德) 1135–1139

Emperor Rénzōng
仁宗
Shèngzhēndì

聖禎帝

Lǐ Rénxiào

李仁孝

1139–1193 Dàqìng (大慶) 1139–1143

Rénqìng (人慶) 1144–1148
Tiānshèng (天盛) 1149–1170
Qiányòu (乾祐) 1170–1193

Emperor Huánzōng
桓宗
Zhāojiǎnjì

昭簡帝

Lǐ Chúnyòu
李純佑
1193–1206 Tiānqìng (天慶) 1193–1206
Emperor Xiāngzōng
襄宗
Jǐngwǔdì

景武帝

Lǐ Ānquán

李安全

1206–1211 Qìngtiān (慶天) 1206–1209

Huángjiàn (皇建) 1210–1211

Emperor Shénzōng
神宗
Yīngwéndì

英文帝

Lǐ Zūnxū

李遵頊

1211–1223 Guāngdìng (光定) 1211–1223
Emperor Xiànzōng
獻宗
Did not exist Lǐ Déwàng

李德旺

1223–1226 Qiándìng (乾定) 1223–1226
Emperor Mòzhǔ
末主
Did not exist Lǐ Xiàn

李晛

1226–1227 Bǎoyì (寶義) 1226–1227

Jin dynasty[edit]

Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese, or "temple name or posthumous name of Jurchen Jin Dynasty
Emperor Tàizǔ
太祖
(1) Āgǔdǎ
阿骨打
or
Wányán Mǐn
完顏旻
1115–1123 Shōuguó
收國
1115–1116
 
Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117–1123
Emperor Tàizōng
太宗
(1) Wúqǐmǎi
吳乞買
or
Wányán Shèng
完顏晟
1123–1134 Tiānhuì
天會
1123–1134
Emperor Xīzōng
熙宗
(1) Hélá
合剌
or
Wányán Dǎn
完顏亶
1135–1149 Tiānhuì
天會
1135–1138
 
Tiānjuàn
天眷
1138–1141
 
Huángtǒng
皇統
1141–1149
(2) Prince Yáng of Hǎilíng
海陵煬王
or
Prince of Hǎilíng
海陵王
迪古乃
Dígǔnǎi
or
Wányán Liàng
完顏亮
1149–1161 Tiāndé
天德
1149–1153
 
Zhènyuán
貞元
1153–1156
 
Zhènglóng
正隆
1156–1161
Emperor Shìzōng
世宗
(1) Wūlù
烏祿
or
Wányán Yōng
完顏雍
1161–1189 Dàdìng
大定
1161–1189
Emperor Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Mádágě
麻達葛
or
Wányán Jǐng
完顏璟
1190–1208 Míngchāng
明昌
1190–1196
 
Chéng'ān
承安
1196–1200
 
Tàihé
泰和
1200–1208
(2) Prince Shào of Weì
衛紹王
or
Prince of Weì
衛王
Wányán Yǒngjì
完顏永濟
1209–1213 Dà'ān
大安
1209–1212
 
Chóngqìng
崇慶
1212–1213
 
Zhìníng
至寧
1213
Emperor Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wúdúbǔ
吾睹補
or
Wányán Xún
完顏珣
1213–1223 Zhēnyòu
貞祐
1213–1217
 
Xīngdìng
興定
1217–1222
 
Yuánguāng
元光
1222–1223
Emperor Āizōng
哀宗
(1) Níngjiǎsù
寧甲速
or
Wányán Shǒuxù
完顏守緒
1224–1234 Zhèngdà
正大
1224–1232
 
Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232–1234
(2) Emperor Mò (Last Emperor)
末帝
Hūdūn
呼敦
or
Wányán Chénglín
完顏承麟
1234 (2)
(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist.

Yuan dynasty[edit]

Yuan dynasty 元 1271–1368
Temple names Posthumous names Khan Names Given names Period of Reigns Era names and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khubilai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame, or Tamerlane.
Emperor Tàizǔ

太祖

not used when referring to this sovereign Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin

孛兒只斤鐵木真

(Bóérzhījīn Tiěmùzhēn)

1206–1227 did not exist
Emperor Ruìzōng

睿宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Tolui Borjigin Tolui

孛兒只斤拖雷

(Bóérzhījīn Tuōléi)

1228 did not exist
Emperor Tàizōng

太宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei

孛兒只斤窩闊台

(Bóérzhījīn Wōkuòtái)

1229–1241 did not exist
Emperor Dìngzōng

定宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük

孛兒只斤貴由

(Bóérzhījīn Guìyóu)

1246–1248 did not exist
Emperor Xiànzōng

憲宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke

孛兒只斤蒙哥

(Bóérzhījīn Ménggē)

1251–1259 did not exist
Emperor Shìzǔ

世祖

not used when referring to this sovereign Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai

孛兒只斤忽必烈

(Bóérzhījīn Hūbìliè)

1260–1294 Zhōngtǒng (中統) 1260–1264

Zhìyuán (至元) 1264–1294

Emperor Chéngzōng

成宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Temür Khan Borjigin Temür

孛兒只斤鐵穆耳

(Bóérzhījīn Tiěmù'ěr)

1294–1307 Yuánzhēn (元貞) 1295–1297

Dàdé (大德) 1297–1307

Emperor Wǔzōng

武宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan

孛兒只斤海山

(Bóérzhījīn Hǎishān)

1308–1311 Zhìdà (至大) 1308–1311
Emperor Rénzōng

仁宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra

孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達

(Bóérzhījīn Àiyùlíbálìbādá)

1311–1320 Huángqìng (皇慶) 1312–1313

Yányòu (延祐) 1314–1320

Emperor Yīngzōng

英宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala

孛兒只斤碩德八剌

(Bóérzhījīn Shuòdébālá)

1321–1323 Zhìzhì (至治) 1321–1323
did not exist (1) Tàidìng Emperor

泰定帝

(2)

Yesün Temür Borjigin Yesün-Temür

孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒

(Bóérzhījīn Yěsūntiěmùér)

1323–1328 Tàidìng (泰定) 1321–1328

Zhìhé (致和) 1328

did not exist (1) Tiānshùn Emperor

天順帝

(2)

Ragibagh Khan Borjigin Arigaba

孛兒只斤阿速吉八

(Bóérzhījīn Āsùjíbā)

1328 Tiānshùn (天順) 1328
Emperor Wénzōng

文宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür

孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾

(Bóérzhījīn Tútiěmùér)

1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tiānlì (天曆) 1328–1330

Zhìshùn (至順) 1330–1332

Emperor Míngzōng

明宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila

孛兒只斤和世剌

(Bóérzhījīn Héshìlà)

1329 did not exist
Emperor Níngzōng

寧宗

not used when referring to this sovereign Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal

孛兒只斤懿璘質班

(Bóérzhījīn Yìlínzhìbān)

1332 Emperor Zhìshùn (至順) 1332
Emperor Huìzōng

惠宗 (1)

Emperor Shun

順帝

Toghon Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür

孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾

(Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér)

1333–1370 Zhìshùn (至順) 1333

Yuántǒng (元統) 1333–1335
Zhìyuán (至元) 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng (至正) 1341–1368
Zhìyuán (至元) 1368–1370

(1) Convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tàidìng Dì.

(2) Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name.

Northern Yuan dynasty 北元 (after overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China in 1368) 1368 – early 15th century[citation needed]
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Miào Hào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Khan Names Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Convention: use khan names or born names.
Note: 1) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names. 2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Emperor Huìzōng

惠宗

(same person as the last Yuan emperor in China)

Emperor Shundi

順帝

Toghon Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür

孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾

(Bóérzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmùér)

1333–1370 Zhìshùn (至順) 1333

Yuántǒng (元統) 1333–1335
Zhìyuán (至元) 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng (至正) 1341–1368
Zhìyuán (至元) 1368–1370

Emperor Zhàozōng

昭宗

did not exist Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Ayushiridara of the Borjigin clan

孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘

(Bóérzhījīn Àiyùshílǐdálà)

1370–1378 Xuānguāng (宣光) 1371–1378
did not exist did not exist Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Tögüs Temür of the Borjigin clan

孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 (Bóérzhījīn Tuōgǔsī Tiěmùér)

1378–1387 Tiānguāng (天光) 1378–1387
(1) Convention: for these souvereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì.

For the later Mongol rulers, see List of Mongol rulers

Ming dynasty[edit]

Personal Name Posthumous name1

(short form)

Temple name1 Era name Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Zhū Yuánzhāng

朱元璋

Emperor Gāodì

高帝

Tàizǔ

太祖

Hóngwǔ

洪武

1368–1398 Hongwu Emperor
Zhū Yǔnwén

朱允炆

Emperor Huìdì

惠帝

Huizong² Jiànwén

建文

1398–1402 Jianwen Emperor
Zhū Dì

朱棣

Wēndì

文帝

Chéngzǔ, 成祖 or

Tàizōng, 太宗

Yǒnglè

永樂

1402–1424 Yongle Emperor
Zhū Gāochì

朱高熾

Zhāodì

昭帝

Rénzōng

仁宗

Hóngxī

洪熙

1424–1425 Hongxi Emperor
Zhū Zhānjī

朱瞻基

Zhāngdì

章帝

Xuānzōng

宣宗

Xuāndé

宣德

1425–1435 Xuande Emperor
Zhū Qízhèn

朱祁鎮

Ruìdì

睿帝

Yīngzōng

英宗

Zhèngtǒng, 正統

1436–1449;
Tiānshùn, 天順
1457–1464

1435–1449;

1457–1464³

Zhengtong Emperor
Zhū Qíyù

朱祁鈺

Jǐngdì

景帝

Dàizōng

代宗

Jǐngtài

景泰

1449–1457 Jingtai Emperor
Zhū Jiànshēn

朱見深

Chúndì

純帝

Xiànzōng

憲宗

Chénghuà

成化

1464–1487 Chenghua Emperor
Zhū Yòutáng

朱祐樘

Jìngdì

敬帝

Xiàozōng

孝宗

Hóngzhì

弘治

1487–1505 Hongzhi Emperor
Zhū Hòuzhào

朱厚照

Yìdì

毅帝

Wǔzōng

武宗

Zhèngdé

正德

1505–1521 Zhengde Emperor
Zhū Hòucōng

朱厚熜

Sùdì

肅帝

Shìzōng

世宗

Jiājìng

嘉靖

1521–1566 Jiajing Emperor
Zhū Zǎihòu

朱載垕

Zhuāngdì

莊帝

Mùzōng

穆宗

Lóngqìng

隆慶

1566–1572 Longqing Emperor
Zhū Yìjūn

朱翊鈞

Xiǎndì

顯帝

Shénzōng

神宗

Wànlì

萬曆

1572–1620 Wanli Emperor
Zhū Chángluò

朱常洛

Zhēndì

貞帝

Guāngzōng

光宗

Tàichāng

泰昌

1620 Taichang Emperor
Zhū Yóujiào

朱由校

Zhédì

悊帝

Xīzōng

熹宗

Tiānqǐ

天啓

1620–1627 Tianqi Emperor
Zhū Yóujiǎn

朱由檢

Zhuānglièmǐnhuángdì

莊烈愍皇帝

Sīzōng, 思宗 or

Yìzōng, 毅宗

Chóngzhēn

崇禎

1627–1644 Chongzhen Emperor
1 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.
2 The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (福王), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong
3 After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother, the Jingtai emperor, assumed the throne and, a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However, the Zhengtong emperor was able to reclaim his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty[edit]

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Personal Name Temple name Era name Reign years
Li Zicheng
李自成
Chuǎng Wáng (The Daring King)

闖王

Yongchang

永昌

1644

Southern Ming dynasty[edit]

The Southern Ming dynasty refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Personal Name Temple name Era name Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Zhū Yóusōng

朱由崧

Ānzōng

安宗

Hóngguāng

弘光

1644–1645 Prince of Fu

福王 Fú Wáng

Zhū Yùjiàn

朱聿鍵

Shàozōng

紹宗

Lóngwǔ

隆武

1645–1646 Prince of Tang

唐王 Táng Wáng

Zhū Chángfāng

朱常淓

None given None given,

but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Luh)
潞王臨國 Lù Wáng Lín Guó

1645 Prince of Lu (Luh*)

潞王 Lù Wáng

Zhū Yǐhǎi

朱以海

None given None given,

but sometimes referred to as the
Regency of the Prince of Lu (Lou)
魯王臨國 Lǔ Wáng Lín Guó

1645–1653 Prince of Lu (Lou*)

魯王 Lǔ Wáng

Zhū Yùyuè

朱聿𨮁

Wénzōng

文宗

Shàowǔ

紹武

1646 Prince of Tang (Shaowu)

唐王 Táng Wáng

Zhū Yóuláng

朱由榔

Zhāozōng

昭宗

Yǒnglì

永曆

1646–1662 Prince of Gui

桂王 Guì Wáng

  • The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty[edit]

Given name1 Posthumous name²

(short form)

Temple name² Reign name

Chinese, Manchu

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Nurhaci

努爾哈赤
pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāchì

Gāodì

高帝

Tàizǔ

太祖

Tiānmìng

天命
Abkai fulingga

1616–1626³ Nurhaci
Hong Taiji4

皇太極
pinyin: Huángtàijí

Wéndì

文帝

Tàizōng

太宗

Tiāncōng

天聰
Abkai sure
1627–1636;
Chóngdé
崇德
Wesihun erdemungge
1636–1643

1626–1643 Huang Taiji
Fúlín

福臨

Zhāngdì

章帝

Shìzǔ

世祖

Shùnzhì

順治
Ijishūn dasan

1643–16615 Shunzhi Emperor
Xuányè

玄燁

Réndì

仁帝

Shèngzǔ

聖祖

Kāngxī

康熙
Elhe taifin

1661–1722 Kangxi Emperor
Yìnzhēn

胤禛

Xiàndì

憲帝

Shìzōng

世宗

Yōngzhèng

雍正
Hūwaliyasun tob

1722–1735 Yongzheng Emperor
Hónglì

弘曆

Chúndì

純帝

Gāozōng

高宗

Qiánlóng

乾隆
Abkai wehiyehe

1735–1796

(died 1799)6

Qianlong Emperor
Yóngyǎn

顒琰

Ruìdì

睿帝

Rénzōng

仁宗

Jiāqìng

嘉慶
Saicungga fengšen

1796–1820 Jiaqing Emperor
Mínníng

旻寧

Chéngdì

成帝

Xuānzōng

宣宗

Dàoguāng

道光
Doro eldengge

1820–1850 Daoguang Emperor
Yìzhǔ

奕詝

Xiǎndì

顯帝

Wénzōng

文宗

Xiánfēng

咸豐
Gubci elgiyengge

1850–1861 Xianfeng Emperor
Zǎichún

載淳

Yìdì

毅帝

Mùzōng

穆宗

Tóngzhì

同治
Yooningga dasan

1861–18757 Tongzhi Emperor
Zǎitián

載湉

Jǐngdì

景帝

Dézōng

德宗

Guāngxù

光緒
Badarangga doro

1875–19087 Guangxu Emperor
Pǔyí

溥儀
also known as Henry

Xùndì 8

遜帝

Gongzōng 9

恭宗

Xuāntǒng

宣統
Gehungge yoso

1908–191110

(died 1967)

Xuantong Emperor
1 The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 Xundi
("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Pu-yi.
9 In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Mindi
(
愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 The Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, and the last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932–1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934–1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom[edit]

Personal name Reign name

年號
(nian hao)

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Hong Xiuquan

洪秀全

Yuánnián

元年

11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864 Hong Xiuquan
Hong Tianguifu

洪天貴福

None given 6 June 1864 – 18 November 1864 Hong Tianguifu

Empire of China[edit]

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule is universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, the reign collapsed.

Personal name Reign name

年號
(nian hao)

Reign years Name by which

most commonly known

Yuan Shikai

袁世凱

Hóngxiàn

洪憲

22 December 1915 – 22 March 1916
(10 March 1912 – 22 December 1915
as the President of the Republic of China)
Yuan Shikai

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome. 

External links[edit]