List of Christian Nobel laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969.[3] Nobel Prizes have been awarded to over 850 individuals.[4]

According to 100 Years of Nobel Prize (2005), a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000, 65.4% of Nobel Prize Laureates, have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference (423 prizes).[5] Overall, Christians have won a total of 78.3% of all the Nobel Prizes in Peace, 72.5% in Chemistry, 65.3% in Physics, 62% in Medicine, 54% in Economics and 49.5% of all Literature awards.[6]

The three primary divisions of Christianity are Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. Between 1901 and 2000 it was revealed that among 654 Laureates 31.8% have identified Protestant in its various forms (208 prize), 20.3% were Christians (no information about their denominations; 133 prize), 11.6% have identified as Catholic and 1.6% have identified as Eastern Orthodox.[7] Christians make up over 33.2% of the worlds population.[8][9][10][11]

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize laureates identified a Protestant background.[12] Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry, 60% in Medicine, and 58.6% in Physics between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants.[12]

Alfred Nobel who established the prizes in 1895, was himself, through baptism and confirmation, a Lutheran. He regularly frequented the Church of Sweden Abroad.[13][14]

75 members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Catholic Church have won a Nobel prize in the sciences and economics.[15] The worldviews of the members are diverse and includes some non-Christians.

Christian Nobel laureates by denomination[edit]

The following table shows the religion of Nobel laureates between the years 1901 and 2000.[6]

Denomination[6] Physics[6] Chemistry[6] Physiology
or Medicine
[6]
Literature[6] Peace[6] Economics[6] Total %Total
Anglican 4 1 10 3 4 1 23 3.5%
Baptist - - 3 - 1 1 5 0.8%
Calvinist - 2 1 3 - - 6 0.5%
Catholic 10 10 16 23 16 1 76 11.6%
Christian (no information about their denominations) 35 44 33 - 11 10 133 20.3%
Congregationalist 3 - 6 - 1 - 10 1.5%
Menonite 1 - - - - - 1 0.2%
Dutch Reformed Church - - - - 1 - 1 0.2%
Eastern Orthodox 2 - 1 5 1 1 10 1.6%
Episcopalian - - 2 1 2 - 5 0.8%
Evangelical - 1 2 - - - 3 0.5%
Lutheran 8 8 7 3 6 2 34 5.2%
Methodist 2 3 4 1 5 - 15 2.3%
Presbyterian 5 - 7 1 4 - 17 2.6%
Protestant 19 23 18 8 12 4 84 12.8%
Quaker 1 - - - 2 1 4 0.5%
Unitarian - 2 3 - 1 1 7 1.1%
Total Protestant 43 40 57 20 38 10 208 32.0%
Total Christians 96 92 105 45 59 20 423 65.4%

Christian Nobel laureates by category[edit]

This list is non-exhaustive, the list includes Nobel laureates with Christian background and identified with the Christian faith. It is worth noting that some of the Nobel laureates in the list are devout Christians, where the Christian faith has influence on their thinking and writing, and others were nominally Christian but identified themselves with the Christian faith.

Physics[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1901 WilhelmRöntgen.JPG Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Germany Roman Catholic "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[16]
1902 H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg Hendrik Lorentz Netherlands Protestant[17] "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by his researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[18]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg Pieter Zeeman Netherlands Dutch Reformed Church[19] "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena
1903 Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg Antoine Henri Becquerel France Roman Catholic[20] "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[21]
1904 John William Strutt.jpg Lord Rayleigh United Kingdom Anglican[22][23] "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[24]
1905 Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Austria-Hungary
Germany
Christian[25] "for his work on cathode rays"[26][27]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg Joseph John Thomson United Kingdom Anglican[28] "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[29]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi Italy Roman Catholic[30] "for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[31]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg Max von Laue Germany Christian[32][33][34] "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[35] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 Wh-bragg.jpg William Henry Bragg United Kingdom Christian[36][37][38] "for his services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[39] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
Wl-bragg.jpg William Lawrence Bragg Australia

United Kingdom

Christian
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg Charles Glover Barkla United Kingdom Methodist[40][41][42] "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[43] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 Max Planck 1933.jpg Max Planck Germany Raised Lutheran, later in life, Planck's views on God were that of a deist[a][44] "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[45]
1919 Johannes Stark.jpg Johannes Stark Germany Christian[46] "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[47]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg Robert Andrews Millikan United States Christian[48][49][50][51] He dealt with this in his Terry Lectures at Yale in 1926–7, published as Evolution in Science and Religion.[52] "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[53]
1925 Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz Germany Lutheran[54] "for his discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[55]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg Arthur Holly Compton United States Presbyterian[56][57] "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[58]
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg Werner Heisenberg Germany Lutheran[59][60] "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[61]
1936 Hess.jpg Victor Francis Hess Austria Christian[62][63] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[64] "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[65]
1937 George Paget Thomson.jpg George Paget Thomson United Kingdom Christian "for his experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[66]
1938 Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg Enrico Fermi Italy Raised Roman Catholic, then become an agnostic "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[67]
1945 Wolfgang Pauli ETH-Bib Portr 01042.jpg Wolfgang Pauli Austria Raised Roman Catholic,[68] but left the Church later in life. "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[69]
1951 Sir John Douglas Cockcroft.jpg John Douglas Cockcroft United Kingdom Christian "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[70]
Ernest Walton.jpg Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Ireland Methodist[71]
1952 Edward Mills Purcell.jpg Edward Mills Purcell United States Protestant "for his development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[72]
1953 Zernike.jpg Frits Zernike Netherlands Protestant "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[73]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born Germany
United Kingdom
Lutheran[74] "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[75]
Bothe.jpg Walther Bothe West Germany Protestant "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[75]
1955 Willis Lamb 1955.jpg Willis Eugene Lamb United States Protestant "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[76]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg Polykarp Kusch United States Protestant "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[76]
1958 Ilya Frank.jpg Ilya Frank Soviet Union Russian Orthodox (he is also from Jewish descended) for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[77]
1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer.jpg Maria Goeppert-Mayer United States Christian[78] "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Jensen.jpg J. Hans D. Jensen West Germany Christian
1964 Charles Townes Nobel.jpg Charles Hard Townes United States Protestant (United Church of Christ)[79] "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[80]
1971 Nobel prize medal grey.png Dennis Gabor Hungary – United Kingdom Raised a Protestant,[81] but he considered himself agnostic[82] "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[83]
1974 Nobel prize medal grey.png Antony Hewish United Kingdom Christian[84] "for his pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[85]
1980 James-cronin.jpg James Watson Cronin United States Protestant[86][87] "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[88]
1984 Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg Carlo Rubbia Italy Roman Catholic "for his decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[89]
1985 Klausvonklitzing.jpg Klaus von Klitzing West Germany Roman Catholic "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[90]
1993 2008JosephTaylor.jpg Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. United States Quaker[91] "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[92]
1996 Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg Douglas D. Osheroff United States Lutheran[93] "for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[94]
1997 William D. Phillips.jpg William Daniel Phillips United States Protestant (United Methodist Church)[95] "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[96]
2002 RiccardoGiacconi.jpg Riccardo Giacconi Italy
United States
Roman Catholic "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
2007 Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg Peter Grünberg Germany Roman Catholic "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[97]

Chemistry[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1901 Vant Hoff.jpg Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Netherlands Protestant[98] "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[99]
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer c1895.jpg Hermann Emil Fischer Germany Protestant[100][101] "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[102]
1904 William Ramsay.jpg Sir William Ramsay United Kingdom Protestant[103] "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[104]
1905 Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer Germany Lutheran (from Jewish descent)[105][106] "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[107]
1907 Eduard Buchner (Nobel 1907).jpg Eduard Buchner Germany Protestant "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[108]
1908 Ernest Rutherford (Nobel).jpg Ernest Rutherford United Kingdom
New Zealand
Protestant[109][110] "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[111]
1910 Otto Wallach.jpg Otto Wallach Germany Protestant[112] "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[113]
1913 Alfred Werner.jpg Alfred Werner Switzerland He was raised as Roman Catholic[114] "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[115]
1918 Fritz Haber.png Fritz Haber Germany Converts to Protestantism from Judaism[116] "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[117]
1920 Walther Nernst.jpg Walther Hermann Nernst Germany Protestant[118] "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[119]
1921 Frederick Soddy.jpg Frederick Soddy United Kingdom Protestant[120] "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[121]
1922 Francis William Aston.jpg Francis William Aston United Kingdom Protestant "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[122]
1923 Fritz Pregl.jpg Fritz Pregl Austria Christian "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[123]
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy.jpg Richard Adolf Zsigmondy Germany / Hungary Protestant "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[124]
1926 The-svedberg-1.jpg The (Theodor) Svedberg Sweden Christian "for his work on disperse systems"[125]
1927 Heinrich Wieland.jpg Heinrich Otto Wieland Germany Christian "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[126]
1928 Windaus.jpg Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Germany Christian "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and his connection with the vitamins"[127]
1929 ArthurHarden.jpg Arthur Harden United Kingdom Christian "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[128]
Euler-chelpin.jpg Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin Sweden Christian
1930 Hans Fischer (Nobel).jpg Hans Fischer Germany Protestant "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[129]
1931 Carl Bosch.jpg Carl Bosch Germany Protestant "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[130]
Bergius.jpg Friedrich Bergius Germany Protestant
1934 Urey.jpg Harold Clayton Urey United States Church of the Brethren[131] "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[132]
1937 Paul Karrer.jpg Paul Karrer Switzerland Christian "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg Richard Kuhn Germany Roman Catholic "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[133]
1939 Leopold Ruzicka ETH-Bib Portr 00239.jpg Leopold Ruzicka Switzerland Roman Catholic "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1943 George de Hevesy.jpg George de Hevesy Germany Roman Catholic [134]of Hungarian Jewish descent[135] "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[136]
1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-46019-0001, Otto Hahn.jpg Otto Hahn Germany Protestant[137] "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[138]
1945 Virtanen.jpg Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland Protestant "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[139]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner.jpg James Batcheller Sumner United States Christian "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[140]
John Howard Northrop.jpg John Howard Northrop United States Christian "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[140]
Wendell Meredith Stanley.jpg Wendell Meredith Stanley United States Christian
1947 Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom Protestant "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[141]
1949 William Giauque Nobel.jpg William Francis Giauque United States Protestant "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[142]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels.jpg Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany Christian "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[143]
Kurt Alder Nobel.jpg Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany Christian
1953 Hermann Staudinger.jpg Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany Christian "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[144]
1962 Max Perutz.jpg Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom Raised Roman Catholic[145][146][147] "for his studies of the structures of globular proteins"[148]
1963 Karl Ziegler Nobel.jpg Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany Lutheran[149] "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[150]
Giulio Natta Nobel.jpg Giulio Natta Italy Roman Catholic
1964 Dorothy Hodgkin Nobel.jpg Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom Christian[151] "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[152]
1969 Odd Hassel.jpg Odd Hassel Norway Protestant "for his contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[153]
1970 Luisfedericoleloir.jpg Luis F. Leloir Argentina Roman Catholic[154] "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and his role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[155]
1971 Herzberg,Gerhard 1952 London.jpg Gerhard Herzberg Canada/Germany Christian "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[156]
1975 Nobel prize medal grey.png John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
Presbyterian[157] "for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[158]
Vladimir Prelog ETH-Bib Portr 00214.jpg Vladimir Prelog Yugoslavia/Switzerland Roman Catholic "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[158]
1984 Nobel prize medal grey.png Robert Bruce Merrifield United States Christian[159] "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[160]
1990 E.J.Coreyx240.jpg Elias James Corey United States Christian (Eastern Orthodox)[161] "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[162]
1995 Mario Molina 1c389 8387.jpg Mario J. Molina Mexico Roman Catholic[163] "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[164]
F. Sherwood Rowland.jpg F. Sherwood Rowland United States Christian
1996 Robert Curl crop 2009 CHAO.jpg Robert F. Curl Jr. United States Methodist[165] "for their discovery of fullerenes"[166]
Richard Smalley.jpg Richard E. Smalley United States Christian[167]
2003 Peter Agre.jpg Peter Agre United States Lutheran[168][169][170] "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[171]
2007 Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg Gerhard Ertl Germany Christian[172] "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[173]
2012 Brian Kobilka (649437151).jpg Brian Kobilka United States Roman Catholic[174] "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[175]
2014 Stefan W Hell.jpg Stefan W. Hell Romania Protestant[176] "for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"[177]

Physiology or Medicine[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1901 EmilVonBehring.jpg Emil Adolf von Behring Germany Protestant[178] "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[179]
1902 Ronald Ross.jpg Sir Ronald Ross United Kingdom
India
Protestant "for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[180]
1903 Niels ryberg.jpg Niels Ryberg Finsen Denmark
(Faroe Islands)
Protestant "[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[181]
1905 RobertKoch cropped.jpg Robert Koch Germany Christian "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[182]
1906 Camillo Golgi nobel.jpg Camillo Golgi Italy Roman Catholic "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[183]
Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal Spain Roman Catholic[184]
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland Protestant (Moravian Church)[185] "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[186]
1910 Kossel, Albrecht (1853-1927).jpg Albrecht Kossel Germany Protestant "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[187]
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel France Roman Catholic[188] "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[189]
1919 Jules Bordet nobel.jpg Jules Bordet Belgium Christian "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[190]
1920 August Krogh Bain 32006.jpg Schack August Steenberg Krogh Denmark Protestant "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[191]
1923 Fredrick banting.jpg Sir Frederick Grant Banting Canada Protestant (United Church of Canada)[192] "for the discovery of insulin"[193]
1924 Willem Einthoven.jpg Willem Einthoven The Netherlands Protestant (Lutheran)[194][195] "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[196]
1926 J Fibiger.jpg Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Denmark Lutheran[197] "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[198]
1928 Jules Nicole.jpg Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France Roman Catholic "for his work on typhus"[199]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman.jpg Christiaan Eijkman The Netherlands Protestant "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[200]
Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom Chrisian "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[200]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner Austria converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism in 1890[201] "for his discovery of human blood groups"[202]
1931 Otto Warburg.jpg Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany Christian[203] "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[204]
1932 Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg Sir Charles Scott Sherrington United Kingdom Anglican[205] "for his discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[206]
1934 George Whipple nobel.jpg George Hoyt Whipple United States Protestant[207] "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[208]
George Minot nobel.jpg George Richards Minot United States Protestant[209]
William P Murphy.jpg William Parry Murphy United States Protestant
1935 Hans Spemann nobel.jpg Hans Spemann Germany Protestant[210] "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[211]
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi cropped.jpg Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Hungary Calvinist[212][213] "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[214]
1938 Corneille Heymans nobel.jpg Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium Roman Catholic[215] "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[216]
1939 Gerhard Domagk nobel.jpg Gerhard Domagk Germany Protestant[217] "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[218]
1943 Henrik Dam nobel.jpg Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark Protestant "for his discovery of vitamin K"[219]
Edward A Doisy.jpg Edward Adelbert Doisy United States Protestant (Congregationalists)[220] "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[219]
1945 Alexander Fleming 1945.jpg Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom Roman Catholic[221] "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[222]
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori.jpg Carl Ferdinand Cori United States Roman Catholic[223] "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[224]
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States Roman Catholic[225]
Bernado Houssay.JPG Bernardo Alberto Houssay Argentina Roman Catholic[226] "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[224]
1949 Moniz.jpg António Caetano Egas Moniz Portugal Roman Catholic[227] "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[228]
1951 Max Theiler nobel.jpg Max Theiler South Africa Protestant[229] "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[230]
1957 Daniel Bovet nobel.jpg Daniel Bovet Italy Protestant "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[231]
1958 George Wells Beadle.jpg George Wells Beadle United States Christian[232] "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
Edward Lawrie Tatum nobel.jpg Edward Lawrie Tatum United States Christian
1959 Severo Ochoa nobel.jpg Severo Ochoa Spain
Roman Catholic "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[233]
1960 Frank Macfarlane Burnet nobel.jpg Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia Protestant[234] "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[235]
1961 Georg von Békésy nobel.jpg Georg von Békésy United States Christian[236] "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[237]
1963 Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia Roman Catholic[238] "for his discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[239]
1967 Ragnar Granit2.jpg Ragnar Granit Finland/Sweden Protestant "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[240]
Haldan Keffer Hartline nobel.jpg Haldan Keffer Hartline United States Protestant
1972 Nobel prize medal grey.png Rodney Robert Porter United States Methodists[241] "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[242]
1974 Nobel prize medal grey.png Albert Claude Belgium Roman Catholic[243] "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[244]
Nobel prize medal grey.png George E. Palade Romania Eastern Orthodox
1975 Renato Dulbecco crop.jpg Renato Dulbecco Italy
United States
Roman Catholic "for his discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[245]
1976 Nobel prize medal grey.png D. Carleton Gajdusek United States Calvinist[246] "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[247]
1978 Werner Arber 2008.jpg Werner Arber Switzerland Protestant[248] "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[249]
1983 Barbara McClintock (1902-1992) shown in her laboratory in 1947.jpg Barbara McClintock United States Protestant (Congregationalists)[78] "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[250]
1988 James Black (pharmacologist).jpg Sir James W. Black United Kingdom Protestant (Baptist)[251] "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[252]
George H. Hitchings 1988.jpg George H. Hitchings United States Christian
1990 Nobel prize medal grey.png Joseph E. Murray United States Roman Catholic[253] "for his discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[254]
1992 Nobel prize medal grey.png Edmond H. Fischer[255] Switzerland
United States
Protestant (Presbyterian) "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[256]
1995 Eric F. Wieschaus.jpg Eric F. Wieschaus United States Roman Catholic "for his discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[257]
1998 Loius Ignarro.jpg Louis J. Ignarro United States Roman Catholic "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[258]
Ferid Murad.jpg Ferid Murad United States Christian[259]
2000 Paul Greengard.jpg Paul Greengard United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[260] "for his discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[261]
2004 LindaBuck cropped 1.jpg Linda B. Buck United States Christian "for her discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[262]
2007 Mario Capecchi UTHSCSA.JPG Mario R. Capecchi United States Quaker[263] "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[264]
Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom Christian
2012 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom Protestant (Anglican)[265] "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[266]

Literature[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902 T-mommsen-2.jpg Theodor Mommsen Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany Protestant "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[267]
1903 Björnstjerne Björnson, 1901.jpg Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Union Jack of Sweden and Norway (1844-1905).svg Norway Protestant[268] "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[269]
1904 Frédéric Mistral by Paul Saïn.jpg Frédéric Mistral Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[270]
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg José Echegaray Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain Roman Catholic "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[270]
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 02.jpg Henryk Sienkiewicz Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland Roman Catholic[271] "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[272]
1909 Selma Lagerlöf.jpg Selma Lagerlöf  Sweden Christian[273] "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[274]
1910 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg Paul von Heyse Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany Protestant of Jewish descent "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[275]
1916 Johan Krouthén - Porträtt av Verner von Heidenstam.jpg Verner von Heidenstam  Sweden Christian[276] "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[277]
1923 William Butler Yeats by George Charles Beresford.jpg William Butler Yeats Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Anglica[278] "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[279]
1924 Władysław Reymont.jpg Władysław Reymont Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Poland Roman Catholic[280] "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[281]
1926 Grazia Deledda 1926.jpg Grazia Deledda Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy Roman Catholic[282] "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[283]
1928 Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg Sigrid Undset  Norway
(Born in  Denmark)
Roman Catholic[284] "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[285]
1929 Thomas Mann 1937.jpg Thomas Mann Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[286][287] "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[288]
1933 Ivan Bunin 1933.jpg Ivan Bunin Flag of France.svg France (Born in Flag of Russia.svg Russia) Eastern Orthodox "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[289]
1938 Pearl Buck (Nobel).jpg Pearl S. Buck  United States Protestant (Southern Presbyterian)[290] "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[291]
1945 Gabriela Mistral-01 cropped.jpg Gabriela Mistral Flag of Chile.svg Chile Roman Catholic[292] "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[293]
1946 Hermann Hesse 1946.jpg Hermann Hesse   Switzerland
(Born in Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany)
Christian[294][295] "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[296]
1947 André Gide.jpg André Gide Flag of France.svg France Protestant[297] "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[298]
1948 T.S. Eliot, 1923.JPG T. S. Eliot  United Kingdom
(Born in the  United States)
Anglican[299][300] "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[301]
1949 Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg William Faulkner  United States Protestant (Episcopalian) "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[302]
1952 François Mauriac (1932).jpg François Mauriac Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic[303] "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[304]
1953 Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg Sir Winston Churchill  United Kingdom Anglican "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[305]
1954 ErnestHemingway.jpg Ernest Hemingway  United States Converts to Roman Catholicism[306] "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[307]
1955 Halldór Kiljan Laxness 1955.jpg Halldór Laxness  Iceland Converts to Roman Catholicism[308] "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[309]
1956 JRJimenez.JPG Juan Ramón Jiménez  Puerto Rico (Born in Flag of Spain (1785-1873 and 1875-1931).svg Spain) Roman Catholic "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[310]
1958 Boris Pasternak cropped.jpg Boris Pasternak  Soviet Union Converts to Eastern Orthodoxy from Judaism[311] "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[312]
1961 Andric Ivo.jpg Ivo Andrić  Yugoslavia
(Born in  Austria-Hungary)
Roman Catholic "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[313]
1962 JohnSteinbeck crop.JPG John Steinbeck  United States Raised Episcopalian[314] later he became agnostic "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[315]
1963 Giorgos Seferis 1963.jpg Giorgos Seferis State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1970).svg Greece
(Born in the  Ottoman Empire)
Greek Orthodox "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[316]
1967 MiguelAngelAsturias.JPG Miguel Ángel Asturias  Guatemala Roman Catholic "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[317]
1969 Samuel Beckett, f11.jpg Samuel Beckett  France (Born in  Ireland) Anglican (Church of Ireland) "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"[318]
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1974crop.jpg Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  Soviet Union Eastern Orthodox[319] "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[320]
1972 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg Heinrich Böll Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany (West) Roman Catholic[321] "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[322]
1979 Odysseas Elytis 1974.jpg Odysseas Elytis  Greece Greek Orthodox "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[323]
1980 Czesław Miłosz 2011 Lithuania stamp.jpg Czesław Miłosz  United States (Born in Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland) Roman Catholic[324] "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[325]
1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez.jpg Gabriel García Márquez  Colombia Roman Catholic[326] "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[327]
1989 Camilo José Cela Madrid 1996.jpg Camilo José Cela  Spain Roman Catholic "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[328]
1990 Paz0.jpg Octavio Paz  Mexico Roman Catholic "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[329]
1992 Derek Walcott.jpg Derek Walcott  Saint Lucia Protestant (Methodist )[330] "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[331]
1993 Toni Morrison 2008-2.jpg Toni Morrison  United States Roman Catholic[332] "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[333]
1999 Günter Grass, 2004.jpg Günter Grass  Germany Roman Catholic[334][335] "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[336]
2003 J.M. Coetzee.JPG J. M. Coetzee  South Africa
 Australia
Protestant[337] "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"[338]
2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio-press conference Dec 06th, 2008-2.jpg J. M. G. Le Clézio  France
 Mauritius
Roman Catholic "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"[339]
2010 Vargas Losa Göteborg Book Fair 2011b.jpg Mario Vargas Llosa  Peru
 Spain
Roman Catholic[340] "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"[341]

Peace[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902 Ducommun.jpg Élie Ducommun   Switzerland Protestant "[for his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[342]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg Charles Albert Gobat Protestant "[for his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Methodist "[for his role as the] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[343]
1905 Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg Bertha von Suttner  Austria-Hungary Roman Catholic[344] for authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[27][345]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt  United States Protestant (Dutch Reformed Church)[346] "[f]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[27][347]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy Roman Catholic "[for his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[27][348]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic "[for his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"
1909 Beernaert.gif Auguste Beernaert  Belgium Roman Catholic "[for being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[27][349]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant Flag of France.svg France Protestant (Calvinist) "[for] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[27][349]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root[A]  United States Protestant (Presbyterian) "[f]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[27][350]
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[351] "[f]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[27][352]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg Hjalmar Branting  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[353] "[f]or his work in the League of Nations"[27][354]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg Christian Lange  Norway Lutheran (Church of Norway) "[for his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[27][354]
1925 Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg Austen Chamberlain[A]  United Kingdom Unitarian[355] for work on the Locarno Treaties[27][356]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Charles G. Dawes[A]  United States Protestant (Congregationalist) "[f]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[27][356]
1926 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany Protestant for work on the Locarno Treaties[27][357]
1927 Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg Ferdinand Buisson Flag of France.svg France Protestant[358] "[for] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[27][359]
1930 Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg Nathan Söderblom  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden) "[f]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[27][360]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg Jane Addams  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[361] "[f]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[27][362]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg Nicholas Murray Butler Protestant (Episcopalian) "[for his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[27][362]
1934 1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg Arthur Henderson  United Kingdom Protestant (Methodist)[363] "[f]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[27][364][365]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg Carl von Ossietzky[B] Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[366] "[for his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[27][367]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[368] "[for] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[369]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg Emily Greene Balch  United States Quaker[370] "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[371]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott Protestant (Methodist)[372] "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[371]
1947 Quaker star-T.svg Friends Service Council  United Kingdom Quaker "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[373]
American Friends Service Committee  United States Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)
1949 John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg The Lord Boyd-Orr  United Kingdom Protestant (Free Church of Scotland)[374] "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[375]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg Ralph Bunche  United States Protestant (Baptist)[376] "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[377]
1952 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg Albert Schweitzer Flag of France.svg France Christian[378] "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[379]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Catlett Marshall  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[380] "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[381]
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson  Canada Protestant (United Church of Canada)[382] "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[383] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[27]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg Dominique Pire  Belgium Roman Catholic "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[384]
1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg Philip Noel-Baker  United Kingdom Quaker[385] "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[386]
1960 Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg Albert Lutuli Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
Protestant (Methodist) "President of the African National Congress,"[387] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[27]
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg Dag Hammarskjöld[C]  Sweden Protestant (Lutheran)[388] "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[389] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[27]
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg Martin Luther King, Jr.  United States Protestant (Baptist; Progressive National Baptist Convention) Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[390]
1970 Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg Norman E. Borlaug  United States Protestant (Lutheran) "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[391] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[27]
1971 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany (West) Protestant (Lutheran)[392] "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[393]
1974 Seán MacBride 1984.jpg Seán MacBride  Ireland
(Born in Flag of France.svg France)
Roman Catholic[394] "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[395] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[27]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams  United Kingdom Roman Catholic "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[396]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg Mairead Corrigan Roman Catholic[397]
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg Mother Teresa  Albania (Born in Ottoman Kosovo) Roman Catholic[398] "Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[399]
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel  Argentina Roman Catholic[400] "Human rights leader;"[401] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[27]
1982 Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg Alfonso García Robles  Mexico Roman Catholic "[for] his magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[402][403]
1983 Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg Lech Wałęsa Flag of Poland.svg Poland Roman Catholic[404] "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[405]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg Desmond Tutu  South Africa Protestant (Anglican) "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[406]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias  Costa Rica Roman Catholic "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[407]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg Nelson Mandela  South Africa Protestant (Methodist)[408] "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[409]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk Protestant (Reformed)[410]
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo  East Timor Roman Catholic "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[411]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg José Ramos-Horta Roman Catholic
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg John Hume  United Kingdom Roman Catholic[412] "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[413]
David Trimble.jpg David Trimble Protestant (Presbyterian)[414][415]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae-jung  South Korea Roman Catholic[416] "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[417]
2001 Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad Kofi Annan  Ghana Protestant[418] "for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[419]
2002 Jimmy Carter.jpg Jimmy Carter  United States Protestant (Baptist)[420] "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[421]
2004 Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai  Kenya Roman Catholic[422] "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[423]
2007 Al Gore.jpg Al Gore  United States Protestant (Baptist) "for his efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[424]
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Martti Ahtisaari  Finland Protestant (Lutheran) "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[425]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama  United States Protestant[426] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[427]
2011 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg Ellen Johnson Sirleaf  Liberia Protestant (Methodist)[2] "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[428]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg Leymah Gbowee Protestant (Lutheran)[429]

Economics[edit]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1969 Uio frisch 2006 0025.jpg Ragnar Frisch  Norway Protestant[430] "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"
Jan Tinbergen 1982.jpg Jan Tinbergen  Netherlands Protestant
1975 Nobel prize medal grey.png Tjalling Koopmans  Netherlands
 United States
Protestant "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[431]
1979 Nobel prize medal grey.png Theodore Schultz  United States Protestant "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[432]
Nobel prize medal grey.png Arthur Lewis  Saint Lucia
 United Kingdom
Roman Catholic[433]
1982 Nobel prize medal grey.png George Stigler  United States Christian[434] "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[435]
1986 James Buchanan by Atlas network.jpg James M. Buchanan  United States Protestant[436] "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"[437]
1988 ALLAIS PN Maurice-24x30-2001b.jpg Maurice Allais  France Roman Catholic "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[438]
1989 Trygve Haavelmo.jpg Trygve Haavelmo  Norway Protestant[439] "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[440]
1994 Nobel prize medal grey.png John Harsanyi  United States Raised a devout Catholic,[441] later he abandoned Catholicism "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games."[442]
Reinhard Selten2.jpg Reinhard Selten  Germany Raised as Protestant,[443] later he left the church
1996 Nobel prize medal grey.png William Vickrey  Canada
 United States
Quaker [444] "for his fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[445]
2003 Robert F. Engle.jpg Robert F. Engle  United States Quaker[446] "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"[447]
Clive Granger by Olaf Storbeck.jpg Clive Granger  United Kingdom Christian "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"[447]
2009 Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-30.jpg Elinor Ostrom  United States Protestant[448] "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[449]
2010 Christopher Pissarides.jpg Christopher A. Pissarides  Cyprus Eastern Orthodox[450] "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[451]
2013 Eugene Fama at Nobel Prize, 2013.jpg Eugene F. Fama  United States Roman Catholic[452] "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."
Robert Shiller - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg Robert J. Shiller Protestant (Methodist)[453]

Nobel laureates converted to Christianity[edit]

Year of laureate Laureate Laureate category Former religion Converted to
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel Physiology
or Medicine
Atheism Roman Catholicism[188]
1918 Fritz Haber.png Fritz Haber Chemistry Judaism Protestantism-Lutheranism[116]
1928 Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg Sigrid Undset Literature Agnosticism Roman Catholicism[454]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner Physiology
or Medicine
Judaism Roman Catholicism[201]
1949 Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz Physiology
or Medicine
Judaism Roman Catholicism[455]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born Physics Judaism Protestantism-Lutheranism[74]
1958 Boris Pasternak cropped.jpg Boris Pasternak Literature Judaism Eastern Orthodoxy[456]
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1974crop.jpg Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Literature Atheism Eastern Orthodoxy[457]
1980 Czesław Miłosz 2011 Lithuania stamp.jpg Czesław Miłosz Literature Atheism Roman Catholicism[324]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae-jung Peace Undetermined Roman Catholicism[416]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ He stated that: "Both Religion and science require a belief in God. For believers, God is in the beginning, and for physicists He is at the end of all considerations… To the former He is the foundation, to the latter, the crown of the edifice of every generalized world view."

References[edit]

  1. ^ Davis & Falconer, J.J. Thomson and the Discovery of the Electron
  2. ^ a b "Gov't Rejects Newspaper Story". The News 2014-05-07. Accessed 2014-05-09.
  3. ^ "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 14 November 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:

    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969

  4. ^ "All Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  5. ^ "A review of the Nobel prizes between 1901 and 2000 reveals that 654 Laureates belong to 28 different religions. Most (65.4%) have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference. While separating Roman Catholic from Protestants among Christians proved difficult in some cases, available information suggests that more Protestants were involved in the scientific categories and more Catholics were involved in the Literature and Peace categories." Shalev 2003, p. 57
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shalev 2003, p. 59
  7. ^ Shalev 2003, p. 60
  8. ^ 33.2% of 6.7 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". CIA world facts. 
  9. ^ "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". foreignpolicy.com. March 2007. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  10. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  11. ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  12. ^ a b Zuckerman, Harriet (1977). Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States. Transaction Publishers. p. 68. ISBN 9781412833769. Protestants turn up among the American-reared laureates in slightly greater proportion to their numbers in the general population. Thus 72 percent of the seventy-one laureates but about two thirds of the American population were reared in one or another Protestant denomination. 
  13. ^ "Nobel of Peace Laureates". March 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. – For seven years, from 1894 to 1901, Söderblom preached in Paris, where his congregation included Alfred Nobel 
  14. ^ "Alfred Nobel, hans far och hans bröder". March 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. (swe: Genom dop och konfirmation var Alfred Nobel lutheran -en: Alfred Nobel was through baptism and confirmation a Lutheran) 
  15. ^ "Nobel Laureates". Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The Catholic Church. 
  16. ^ Otto Glasser " Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the Early History of the Roentgen Rays" Norman Publishing, 1993,p.135 [1]
  17. ^ Hendrik Antoon Lorentz
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  19. ^ Pieter Zeeman - Biographical
  20. ^ Henri Becquerel
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  22. ^ Peter J. Bowler (2014). "Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain", University of Chicago Press. p. 35
  23. ^ Sir William Gavin (1967). "Ninety Years of Family Farming: The Story of Lord Rayleigh's and Strutt & Parker Farms". Hutchinson, p. 37
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  25. ^ Philipp Lenard
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize, 1901–2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  28. ^ Essay on Thomson life and religious views
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  30. ^ Marconi, Maria Christina, Marconi My Beloved[2]. 2001. p. 19-24.
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  32. ^ Max von Laue: Biographical The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914. Nobel Foundation.
  33. ^ Ewald, P. P. (1960). "Max von Laue 1879-1960". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6: 134–156. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1960.0028. 
  34. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (1989) The Nobel Prize Winners, Salem Press. ISBN 0893565598. p. 198
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  36. ^ Bragg, Sir William Henry (1862–1942)
  37. ^ Sir William Bragg from Britannica
  38. ^ The Religious Affiliation of Nobel Prize-winning physicist William Henry Bragg
  39. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  40. ^ School of Mathematics and Statistics. "Charles Glover Barkla" (2007), University of St Andrews, Scotland. JOC/EFR.
  41. ^ H.S. Allen (1947), Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 5, No. 15,. "Charles Glover Bark"
  42. ^ Charles Glover Barkla, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (2008)
  43. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  44. ^ The Religious Affiliation of Physicist Max Planck. adherents.com. Retrieved on 2011-07-05.
  45. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  46. ^ Johannes Stark
  47. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  48. ^ "Millikan, Robert Andrew", Who's Who in America v. 15, 1928–1929, p. 1486
  49. ^ The Religious Affiliation of Physicist Robert Andrews Millikan. adherents.com
  50. ^ Nobel biography. nobelprize.org.
  51. ^ "Medicine: Science Serves God," Time, June 4, 1923. Accessed 19 Jan. 2013.
  52. ^ Evolution in Science and Religion (1927), 1973 edition: Kennikat Press, ISBN 0-8046-1702-3
  53. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  54. ^ Robertson, Struan. "Buildings Integral to the Former Life and/or Persecution of Jews in Hamburg". uni-hamburg.de. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  56. ^ "Physics and Society newsletter April 2003 Commentary". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  57. ^ "Science: Cosmic Clearance". TIME.com. 13 January 1936. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  58. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  59. ^ Stewart, Ian (2008). Why Beauty Is Truth: A History of Symmetry. Basic. p. 206. ISBN 9780465082377. Retrieved June 14, 2006. 
  60. ^ The religion of Werner Heisenberg, physicist. Adherents.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-01.
  61. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  62. ^ "Victor Francis Hess". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  63. ^ A Dictionary of Scientists. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  64. ^ Victor Francis Hess. "My Faith". San Antonio Light Newspaper Archive. Sunday, November 3, 1946, p. 52
  65. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  66. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  67. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  68. ^ "Jewish Physicists". Retrieved 2006-09-30. 
  69. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  70. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  71. ^ V. J. McBrierty: Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton, The Irish Scientist, 1903-1995 (Trinity College Dublin, 2003)
  72. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  73. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  74. ^ a b Greenspan 2005, pp. 61–62.
  75. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  76. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  77. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  78. ^ a b 100 Years of Nobel Prizes: p.48
  79. ^ Harvard Gazette June 16, 2005 Laser's inventor predicts meeting of science, religion
  80. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  81. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/biography/dennis-gabor-wop/
  82. ^ Brigham Narins (2001). Notable Scientists from 1900 to the Present: D-H. Gale Group. p. 797. ISBN 9780787617530. Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in 1918, religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. He maintained his church affiliation through his adult years but characterized himself as a "benevolent agnostic". 
  83. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  84. ^ J. C. Polkinghorne; John Polkinghorne; Nicholas Beale (16 January 2009). Questions of Truth: Fifty-One Responses to Questions about God, Science, and Belief. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-664-23351-8. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  85. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  86. ^ Cronin, James (1980). "Autobiography". The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980: James Cronin, Val Fitch. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  87. ^ Margenau, H. (1992), Cosmos, Bios, Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life, and Homo Sapiens, Open Court Publishing Company, p. 105  co-edited with Roy Abraham Varghese. This book is mentioned in a December 28, 1992 Time magazine article: Galileo And Other Faithful Scientists
  88. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  89. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  90. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  91. ^ "Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  92. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  93. ^ Biography on the Nobel Foundation website
  94. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  95. ^ "Founding Members of ISSR". Archived from the original on 7 March 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  96. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  97. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  98. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "van't Hoff, Jacobus Hendricus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  99. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  100. ^ Lichtenthaler, F. W. (1992). "Emil Fischers Beweis der Konfiguration von Zuckern: eine Würdigung nach hundert Jahren". Angewandte Chemie. 104 (12): 1577–1593. doi:10.1002/ange.19921041204. 
  101. ^ Forster, Martin Onslow (1 January 1920). "Emil Fischer memorial lecture". Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 117: 1157–1201. doi:10.1039/CT9201701157. 
  102. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  103. ^ Presidential Address to the British Association Meeting, held at Portsmouth in 1911
  104. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  105. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GSln=Baeyer&GSfn=Johann&GSmn=Jacob&GSbyrel=all&GSdyrel=all&GSob=n&GRid=115866487&df=all&
  106. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&GSln=Baeyer&GSfn=Johann&GSmn=Jacob&GSbyrel=all&GSdyrel=all&GSob=n&GRid=115866487&CRid=2509397&df=all&
  107. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  108. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  109. ^ The who's who of Nobel Prize winners, 1901-1995, p. 5
  110. ^ "Whenever one of his experiments went well, Rutherford would loudly sing his favorite hymn, Onward Christian Soldiers", Who Split the Atom. p. 28. 
  111. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  112. ^ Frank Northen Magill (1990). 1901–1937. Salem Press. ISBN 978-0-89356-562-6. 
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  114. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/639857/Alfred-Werner
  115. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  116. ^ a b Stoltzenberg, Dietrich (2004). Fritz Haber : Chemist, Nobel laureate, German, Jew. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 0-941901-24-6. 
  117. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  118. ^ Barkan, Diana (1999). Walther Nernst and the transition to modern physical science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052144456X. 
  119. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  120. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921 - Frederick Soddy Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  121. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  122. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  123. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  124. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  125. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  126. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  127. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  128. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  129. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  130. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  131. ^ Arnold et al. 1995, p. 365.
  132. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  133. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  134. ^ http://www.geni.com/people/George-Charles-de-Havesey/6000000013761368687
  135. ^ Levi, Hilde (1985), George de Hevesy : life and work : a biography, Bristol: A. Hilger, p. 14, ISBN 9780852745557 
  136. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  137. ^ Hahn, Otto (1970). My Life: the Autobiography of a Scientist. Herder and Herder. p. 28. Retrieved June 14, 2012. 
  138. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  139. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  140. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  141. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  142. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  143. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  144. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  145. ^ This Day in Jewish History / Death of a Nobel chemist
  146. ^ Max Perutz and the secret of life, by Georgina Ferry
  147. ^ Max Perutz OM
  148. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  149. ^ Sherby, Louise (2002). The Who's Who of Nobel Prize Winners 1901–2000 (Fourth ed.). Westport, CT: Oryx Press. ISBN 1-57356-414-1. 
  150. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  151. ^ 100 Years of Nobel Prizes: p.48
  152. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  153. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  154. ^ Leloir, Luis (1983). "Far Away and Long Ago". Annual Review of Biochemistry. Annual Reviews. 52: 1–15. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.52.070183.000245. PMID 6351722. 
  155. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  156. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  157. ^ Sir John Cornforth - Chemistry, The University of Sydney
  158. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  159. ^ Petkewich, Rachel. "Nobel Laureate R. Bruce Merrifield Dies At 84", Chemical & Engineering News, May 23, 2006. Accessed May 9, 2007. "Robert Bruce Merrifield, a biochemist who won the 1984 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for a method he named solid-phase peptide synthesis, died on May 14 at his home in Cresskill, N.J., after a long illness. He was 84."
  160. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  161. ^ Elias James Corey – Autobiography
  162. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  163. ^ Molina, Mario (2007). "Autobiography". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  164. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  165. ^ Robert F. Curl, Jr
  166. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  167. ^ (May 2005, letter sent to the Hope College 2005 Alumni Banquet)
  168. ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/868/000100568/
  169. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=nobel-laureate-peter-agre-from-aqua-11-07-20
  170. ^ http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2003/agre-autobio.html
  171. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  172. ^ Till Weishaupt (December 2007). "Glauben Sie an Gott?". Cicero. Retrieved 2014-09-03. Translated from German: Oh, yes, I believe in God. (...) I am a Christian and I try to live as a Christian (...) I read the Bible very often and I try to understand it. 
  173. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  174. ^ "Catholic scientist at Stanford shares Nobel Prize for work in chemistry". Catholic News Service. 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 
  175. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  176. ^ (Romanian) Răzvan Băltăreţu, "Un cercetător născut în judeţul Arad este printre câştigătorii premiului Nobel pentru chimie", Adevărul, October 8, 2014
  177. ^ "Microscope work wins Nobel Prize". BBC. 8 October 2014. 
  178. ^ Derek S. Linton, Emil von Behring: Infectious Disease, Immunology, Serum Therapy, American Philosophical Society, 2005, p. 198
  179. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  180. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  181. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  182. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  183. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  184. ^ Santiago Ramón y Cajal
  185. ^ Bonjour, Edgar (1981) [1st. pub. in 1950 (http://d-nb.info/363374914)]. Theodor Kocher. Berner Heimatbücher (in German). 40/41 (2nd (2., stark erweiterte Auflage 1981) ed.). Bern: Verlag Paul Haupt. ISBN 3258030294. 
  186. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  187. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  188. ^ a b Alexis Carrel, The Voyage to Lourdes (New York, Harper & Row, 1939).
  189. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  190. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  191. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  192. ^ Frederick G. Banting
  193. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  194. ^ The Walbeek Family from Holland:Information about Louise Marie Mathilde Carolien de Vogel. Familytreemaker.genealogy.com (1927-09-29). Retrieved on 2012-07-25.
  195. ^ Willem Einthoven
  196. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  197. ^ Johannes Fibiger
  198. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  199. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  200. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  201. ^ a b Anna L. Staudacher: "… meldet den Austritt aus dem mosaischen Glauben". 18000 Austritte aus dem Judentum in Wien, 1868–1914: Namen – Quellen – Daten. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-55832-4, p. 349
  202. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  203. ^ Otto Heinrich Warburg
  204. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  205. ^ Baptisms solemnized in the Parish of St James Clerkenwell, in the County of Middlesex in the Year 1863, p. 558, nos 5826, 5827 & 5828 (on line at ancestry.co.uk)
  206. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  207. ^ "The National Academies Press: Biographical Memoirs – George Hoyt Whipple". Retrieved 3 January 2010. 
  208. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  209. ^ "Obituary". New England Journal of Medicine. 242 (14): 565–565. April 6, 1950. doi:10.1056/NEJM195004062421414. 
  210. ^ Feldberg W, rev. Tansey EM (2004–2011). Dale, Sir Henry Hallett (1875–1968), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-08.
  211. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  212. ^ Dr.Czeizel, E.: Családfa,page 148, Kossuth Könyvkiadó,1992.
  213. ^ Dr. Czeizel E. : Az érték még mindig bennünk van, page 172, Akadémiai kiadó, Budapest
  214. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  215. ^ de Castro, F. (2009) Towards the sensory nature of the carotid body: Hering, De Castro and Heymans. Front. Neuroanat. 3: 23 (1-11) (doi:10.3389/neuro.05.023.2009).
  216. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  217. ^ Thomas Hager, The Demon Under the Microscope (2006) ISBN 1-4000-8213-7 (cited in "The Saga of a Sulfa Drug Pioneer"NPR Weekend Edition 23 December 2006)
  218. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  219. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  220. ^ Edward A. Doisy - Biographical
  221. ^ Alexander Fleming
  222. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  223. ^ Houssay, B. A. (1956). "Carl F. And Gerty T. Cori". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 20 (1): 11–16. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(56)90255-4. PMID 13315342. 
  224. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  225. ^ http://www.csupomona.edu/~nova/scientists/articles/cori.html
  226. ^ Sulek, K. (1968). "Nobel prize for Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerta Theresa Cori in 1947 for discovery of the course of catalytic metabolism of glycogen. Prize for Alberto Bernardo Houssay for discovery on the role of the hypophysis in carbohydrate metabolism". Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960). 21 (17): 1609–1610. PMID 4882480. 
  227. ^ "World of Scientific Discovery on Antonio Egas Moniz". bookrags.com. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  228. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  229. ^ Theiler, M. (1937). "Spontaneous Encephalomyelitis of Mice, A New Virus Disease". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 65 (5): 705–19. doi:10.1084/jem.65.5.705. PMC 2133518free to read. PMID 19870629. 
  230. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  231. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  232. ^ Beadle, G. W. (1974). "Recollections". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 43 (0): 1–13. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.43.070174.000245. PMID 4605017. 
  233. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  234. ^ Sexton (1999), p. 8.
  235. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  236. ^ Goldstein, B. 2001. Sensation and Perception, 6th ed. London: Wadsworth.
  237. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  238. ^ "Project MUSE - Sir John Eccles, 1903-1997: Part 2: The Brain as a Machine or as a Site of Free Will?" (PDF). Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/pbm.2001.0030. Retrieved 2015-06-26. 
  239. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  240. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  241. ^ Rodney Robert Porter
  242. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  243. ^ Albert Claude
  244. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  245. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  246. ^ Maugh, Thomas (2008-12-18). "D. Carleton Gajdusek dies at 85; Nobel Prize winner identified exotic disease, was unrepentant pedophile". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2012-05-12. 
  247. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  248. ^ Arber, W. 1992. The Existence of a Creator Represents a Satisfactory Solution. In Margenau, H. and R. A. Varghese (eds.), Cosmos, Bios, Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life, and Homo sapiens. La Salle, IL: Open Court, p. 141-142.
  249. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  250. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  251. ^ Black, Sir James W. "Autobiography". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  252. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  253. ^ "The Catholic Review > Home > Catholic transplant pioneer, Nobel Prize-winner Joseph Murray dies". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  254. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  255. ^ Edwin G. Krebs - Biographical
  256. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  257. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  258. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  259. ^ [3]"Ferid Murad autobiography", Nobel Foundation
  260. ^ Profile of Paul Greengard, nobelprize.org; accessed December 28, 2013.
  261. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  262. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  263. ^ Christopher Lee (2007-10-10). "From Child on Street to Nobel Laureate". Washington Post. 
  264. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2007-10-08. 
  265. ^ Ann Schneible (2013-12-04). "Nobel Prize Winner Participates at Vatican Conference". 
  266. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  267. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  268. ^ Schmiesing, Ann (2002). "Bjørnson and the Inner Plot of 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'". Scandinavian Studies. 74 (4): 465. JSTOR 40920401. 
  269. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  270. ^ a b "Nobel Prize in Literature 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  271. ^ Henryk Markiewicz, "Sienkiewicz, Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius", Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XXXVII, 1997
  272. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  273. ^ Zaun-Goshen, Heike (2002), Times of Change 
  274. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  275. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1910". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  276. ^ Sohrabi, Bahram (2005). "Early Swedish Travelers to Persia". Iranian Studies. 38 (4). 
  277. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1916". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  278. ^ Pierce, David (2000). Irish writing in the twentieth century: a reader. Literary Collections. p. 293. ISBN 1-85918-258-5. 
  279. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  280. ^ Wladyslaw Reymont - Biographical
  281. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1924". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  282. ^ Grazia Deledda
  283. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  284. ^ Sparrow, Stephen (2003). "Sigrid Undset: Catholic Viking"
  285. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1928". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  286. ^ Thomas Mann
  287. ^ The Religious Affiliation of Author Thomas Mann
  288. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1929". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  289. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  290. ^ Shavit, David (1990), The United States in Asia: a historical dictionary, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 480, ISBN 0-313-26788-X  (Entry for "Sydenstricker, Absalom")
  291. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1938". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  292. ^ Gabriela Mistral 1889–1957
  293. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1945". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  294. ^ As quoted by Serrano, Miguel. 1996. C.G. Jung and Hermann Hesse: A Record of Two Friendships. Daimon. p. 21
  295. ^ Hilbert, Mathias. 2005. Hermann Hesse und sein Elternhaus - Zwischen Rebellion und Liebe: Eine biographische Spurensuche. Calwer Verlag GmbH, p. 226
  296. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  297. ^ The Life and Works of Andre Gide
  298. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1947". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  299. ^ plaque on interior wall of Saint Stephen's
  300. ^ obituary notice in Church and King, Vol. XVII, No. 4, 28 February 1965,−− p. 3.
  301. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1948". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  302. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  303. ^ François Mauriac
  304. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  305. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  306. ^ Meyers (1985), 173, 184
  307. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1954". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  308. ^ Hallberg, Peter, Halldór Laxness. Twayne Publishers, New York, translated by Rory McTurk, 1971, pp.35, 38
  309. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  310. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  311. ^ Fleishman, pp 264–266.
  312. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  313. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  314. ^ Alec Gilmore. John Steinbeck's View of God. gilco.org.uk
  315. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1962". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  316. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  317. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  318. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1969". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  319. ^ O'Neil, Patrick M. (2004) Great world writers: 20th century, p. 1400. Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-7478-1
  320. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  321. ^ Michael H. KATER; Michael H Kater (30 April 2006). Hitler Youth. Harvard University Press. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-674-01991-1. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  322. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  323. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  324. ^ a b Haven, Cynthia L., "'A Sacred Vision': An Interview with Czesław Miłosz", in Haven, Cynthia L. (ed.), Czesław Miłosz: Conversations. University Press of Mississippi, 2006, p. 145.
  325. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  326. ^ Martin 2008, p. 30
  327. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  328. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  329. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  330. ^ "Derek Walcott, The Art of Poetry No. 37", The Paris Review Winter 1986
  331. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  332. ^ Brockes, Emma (April 13, 2012). "Toni Morrison: 'I want to feel what I feel. Even if it's not happiness'". The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  333. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  334. ^ Garland, The Oxford Companion to German Literature, p. 302.
  335. ^ "The Literary Encyclopedia", Günter Grass (b. 1927). Retrieved on 16 August 2006.
  336. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  337. ^ Attridge, Derek (2004). J. M. Coetzee and the Ethics of Reading: Literature in the Event. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-226-03117-0. 
  338. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  339. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  340. ^ Williams 2001, p. 32
  341. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  342. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1902". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  343. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1903". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  344. ^ Hamann, p. 2
  345. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1905". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  346. ^ Vought, Hans P. (2004). The Bully Pulpit and the Melting Pot: American Presidents and the Immigrant, 1897-1933. Macon, Georgia, USA: Mercer University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-86554-8870. 
  347. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  348. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1907". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  349. ^ a b "The Nobel Peace Prize 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  350. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1912". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  351. ^ Heckscher (1991), p. 23.
  352. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  353. ^ Robertson, J. M. (2003). History of Freethought in the Nineteenth Century, Part 2. Kessinger Publishing. p. 487. ISBN 0-7661-3955-7. 
  354. ^ a b "The Nobel Peace Prize 1921". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  355. ^ "Chamberlain, Joseph Austen (CHMN882JA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  356. ^ a b "The Nobel Peace Prize 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  357. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1926". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  358. ^ Ferdinand Buisson, un protestant libéral au service de l’école laïque républicaine
  359. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  360. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1930". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  361. ^ She was baptized a Presbyterian. Her certificate of baptism is from 1888, but she says that she joined the church slightly earlier: Knight, Louise W. (October 2003). Citizen. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 451n46. ISBN 978-0-8122-3747-4. 
  362. ^ a b "The Nobel Peace Prize 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  363. ^ Arthur Henderson
  364. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  365. ^ BBC News: Nobel Peace Prize medal stolen in Newcastle 3 April 2013, accessed 3 April 2013
  366. ^ "Deutsche Biographie" (in German). Deutsche-biographie.de. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  367. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1935". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  368. ^ HULL, CORDELL
  369. ^ Jahn, Gunnar. "Award Ceremony Speech (1945)". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  370. ^ Randall, Improper Bostonian p. 60
  371. ^ a b "The Nobel Peace Prize 1946". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  372. ^ Cracknell & White, 243
  373. ^ Jahn, Gunnar. "Award Ceremony Speech (1947)". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-06. 
  374. ^ Kay, p. 44
  375. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1949". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  376. ^ "Ralph J. Bunche", Gale Cengage Learning, accessed November 15, 2012
  377. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1950". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  378. ^ Seaver (1951) pp. 3–9.
  379. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1952". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  380. ^ George Catlett Marshall, General of the Army
  381. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1953". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  382. ^ "Pearson, Lester Bowles". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, 1971-1980 (Volume XX). University of Toronto/Université Laval. 2000. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  383. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1957". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  384. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1958". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  385. ^ David Howell, "Baker, Philip John Noel-, Baron Noel-Baker (1889–1982)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2012; accessed 7 December 2014.
  386. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1959". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  387. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1960". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  388. ^ Henry P Van Dusen. Dag Hammarskjold: A Biographical Interpretation of Markings Faber and Faber London 1967 p 47.
  389. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1961". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  390. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  391. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1970". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  392. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 89.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  393. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  394. ^ Ronan Fanning (6 December 2009) The age of our craven deference is finally over. The Independent.
  395. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  396. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1976". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  397. ^ "Mairead Corrigan Maguire Reflects on Working Toward Peace". Santa Clara University. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  398. ^ "Sermon – Some Doubted". Edgewoodpc.org. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  399. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  400. ^ "Adofo Pérez Esquivel". Nobel Prize Committee. 
  401. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1980". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  402. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  403. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1982–Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  404. ^ Timothy Garton Ash, Lech Wałęsa, TIME magazine,"The Most Important People of the Century", 13 April 1998.
  405. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  406. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  407. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  408. ^ Forster 2014, p. 89.
  409. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  410. ^ Lugan, Bernard (1996). Ces Français qui ont fait l'Afrique du Sud (The French People Who Made South Africa). Bartillat. ISBN 2-84100-086-9. 
  411. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  412. ^ McCrystal, Cal (4 September 1994). "Ceasefire: It's all just coming together for the fixer: John Hume risked all when he met Sinn Fein. Now there's talk of a Nobel Peace Prize. Cal McCrystal reports". 
  413. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  414. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize and the ... Google Books. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  415. ^ Newsmakers. Google Books. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  416. ^ a b "John Paul II's appeal saved future Korean president from death sentence". Catholic News Agency. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  417. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  418. ^ Lefevere, Patricia (11 December 1998). "Annan: `Peace is never a perfect achievement' – United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  419. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  420. ^ Warner, Greg. "Jimmy Carter says he can 'no longer be associated' with the SBC". Baptist Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2009. He said he will remain a deacon and Sunday school teacher at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains and support the church's recent decision to send half of its missions contributions to the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship. 
  421. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  422. ^ Wangari Maathai – God is on this Mountain, Philip Carr-Gomm blogsite, 19 October 2011
  423. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  424. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  425. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  426. ^ Pulliam, Sarah; Olsen, Ted (January 23, 2008). "Q&A: Barack Obama". Christianity Today. Carol Stream, IL. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  427. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  428. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  429. ^ Leymah Gbowee, Mighty Be Our Powers (New York: Beast Books, 2011), written with Carol Mithers, pp. 80-81 and p. 82.
  430. ^ Frisch, Ragnar, "Autobiography", published in Nobel Lectures, Economics 1969–1980, Editor Assar Lindbeck, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992
  431. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  432. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  433. ^ Arthur Lewis
  434. ^ [4]
  435. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  436. ^ Reuben Kyle, From Nashville to the Nobel Prize: The Buchanans of Tennessee (Twin Oaks Press, 2012).
  437. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  438. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  439. ^ "Oslo Katedralskole - en skole med tradisjoner". Om skolen (in Norwegian). Oslo katedralskole. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  440. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  441. ^ http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/jharsanyi.pdf
  442. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  443. ^ From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1994, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1995
  444. ^ William Vickrey - Biographical
  445. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  446. ^ Robert F. Engle III - Biographical
  447. ^ a b "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  448. ^ "The story of non-economist Elinor Ostrom". The Swedish Wire. December 9, 2009. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  449. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  450. ^ CHRISTOPHER A. PISSARIDES
  451. ^ "The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 
  452. ^ Eugene F. Fama
  453. ^ Robert Shiller on Human Traits Essential to Capitalism
  454. ^ Norwegian Women's Writing 1850–1990 by Janet Garton, Page 125
  455. ^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/cori.html
  456. ^ Ivinskaya (1978), p 332.
  457. ^ Ericson, Edward E. Jr. (October 1985) "Solzhenitsyn – Voice from the Gulag," Eternity, pp. 23–4

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]