Chitpavan

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Chitpavan/Kokanastha Brahmins
Religions Hinduism
Languages Primary mother tongue is Chitpavani (a dialect of Konkani) and Konkani but also have proficiency in native languages,[1]
Populated states Konkan (Coastal Maharashtra, Goa and coastal Karnataka); some parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat

The Chitpavan Brahmin or Kokanastha Brahmin (i.e., "Brahmins native to the Konkan") is a Hindu Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of Maharashtra in India. The community came into prominence during the 18th century when the heirs of Peshwa from the Bhat family of Balaji Vishwanath became the de facto rulers of the Maratha empire.[2] Under the British Raj, they were the one of the Hindu communities in Maharashtra to flock to western education and, as such, they provided the bulk of social reformers, educationalists and nationalists of the late 19th century.[3] Until the 18th century, the Chitpavans were held in low esteem by the Deshastha, the older established Brahmin community of Maharashtra region.[4][5][6]

The upper castes - Brahmins, Saraswats, Prabhus (CKPs, Pathare Prabhus) were only about 4% of the population in Maharashtra. A majority of this 4% were Brahmins.[7] As per the 1901 census, about 5% of the Pune population was Brahmin and about 27% percent of them were Chitpawans.[8]


Origin[edit]

The Chitpavan are also known as Konkanastha Brahmin.[9][10] They have two common mythological stories of origin, of which the more contemporary story is based on the etymology of their name, meaning "pure of mind", while an older belief uses the alternate etymological meaning : "pure from the pyre" and is based on the tale of Parashurama in the Sahyadrikhanda of the Skanda Purana.[11][12]

The Parashurama mythological story of shipwrecked people is similar to the mythological story of the Bene Israel Jews of Raigad district.[13][14] The Bene Israel claim that Chitpavans are also of Jewish origin.[15][16]

The Konkan region witnessed the immigration of groups, such as the Bene Israel, and Kudaldeshkars. Each of these settled in distinct parts of the region and there was little mingling between them. The Chitpavans were apparently the last major community to arrive there and consequently the area in which they settled, around Ratnagiri, was the least fertile and had few good ports for trading. While the other groups generally took up trade as their primary occupation, the Chitpavans with the rise of the Peshwa in the 18th century became known as military men, diplomats and administrators.[6]

History[edit]

Rise and fall during the Maratha rule[edit]

Peshwa Madhavrao II with Nana Fadnavis and attendants, at Pune in 1792

Very little is known of the Chitpavans before 1707 A.D.[6] Around this time, Balaji Vishwanth Bhat, a Chitpavan arrived from Ratnagiri to the Pune-Satara area. He was brought there on the basis of his reputation of being an efficient administrator. He quickly gained the attention of Chhatrapati Shahu. Balaji's work so pleased the Chhatrapati that he was appointed the Peshwa or Prime Minister in 1713. He ran a well-organized administration and, by the time of his death in 1720, he had laid the groundwork for the expansion of the Maratha Empire. Since this time until the fall of the Maratha Empire, the seat of the Peshwa would be held by the members of the Bhat family.[17][18]

With the ascension of Balaji Baji Rao and his family to the supreme authority of the Maratha Empire, Chitpavan immigrants began arriving en masse from the Konkan to Pune[19][20] where the Peshwa offered all important offices to his fellow castemen.[6] The Chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief and grants of land.[21] Historians cite nepotism[22][23][24][25][26][27] and corruption[25][27] as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising with political fortune.[20] The alleged haughty behaviour by the upstart Chitpavans caused conflicts with other communities which manifested itself as late as in 1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of Mahatma Gandhi by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpavan.[6]

The Peshwa rule forced untouchability treatment on the Mahars. As a result Mahars served in the armies of the East India company[28] On 1 January 1818 in the Battle of Koregaon between forces of the East India Company and the Peshwa, Mahars soldiers formed the biggest contingent of the Company force. The battle effectively ended Peshwa rule.[29]

Role in Indian politics[edit]

After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost their political dominance to the British. The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the Peshwas, had done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly reduced. Poorer Chitpavan students adapted and started learning English because of better opportunities in the British administration.[21]

Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. These included Dhondo Keshav Karve,[30] Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade,[31] Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,[32][33] Gopal Ganesh Agarkar,[34] Vinoba Bhave.[35][36]

Some of the strongest resistance to change came from the very same community. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. D. K. Karve was ostracised. Even Tilak offered penance for breaking caste or religious rules. One was for taking tea at Poona Christian mission in 1892 and the second was going to England in 1919.[37]

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the "jewel of his disciples", and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However, strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva, was a Chitpavan Brahmin and several other Chitpavans were among the first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak.[38] These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi's assassins, Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.[39][full citation needed]

Military[edit]

The Chitpavans have considered themselves to be both warriors and priests.[40] Their involvement in military affairs began with the rise of the Peshwas[41] and their willingness to enter military and other services earned them high status and power in the Deccan.[42]

Culture[edit]

Traditionally, the Chitpavan Brahmins were a community of astrologers and priests who offer religious services to other communities. The 20th century descriptions of the Chitpavans list inordinate frugality, impassive, hard work, cleanliness and intelligence among their attributes.[43][44][45] Agriculture was the second major occupation in the community, practised by the those who possess arable land.[citation needed] Later, Chitpavans became prominent in white-collar jobs and business.[citation needed]

Language[edit]

Most of the Chitpavan Brahmins in Maharashtra have adopted Marathi as their language. A minority spoke a dialect of Konkani called Chitpavani Konkani in their homes. Even at that time,[when?] reports recorded Chitpavani as a fast-disappearing language. But in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka, it is spoken in places like Durga and Maala of Karkala taluk and Shishila and Mundaje of Belthangady Taluk.[citation needed]

The Marathi spoken by Chitpavans in Pune is the standard form of language used all over Maharashtra today.[3] This form has many words derived from Sansrkrit and retains the Sanskrit pronunciation of many, misconstrued by non-standard speakers as "nasalised pronunciation".[46]

Social status[edit]

Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed that they were the highest of all Brahmins and looked down upon the Chitpavans as parvenus (a relative newcomer to a socio-economic class), barely equal to the noblest of dvijas. Even the Peshwa was denied the rights to use the ghats reserved for Deshastha priests at Nashik on the Godavari river.[47][full citation needed][48]

The rise in prominence of the Chitpavans compared to the Deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two communities.[49] 19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level debates between the Chitpavans and Daivajna Brahmins, Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswats and the Chitpavans, Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpavans and Shukla Yujurvedi Deshastha Brahmins and the Chitpavans. These were quite common in Maharashtra.[50]

Diet[edit]

By tradition like other Brahmin communities of Southern India, Chitpavan Brahmins are Lacto vegetarians. Rice, wheat and dal are their staple foods.[51][full citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Collector A. M. T. Jackson, a Sanskrit scholar was affectionately called"Pandit Jackson".Kanhere murdered him for Ganesh Damodar Savarkar's trial and an acquittal of a British Engineer in the death of a farmer caused by rash driving.[76][77][78]

Citations

  1. ^ "Konkani, Goan". Ethnologue. 
  2. ^ Valentine, Chirol (2012). Indian Unrest. Tredition. p. 72. ISBN 978-3-8472-0599-9. 
  3. ^ a b Singh, R.; Lele, J. K. (1989). Language and society: steps towards an integrated theory. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 34. ISBN 978-9-00408-789-7. 
  4. ^ Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 49. 
  5. ^ H. H. Dodwell. The Cambridge History of India: British India, 1497-1858. p. 385. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Cohn, Bernard S; Singer, Milton, eds. (2007). Structure and Change in Indian Society. AldineTransaction (Transaction Publishers). pp. 399–400. ISBN 978-0-202-36138-3. 
  7. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot; Sanjay Kumar, eds. (2009). Rise of the Plebeians?: The Changing Face of the Indian Legislative Assemblies (Exploring the Political in South Asia). Routledge India. p. 216,217. 
  8. ^ Cashman, Richard I (1975). The myth of the Lokamanya: Tilak and mass politics in Maharashtra. University of California. p. 19,20,21. ISBN 978-0-520-02407-6. Retrieved 2 April 2018. 
  9. ^ Conlon, Frank F. (1999). "Vishnubawa Brahmachari: A Champion of Hinduism in Nineteenth Century Maharashtra". In Dossal, Mariam; Maloni, Ruby. State Intervention and Popular Response: Western India in the Nineteenth Century. Popular Prakashan. p. 163. ISBN 978-8-17154-855-2. 
  10. ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. BRILL. p. 62. ISBN 978-9-00409-828-2. 
  11. ^ Figueira, Dorothy M. (2002). Aryans, Jews, Brahmins: theorizing authority through myths of identity. SUNY Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 9780791487839. 
  12. ^ Karve, Irawati (1989) [1928]. The Chitpavan Brahmins - A Social and Ethnic Study. pp. 96–97. ISBN 81-7022-235-4. 
  13. ^ Parfitt, Tudor; Egorova, Yulia (2005). "Genetics, History, and Identity: The Case Of The Bene Israel and the Lemba" (PDF). Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 29: 206, 208, 221. doi:10.1007/s11013-005-7425-4. 
  14. ^ Karve, Irawati (1989) [1928]. The Chitpavan Brahmins - A Social and Ethnic Study. pp. 104–107. ISBN 81-7022-235-4. 
  15. ^ Egorova, Yulia (2006). Jews and India: Perceptions and Image. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-203-96123-0. 
  16. ^ Strizower, Schifra (1971). The Bene Israel of Bombay: A Study of a Jewish Community. p. 16. ISBN 0-8052-3405-5. 
  17. ^ Stewart Gordon (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. 
  18. ^ Gokhale, B.G., 1985. The religious complex in eighteenth-century Poona. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 105(4), pp.719-724.
  19. ^ Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. p. 113. ISBN 81-8290-132-4. 
  20. ^ a b Richard Maxwell Eaton. A social history of the Deccan, 1300-1761: eight Indian lives, Volume 1. p. 192. 
  21. ^ a b Edmund Leach, S. N. Mukherjee (1970). Elites in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101, 104, 105. ISBN 0-521-10765-2. 
  22. ^ Tryambaka Śaṅkara Śejavalakara (1946). Panipat: 1761. pp. 24, 25. 
  23. ^ Anil Seal. The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (Political change in modern South Asia). pp. 74, 78. ISBN 0-521-09652-9. 
  24. ^ Shejwalkar, T.S. (1947) The Surat Episode of 1759 Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute, Vol. 8; page 182.
  25. ^ a b Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1986) [1946]. New history of the Marathas: Sunset over Maharashtra (1772-1848). Phoenix Publications. p. 254. 
  26. ^ J. R. Śinde (1985). Dynamics of cultural revolution: 19th century Maharashtra. p. 16. 
  27. ^ a b S. M. Michael. Dalits in Modern India: Vision and Values. p. 95. 
  28. ^ "Clifford"Sawhney, Clifford (2004). Strange But True Facts. Pustak Mahal. p. 77,78. 
  29. ^ Banerjee, Shoumojit. "When Mahars fought on home turf, and helped Britain win". The Hindu. The Hindu. Retrieved 9 May 2017. 
  30. ^ a b Karve, Dinakar D. (1963). The New Brahmans: Five Maharashtrian Families (First ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 13 – via Questia. 
  31. ^ a b Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  32. ^ a b Wolf, Siegfried O. "Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: Public Enemy or national Hero?" (PDF). Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  33. ^ Wolf, Siegfried (Editor) (2009). Heidelberg Student papers, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: Public Enemy or national Hero (PDF). Dresden: Heidelberg University. p. 10. ISBN 978-3-86801-076-3. 
  34. ^ a b Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  35. ^ Maloni, edited by Mariam Dossal, Ruby (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 87. ISBN 9788171548552. 
  36. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  37. ^ Cashman, Richard I. (1975). The myth of the Lokamanya : Tilak and mass politics in Maharashtra. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780520024076. 
  38. ^ Swapan Dasgupta, Smruti Koppikar (3 August 1998). "Godse on Trial". India Today: 24–26. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  39. ^ Arnold P. Goldstein, Marshall H. Segall (1983). Aggression in global perspective. p. 245. 
  40. ^ Bhatt, Chetan (2001). Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths. Berg. p. 32. ISBN 9781859733486. 
  41. ^ Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. Shubhi. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-8290-132-2. 
  42. ^ a b Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-69108-840-2. 
  43. ^ Donald V. Kurtz (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-90-04-09828-2. 
  44. ^ David Levinson (1992). Encyclopedia of World Cultures: South Asia. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8161-1840-3. 
  45. ^ Divekar, V. D. (1982). "The Emergence of an Indigenous Business Class in Maharashtra in the Eighteenth Century". Modern Asian Studies. 16 (3): 438–439. doi:10.1017/s0026749x00015250. JSTOR 312115. (Subscription required (help)). 
  46. ^ Deo, Shripad D.; Natarajan, Nalini (editor) (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-31328-778-7. 
  47. ^ Ravinder Kumar Western India in the Nineteenth Century, p 38.
  48. ^ Patil, U.R., 2010. Conflict, identity and narratives: the Brahman communities of western India from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries (Doctoral dissertation)[1]
  49. ^ Gordon, Stewart (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge University Press. pp. 132–134. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. 
  50. ^ Gokhale, Sandhya (2008). The Chitpwans. Shubhi Publications. p. 204. The jati disputes were not a rare occurrence in Maharashtra. There are recorded instances of disputes between jatis such as Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswats and the Chitpawans and Shukla Yajurvedi and the Chitpawans. The intra-caste dispute involving the supposed violation of the Brahmanical ritual code of behavior was called Gramanya in marathi. 
  51. ^ India's Communities, Volume 5. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 1804. 
  52. ^ Chaurasia, R.S. (2004). History of the Marathas. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 9. ISBN 9788126903948. 
  53. ^ The Marathas 1600-1818, Part 2, Volume 4 By Stewart Gordon
  54. ^ O'Hanlon 2002, p. 27-28.
  55. ^ Naravane 2006, p. 82.
  56. ^ KAVLEKAR, K., 1983. POLITICS OF SOCIAL REFORM IN MAHARASHTRA. Political Thought and Leadership of Lokmanya Tilak, p.202 [2]
  57. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  58. ^ Pinney, Christopher (2004). Photos of the gods : the printed image and political struggle in India. London: Reaktion. p. 48. ISBN 9781861891846. 
  59. ^ Bayly, Susan (2000). Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age (1. Indian ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0521798426. 
  60. ^ Pinney, Christopher (2004). Photos of the gods : the printed image and political struggle in India. London: Reaktion. pp. 46–47. ISBN 9781861891846. 
  61. ^ KESHAVSUT, PRABHAKAR MACHWE, Indian Literature, Vol. 9, No. 3 (JULY-SEPTEMBER 1966), pp. 43-51
  62. ^ Donald Mackenzie Brown"The Congress." The Nationalist Movement: Indian Political Thought from Ranade to Bhave (1961): 34
  63. ^ Stanley A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: revolution and reform in the making of modern India (1962) p ix
  64. ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195623925. 
  65. ^ Echenberg, Myron (2006). Plague ports : the global urban impact of bubonic plague,1894-1901 ([ ed.). New York [u. a.]: New York Univ. Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8147-2232-9. 
  66. ^ Shailaja Paik. Dalit Women's Education in Modern India: Double Discrimination. 
  67. ^ Omvedt, Gail. Dalits and the Democratic Revolution: Dr Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India. p. 138. 
  68. ^ Kumari Jayawardena (1995). The White Woman's Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia During British Rule. Routledge. p. 104. By the early 1880s, Indian women started to benefit from the opening of medical studies to women in Europe and the United States, the first being Anandibai Joshi (1865–1887), born in Pune to a Chitpavan Brahmin family. She was married (according to custom) when she was nine years old. In 1883, at age eighteen, she went to the United States (with her husband)and studied medicine at the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia where she graduated in medicine in 1886 
  69. ^ SRI NARASIMHA CHINTAMAN "ALIAS" TATYASAHEB KELKAR, K. N. Watve, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 28, No. 1/2 (January–April 1947), pp. 156-158, published by Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute [3]
  70. ^ Wolf, Siegfried (Editor) (2009). Heidelberg Student papers, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar:: Public Enemy or national Hero (PDF). Dresden: Heidelberg University. p. 10. ISBN 978-3-86801-076-3. 
  71. ^ Y. D. Phadke (1981). Portrait of a revolutionary: Senapati Bapat. Senapati Bapat Centenary Celebration Samiti. p. 2. Among such young men initiated into revolutionary activities was Pandurang Mahadeo Bapat who later on became widely known as Senapati (General) Bapat. On 12 November 1880, Pandurang Bapat was born in a Chitpawan or Konkanastha Brahmin family at Parner in the Ahmednagar 
  72. ^ Jain, Kajri (2007). Gods in the Bazaar: The Economies of Indian Calendar Art. Duke University Press Books. p. 151. 
  73. ^ Jeffrey, R., 1997. Marathi: Big Newspapers Are Elephants. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.384-38
  74. ^ Subramanian, L., 2000. The master, muse and the nation: The new cultural project and the reification of colonial modernity in India∗. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 23(2), pp.1-32.
  75. ^ Kulkarni, A.R., 2002. Trends in Maratha Historiography: Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade (1863–1926). Indian Historical Review, 29(1-2), pp.115-144.
  76. ^ "Organiser, Volumes 35-36". Bharat Prakashan. 1983. THE NASIK ASSASSINATION - By : Mrs. Sunanda Swarup ...Anant Kanhere, who actually killed Jackson, was a sixteen-year-old chitpavan Brahman youth...The whole episode will not be complete without mentioning about Jackson, who was assassinated. Ironically enough the records show that he was a popular Collector and liked by many. He was a Scholar of Sanskrit and was even known as Pandit Jackson. He was very fond of the theatre, dramas...Even On the eve of assassination, he had gone to watch the play “Sharada” which was organised in his honour 
  77. ^ Bimanbehari Majumdar (1966). Militant Nationalism in India and Its Socio-religious Background, 1897-1917. p. 94. On December 21, A. M. T. Jackson was murdered at Nasik by Anant Laxman Kanhere. Jackson was a learned Indologist. He contributed many interesting papers on Indian history and culture and was popularly known as Pandit Jackson. His fault was that he had committed Ganesh Savarkar to trial and acquitted an Engineer named Williams of the charge of killing a farmer by rash and negligent driving. He was not harsh in punishing people charged with sedition. W. S. Khare, a pleader of Nasik delivered some seditious speeches. Jackson ordered him to execute a personal bond of Rs. 2,000 and to be of good behaviour for one year with two substantial and respectable sureties of Rs. 1,000 each. 
  78. ^ Pramod Maruti Mande (2005). Sacred offerings into the flames of freedom. Vande Mataram Foundation. p. 27. At that time an Englishman named Jackson was the Collector of Nashik District. A cruel man by nature, he greatly harassed the people. He used to hold public assemblies to hear the people's grievances, but this was just a show, meant to put a gloss on his despotic administration. There was no justice for the people. Rather,they were subject to great tyranny. 
  79. ^ Maloni, edited by Mariam Dossal, Ruby (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 87. ISBN 9788171548552. 
  80. ^ Amur, G.S. (1994). Dattatreya Ramachandra Bendre (Ambikatanayadatta). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 7. ISBN 9788172015152. 
  81. ^ Maloni, edited by Mariam Dossal, Ruby (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 79. ISBN 9788171548552. 
  82. ^ a b Alex Damm, ed. (2017). Gandhi in a Canadian Context: Relationships between Mahatma Gandhi and Canada. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 54. Moreover, the two principal conspirators behind Gandhi's assassination, who were hung for their actions – Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte – were both Chitpawan Brahmins from Maharashtra as was Savarkar, their ideological mentor. The Chitpawans had a long history of supporting violence against the alleged enemies of Brahminical Hinduism. 
  83. ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (1999). The Saffron Wave: Democracy and Hindu Nationalism in Modern India. Princeton University Press. Gandhi's assassin Naturam Godse, a Chitpavan brahmin from Pune, had been a member of the RSS for some years, as well as a member of the Hindu Mahasabha. In the early 1940s Godse left the RSS to form a militant organization, Hindu Rashtra Dal, aimed at militarizing the mind and conduct of Hindus, to make them “more assertive and aggressive” (interview with Naturam Godse's brother Gopal Godse, still a member of the Hindu Mahasabha, in Pune, 3 February 1993) 
  84. ^ Nadkarni, M.V., 2009. Social change through moral development?. Journal of Social and Economic Development, 11(2), pp.127-135.
  85. ^ "Shah Rukh is not a good dancer but has charisma: Madhuri". Times of India. Also, we both come from similar backgrounds and are Kokanastha brahmins and have had typical Maharashtrian upbringing that makes us culturally similar. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]