Jump to content

List of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality. The issue of homosexuality and Christianity is a subject of ongoing theological debate within and between Christian denominations and this list seeks to summarize the various official positions. Within denominations, many members may hold somewhat differing views on and even differing definitions of homosexuality.



The Seventh-day Adventist Church is opposed to same-sex sexual practices and relationships on the grounds that "sexual intimacy belongs only within the marital relationship of one man and one woman." They believe the Bible consistently affirms the pattern of heterosexual monogamy, and all sexual relations outside the scope of spousal intimacy are contrary to God's original plan.[1]

Ancient Church of the East


The Ancient Church of the East regards marriage as only being between one man and one woman, stating "We believe that faithful in Christian Marriage between a male and a female, free of impediments, is the only legitimate state for sexual expression between individuals."[2]

Anglicanism (including Episcopal)


The Anglican Communion has been divided over the issue of homosexuality in several ways. The Church of England, the mother church of the Communion, currently maintains (according to the statement Issues in Human Sexuality) that same-sex partnerships are acceptable for laypersons, and gay clergy may enter in a civil partnership as long as they are expected to give assurances of celibacy.[3][4] The Lambeth Conference of 1998 called homosexuality "incompatible with Scripture" but this remains a purely advisory guideline as there are no communion-wide legislative bodies in the Anglican Church.[5] On the other hand, in 2003 the Episcopal Church, which is the American body (province) of the Anglican Communion, approved Gene Robinson to the bishopric of the diocese of New Hampshire. Bishop Gene Robinson is the first openly gay (non-celibate) clergy to be ordained to the episcopate.[6] Mary Glasspool became first open lesbian suffragan bishop to be consecrated a bishop in the Anglican Communion in the Diocese of Los Angeles of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. In 2016, Nicholas Chamberlain, the Bishop of Grantham, became the first bishop in the Church of England to come out as gay and in a same-sex relationship.[7]

In the Seventeenth Session of the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Australia in 2017, the Anglican Church of Australia passed a motion recognising "that the doctrine of our church, in line with traditional Christian teaching, is that marriage is an exclusive and lifelong union of a man and a woman, and further, recognises that this has been the subject of several General Synod resolutions over the past fifteen years".[8] In 2018, the Primate of Australia and Archbishop of Melbourne, Philip Freier, released an ad clerum reiterating the current position that clergy cannot perform a same-sex marriage.[9][10] The Anglican Church of New Zealand has experienced division and some bishops decided not to allow non-celibate homosexuals to become clergy.[11] However, the Dunedin Diocese of the Anglican Church of New Zealand ordained an openly partnered gay man as deacon and, subsequently, as priest in 2005.[12][13] The Dioceses of Auckland and Dunedin allow blessings for same-sex relationships.[14][15] In 2014, the Anglican Church in New Zealand voted for "a resolution that will create a pathway towards the blessing of same-gender relationships, while upholding the traditional doctrine of marriage."[16]

In response to several controversies in the Episcopal Church, among which was its changed policies relating to sexual morality, a number of alternative Anglican churches were founded during the 1960s and 1970s. They are customarily referred to as the churches of the Continuing Anglican movement.

In 2008, conflict in the worldwide Anglican Communion over the issue of the acceptance of homosexuality, the appointment of Bishop Gene Robinson in the Episcopal Church in the U.S., and a growing concern about the ambivalent position of the Anglican mother church in the U.K. led to the founding of a global network of conservative Anglican churches representing more than two-thirds of Anglicans throughout the world.[17] This is the Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans (FCA).

Favoring more inclusion of same-sex relationships, "more liberal provinces that are open to changing Church doctrine on marriage in order to allow for same-sex unions include Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, South India, South Africa, Spain, the US and Wales."[18] In 2015, the Church in Wales published "a series of prayers which may be said with a couple following the celebration of a civil partnership or civil marriage."[19] In 2016, the Anglican Church of Canada voted to allow same-sex marriages, but a second vote, in 2019, failed to reach the two-thirds majority required from the House of Bishops.[20] In the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the Diocese of Saldanha Bay proposed a prayer of blessing for same-sex marriages and civil unions, but the proposal did not pass.[21] The archbishop of the Southern African Church, Thabo Makgoba, is "one among few church leaders in Africa to support same-sex marriage."[22] However, in 2017 the Scottish Episcopal Church became the first major Christian church in the U.K. to allow same-sex marriages[23] and in June 2018, the General Synod of Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil did the same.[24]

The Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) was formed in 2009 as yet another conservative alternative to the Episcopal Church. It and the Continuing Anglican churches are primarily made up of people who left the Episcopal Church, partially in opposition to its approval of homosexual relationships and gay clergy.

Assyrian Church of the East


The Assyrian Church of the East does not recognize same-sex marriages, although it does not condemn any individuals, as it stated in 2015:

"Christian marriage must be between two people—male and female—who are open to the natural and free gift of life to be conceived of them...Marriage as a natural human relationship, across different cultures and religions, has always been about the creation of families for the ordered and thriving continuance of the human race. Christian marriage particularly, is that and more...The Church of the East remains ever committed to her indelible and absolute orthodox and catholic faith. As such, it cannot bless or solemnize any marriage that is not committed to the Scriptural principles, nor do the Church's sacred ministers have the authority to attempt to do so, under any condition...Finally, we remind our children in Christ that we are not to condemn anyone but must always seek to make the Gospel known in as respectful and loving a heart as possible."



The Southern Baptist Convention, the largest of the Baptist denominations and the single largest Protestant group in the U.S., believes that the Bible says practicing homosexuality is a sin, stating clearly that its members "affirm God's plan for marriage and sexual intimacy – one man, and one woman, for life. Homosexuality is not a 'valid alternative lifestyle.' It is not, however, an unforgivable sin. The same redemption available to all sinners is available to homosexuals. They, too, may become new creations in Christ."[25] Independent Fundamental Baptist churches (in general) also view homosexuality as sinful or unnatural.

The American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) officially regards homosexual conduct "as incompatible with Biblical teaching";[26] however, there are a number of Baptist churches in the ABCUSA and the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship that have less literal views.[27] The Association of Welcoming and Affirming Baptists, a group of some 50 churches and organizations, is committed to the "full inclusion" of gay and lesbian persons in their churches.[28]

The historically African-American denominations of the National Baptist Convention have issued no public statements on homosexuality; however, the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc., does not allow its clergy to officiate at ceremonies for same-sex unions.[29][30]

Canadian and American Reformed Churches


The Canadian and American Reformed Churches cite Biblical sources from Leviticus 20:13, which reads: "If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable." NIV

A homosexual member of one of these churches will be placed under censure or excommunicated and can only be received again into the communion of saints and be admitted to the Lord's Supper in these Reformed traditions after he or she has declared repentance from his or her homosexuality, which the churches teach is a sin. After repentance, the person is declared forgiven by the church.[citation needed]

Chaldean Catholic Church


After Pope Francis indicated his approval of priests to bless same-sex unions in December 2023, the Chaldean prelate Francis Y. Kalabat of the Chaldean Catholic Church stated that a priest can bless any individual, regardless of their disposition, though the civil union itself cannot be blessed:[31]

The Church welcomes and invites all in their imperfections to come forward to ask for a blessing. Nevertheless, "he [God] does not and cannot bless sin: he blesses sinful man, so that he may recognize that he is part of his plan of love and allow himself to be changed by him... For the above mentioned reasons, the Church does not have, and cannot have, the power to bless unions of persons of the same sex in the sense intended above." In conclusion, a priest is welcome to bless any individual regardless of their state of life, however, no priest is to call upon a blessing for any persons in such a way as to simulate or suggest that it is a blessing for the civil union of a same-sex couple.

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)


In July 2013, the General Assembly of the Disciples of Christ issued a "Sense of the Assembly" resolution (GA-1327 "Becoming a People of Grace and Welcome to All") that (in part) acknowledges that people within society and within the church have been "devalued and discriminated against... because of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity," calls for the church to "welcome to all God's children though differing in... sexual orientation, (and/or) gender identity," and that it "affirm(s) the faith, baptism and spiritual gifts of all Christians regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, and that neither are grounds for exclusion from fellowship or service within the church, but are a part of God's good creation." Through this resolution, the General Assembling endorsed the ordination of LGBT clergy.[32] GA-1327 also states, however, that local congregations have final say over matters of consciences.[33]

Local Disciples of Christ congregations have also performed same-sex marriages (such as the First Christian Church of Davenport),[34] although the General Assembly has no official policy on same-sex marriages.

Christian Reformed Church in North America


The Christian Reformed Church in North America has maintained the stance since the 1970s that homosexuality is the direct result of a "broken," sinful world, but that the Church should offer a compassionate community for Christian homosexuals. "Homosexualism" (explicit homosexual behavior) is considered disobedience to God's will revealed in Scripture. Celibate and repentant gays and lesbians should not be denied any right granted to heterosexuals. They have the right to maintain office and be an active member in a congregation, as their gifts can still be used to glorify God. The Church must provide support for homosexuals to find "healing and wholeness" in their "broken sexuality".[35]

Although the First Christian Reformed Church of Toronto (also the first CRC congregation to call a woman minister) voted to allow gays and lesbians in committed partnerships as elders and deacons, this decision was later rescinded in the face of pressure from Classis Toronto (regional gathering of churches).[36]

Eastern Orthodox Church


The Eastern Orthodox Church holds the opinion that sexuality, as we understand it, is part of the fallen world only. In Eastern Orthodox theology, both monasticism and marriage are paths to salvation (sotiria in Greek; literally meaning, 'becoming whole'). Celibacy is the ideal path of exclusive concern for the Kingdom of God, exemplified in monasticism, while marriage is a reflection of the Messianic covenant and blessed under the context of true unitive love ("Man must love his wife as Jesus loved his Church": this phrase is part of the Orthodox marriage rite) with openness to procreation ("bearing fruit"). This context can be interpreted by the non-Orthodox as not being exclusive of homosexuality; whereas it is seen as exclusive of homosexuality by all Orthodox Christians. Traditionally, the Christian East has maintained a comparatively non-legalistic view of sin (see above), in which homosexuality is spiritually disordered. Although some members of the Church may have assumed an active role in encouraging negative social stereotypes against unrepentant homosexuals, they misrepresent the stance of the Orthodox Church, which does not promote judgment of people but judgment of actions. However, several prominent members of the clergy[who?] have made statements condemning homosexuality.

All jurisdictions, such as the Orthodox Church in America, have taken the approach of welcoming people with homosexual feelings and emotions, while encouraging them to work towards overcoming its harmful effects in their lives, while not extending the holy mysteries (sacraments) to people who seek to justify homosexual activity.[37]

The Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of North and Central America, the highest Orthodox Christian representative body in the Americas, reaffirmed in a statement in September 2013 that "the Orthodox Christian teaching on marriage and sexuality, firmly grounded in Holy Scripture, two millennia of Church Tradition, and Canon Law, holds that the sacrament of marriage consists in the union of a man and a woman, and that authentic marriage reflects the sacred unity that exists between Christ and His Bride, the Church".[38] "Acting upon any sexual attraction outside of sacramental marriage, whether the attraction is heterosexual or homosexual, alienates us from God".[38] Moreover, the Assembly reminded that "persons with homosexual orientation are to be cared for with the same mercy and love that is bestowed on all of humanity by our Lord Jesus Christ".[38]

LGBT activism within Orthodox Christianity has been much less widespread than in Roman Catholicism and many Protestant denominations. In 1980, the group Axios was founded in Los Angeles to affirm and advocate for sexual minorities within the Orthodox Church, and has since started several other chapters in the United States, Canada, and Australia.

Jehovah's Witnesses


Jehovah's Witnesses consider same-sex sexual activity to be sinful, but recognize that some people may be prone to homosexuality, including members of their congregation. Members are required to abstain from any sexual behavior outside of marriage, including homosexual behaviour, which is listed as a serious sin, but are told not to hate homosexual individuals. Their literature has stated that Christians should not make homosexuals the target of ridicule or harassment.[39][40] They believe that God intended marriage to be a permanent and an intimate bond between a man and a woman,[41] and, regarding same-sex marriage, they have stated that it "cannot give homosexuality a cloak of respectability", and are told to avoid debates about the legality of homosexuality: "Even when the laws of the land are in conflict with their Bible-trained conscience, Jehovah's Witnesses do not engage in protests or any form of political campaigns in order to change such laws."[42]

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

An LGBT Pride flag in front of the LDS Salt Lake Temple.

All same-sex sexual activity is forbidden by Mormonism's largest denomination the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in its law of chastity, and the church teaches that God does not approve of same-sex marriage.[43] Adherents who participate in same-sex sexual behavior may face church discipline. Members of the church who experience homosexual attractions, including those who self-identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual remain in good standing in the church if they abstain from same-sex marriage and all sexual relations outside an opposite-sex marriage,[44][45][46] but all, including those participating in same-sex activity and relationships, are allowed to attend weekly church worship services.[47] However, in order to receive church ordinances such as baptism,[48] and to enter church temples, adherents are required to abstain from same-sex relations or any sexual activity outside a legal marriage between one man and one woman.[49][50] Additionally, in the church's plan of salvation noncelibate gay and lesbian individuals will not be allowed in the top tier of heaven to receive exaltation unless they repent, and a heterosexual marriage is a requirement for exaltation.[51][52]

The church previously taught that homosexuality was a curable condition[53][54] and counseled members that they could and should change their attractions and provided therapy and programs with that goal.[55][56]: 13–19 [57]: 377–379  From 1976 until 1989 even celibate gay people were subject to excommunication.[58]: 16, 43 [57]: 382, 422 [59]: 139  Church publications now state that "individuals do not choose to have such attractions", its church-run therapy services no longer provides sexual orientation change efforts, and the church has no official stance on the causes of homosexuality.[60][61][62] These current teachings and policies leave homosexual members with the option of potentially harmful attempts to change their sexual orientation, entering a mixed-orientation opposite-sex marriage, or living a celibate lifestyle without any sexual expression (including masturbation).[63][64]: 11 [65]: 20–21 

The LDS Church has campaigned against government recognition of same-sex marriage,[66] and the topic of same-sex marriage has been one of the church's foremost public concerns since 1993.[58]: 1  The church's policies and treatment of LGBT people has long been a source of controversy both within and outside the church.[67][68][69] They have also been a significant cause of disagreement and disaffection by members.[70][71][72]

Community of Christ


The Community of Christ officially decided to extend the sacrament of marriage to same-sex couples where gay marriage is legal, to provide covenant commitment ceremonies where it is not legal, and to allow the ordination of people in same-sex relationships to the priesthood. However, this is only in the United States, Canada, and Australia. The church does have a presence in countries where homosexuality is punishable by law, even by death, so for the protection of members in those nations, full inclusion of LGBT individuals is limited to the countries where this is not the case. Individual viewpoints do vary, and some congregations may be more welcoming than others. Furthermore, the church has proponents for support of both traditional marriage and same-sex marriages. The First Presidency and the Council of Twelve will need to approve policy revisions recommended by the USA National Conference.[73][74]



United States


The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran church body in the United States, allows for LGBTQ+ marriage and ordination of LGBTQ+ clergy.[75][76] ELCA policy states that LGBTQ+ individuals are welcome and encouraged to become members and to participate in the life of the congregation.[75] The ELCA has provided supplemental resources for the rite of marriage in Evangelical Lutheran Worship which use inclusive language and are suitable for use in LGBTQ+ marriage ceremonies.[77] The group ReconcilingWorks supports the full inclusion of LGBTQ+ members in Lutheran churches in the ELCA, and provides resources to assist ELCA congregations in becoming more welcoming communities for LGBTQ+ persons. ReconcilingWorks recognizes ELCA congregations that have committed to embracing LGBTQ+ persons as Reconciling in Christ congregations.[78]

The current policy on LGBTQ+ inclusion in the ELCA developed over a period of several years. During the national meeting in 2005,[79] delegates voted against a measure that would have allowed non-celibate gay ordination and the blessing of same-sex unions by 503 against to 490 in favor. On 21 August 2009, the ELCA voted 559 to 451 in favor of allowing non-celibate LGBTQ+ persons in committed monogamous relationships to become ordained ministers.[80] Another motion passed at the 2009 Assembly directed its leaders to develop a rite of blessing for same-sex unions. In 2013, the ELCA elected Guy Erwin as their first openly gay bishop.[81]

The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), the second largest Lutheran church body in the United States, does not permit same-sex marriage and does not ordain homosexuals. The LCMS Synodical President Matthew Harrison was present to register the objections of the LCMS to the ordination of homosexuals at the ELCA Churchwide Assembly in 2009.[citation needed]

The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), the third largest Lutheran church body in the United States, does not permit same-sex marriage and does not ordain homosexuals.[citation needed]



In 2006, Lionel Ketola became the first person in a same-sex marriage to be appointed vicar (intern) of an Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC) congregation. This occurred at Newmarket, Ontario.[82] Later that year, the Eastern Synod of the ELCIC voted to allow a "local option" for blessing same-sex unions. The national church, which had previously rejected such a proposal, proceeded to assert that it alone had the authority to make such a decision. The National Church Council agreed in a September ruling, but promised to bring forward another motion authorizing the local option for approval at the 2007 National Convention.

In 2011, the National Convention of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada approved a motion that allows rostered ministers to "preside at or bless legal marriages according to the laws of the province within which they serve".[83] Since same-sex marriage was legalized in Canada in 2005 through the Civil Marriage Act[84] this permitted ELCIC clergy to bless same-sex marriages. This same motion also permitted the ordination of openly-gay pastors and blessing of clergy in same-sex relationships.[85] At the same convention, the ELCIC issued a statement on human sexuality. This statement recognizes the diversity of sexual orientations and advocates for inclusion of all people within the church.[85]



Most Lutheran and united state churches in Germany, Lutheranism's country of origin, are liberal, viewing homosexuality as moral and allow gay and lesbian clergy. Most of the Lutheran and united churches in Germany are blessing same-sex unions. In general, some churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany in the more rural parishes are against blessing same-sex unions, while most other churches do allow them.[86]

In 2006, the Church of Sweden allowed blessings of same-sex unions, and in 2009 allowed same-sex marriage and the ordination of gay clergy.[87] KG Hammar, former Archbishop of Uppsala and primate of the Church of Sweden, has been very vocal in supporting gay and lesbian Lutherans. In 2009, Eva Brunne became the first lesbian woman to be elected as a bishop, in the Diocese of Stockholm.

The Church of Iceland allows same-sex marriages.[88]

The Lutheran Church of Norway was divided, with 6 of 11 bishops accepting homosexual practice as moral, even though the church officially rejects it. But in 2015 the Church of Norway allowed the blessing of same-sex unions.[89] In 1993 lesbian Norway bishop Rosemarie Köhn was ordained. She was married with Susanne Sønderbo.[90]

Since 2012, the Church of Denmark has allowed same-sex marriages.[91] However, some controversy has arisen over the constitutionality of this move, as the Danish Constitution requires the state church to uphold the Lutheran doctrine, which states that homosexual acts are sinful.

The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is divided on the issue and does not approve of same-sex marriages, though many bishops have expressed their acceptance for homosexual unions. As of October 2010, the Church of Finland allows, but does not oblige its clergy to pray for same-sex couples.[92]

The United Protestant Church of France[93] and the United Protestant Church in Belgium[94] allow the blessing of same-sex marriages.

Australia and New Zealand


The Lutheran Church of Australia and Lutheran Church of New Zealand, which are both closely tied, reject same-sex unions, and affirm that homosexual acts are immoral.

Mennonite Churches


The Mennonite church has multiple LGBT-affirming denominations. However, acceptance of LGBT Christians varies widely. No Mennonite Churches in North or South America have officially endorsed same-sex marriage, but some have taken steps towards this practice. In the Netherlands, same-sex marriages can be both ordained and conducted by the Mennonite Church since 2001.[95][96]

The Church of the Brethren, Mennonite Church USA, and Mennonite Church Canada denominations work with the Supportive Communities Network to support the small proportion of congregations that include openly gay members. This is coordinated through the Brethren Mennonite Council on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Interests with over 70 participating congregations.[97] In February 2014, the Mountain States Conference of the Mennonite Church USA approved the ministerial license and ordination of an openly lesbian pastor.[98]

In contrast, some Mennonite pastors who performed same-sex unions have had their credentials revoked by their conference[99] and some within the Mennonite Church USA have had their credentials reviewed without any disciplinary actions taken.[100][101] A small number of Mennonite churches have been censured or disciplined for not expelling openly homosexual members.[102]

The Pink Menno Campaign is a parachurch organization that advocates for the inclusion of LGBT Christians for membership, marriage and ordination in Mennonite churches.[103] The Welcome Committee is an ad hoc group that issued an open letter to Mennonite churches defending inclusion of LGBT members and encourages conversation in churches about the issue.

The Conservative Mennonite churches, which observe traditional Conservative Anabaptist practices (such as head coverings and modest dress) completely forbid homosexual marriage. In these churches and also in their conferences, homosexuality is seen as sinful. Homosexual marriage is seen as a sin and against the Biblical teaching of a marriage between one man and one woman.



Timeline of changing attitudes


Since 1972, the United Methodist Church, as its official position on homosexuality, has maintained the Book of Discipline and had until May 2024 declared "homosexual practice" to be "incompatible with Christian teaching." Following the 1972 incompatibility clause, other restrictions have been added at subsequent General Conferences. Until May 2024, the Book of Discipline prohibited the ordination of "practicing, self-avowed homosexuals,[104]" forbidden until May 2024 clergy from blessing or presiding over same-sex unions, forbidden until May 2024 the use of UMC facilities for same-sex union ceremonies and prohibited until May 2024 the use of Church funds for "gay caucuses", or other groups that "promote the acceptance of homosexuality."[105]

Despite this language, members of the Church are not of one mind on this issue during the years from 1972 to 2024. Preceding the incompatibility clause, the Book of Discipline clearly stated that "homosexual persons, no less than heterosexual persons, are individuals of sacred worth." Some believe that this "sacred worth" clause stands in contradiction to the following statement regarding the incompatibility of homosexual practice with Christian teaching. The Book of Discipline affirms that all persons, both heterosexual and homosexual, are included in the ministry of the church and can receive the gift of God's grace. While the Book of Discipline supports the civil rights of homosexual persons, and rejects the abuse of homosexuals by families and churches, it also calls for laws defining marriage as a union between one man and one woman.

Until May 2024 failed efforts have been made to pass resolutions to "fully include gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons in the life of the Church"[106] at General Conferences since the introduction of the incompatibility clause in 1972; delegates from annual conferences in the Northeast and on the West Coast typically vote to do so, but are outnumbered by those from Southeast and Africa.

Some of these issues came before the Judicial Council. On 31 October 2005, the Council undertook two measures on this topic. Firstly, the Council upheld the revocation of Irene Elizabeth Stroud's clergy status for disclosing she is openly lesbian. The council also rendered a decision allowing a Virginia pastor to deny church membership to a gay man. The latter decision appeared to UMC LGBT proponents to contradict both the Constitution and membership policies of the United Methodist Church which stipulate that membership shall be open to all persons "without regard to race, color, national origin, status or economic condition." The Judicial Council had previously found that the word "status" applies to gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons (See Decision 1020). Decision 1032 created vigorous debate on the level of autonomy individual pastors and congregations have in interpreting and applying Church doctrine.

On May 1, 2024 the UMC allowed same-sex weddings and struck down the 40-year ban on gay clergy.[107]

Methodist Church of Great Britain


The Methodist Church of Great Britain Within the Methodist Church of Great Britain, people have many views about human relationships, sexuality and the nature and purpose of marriage.

On Inclusion


In 1993, the Methodist Conference passed six resolutions on human sexuality (see below), including a Resolution 6 which "recognized, affirmed and celebrated the participation and ministry of lesbian and gay people in the Methodist Church". Furthermore, it called on the Methodist people to begin a pilgrimage of faith to combat repression and discrimination, to work for justice and human rights and to give dignity and worth to people whatever their sexual orientation. In passing these resolutions, the Methodist Conference made its opposition to homophobia known.

On Marriage


In 2021, the Methodist Conference reviewed its position on same-sex marriage and altered the denomination's definition of marriage to: A) Marriage can only be between a man and a woman B) Marriage can be between two people

As of March 2023 every Methodist local church in Britain has the right to decide whether they wish to register to perform same sex marriage. However presbyters are not required to perform them if their religious beliefs align with the first definition.

On Homophobia


The Methodist Church of Great Britain has issued the following definition of homophobia, which is supported by supplementary guidance. Homophobia is any statement, policy or action which denies the image of God in another person due to their actual or perceived sexual orientation; which is, treating someone in a discriminatory manner because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation. Homophobic attitudes, words, and behaviours are inconsistent with the nature of Christian conduct and a violation of the worth and dignity of all people. Homophobia can be experienced in a number of ways, including:

  1. Physical violence or emotional or psychological abuse, including the threat of or incitement to such behaviour (which may also be deemed hate crimes in law).
  2. Applying stereotypes and assumptions to people based on their sexual orientation.
  3. Using language that is hostile, hurtful or offensive in its intent.
  4. Abusive or coercive 'spiritual practices' (i.e. demanding or requiring repentance or participation in healing or other types of service).

Context: the 1993 Resolutions on Human Sexuality


At the annual Methodist Conference in 1993 in Derby, following long debate at all levels of the Church's life on the basis of a detailed report, the Methodist Church considered the issues of human sexuality. At the end of the debate, the Conference passed in the same session a series of resolutions (known as 'The 1993 Resolutions'). These resolutions are as follows:

  1. The Conference, affirming the joy of human sexuality as God's gift and the place of every human being within the grace of God, recognises the responsibility that flows from this for us all. It therefore welcomes the serious, prayerful and sometimes costly consideration given to this issue by The Methodist Church.
  2. All practices of sexuality, which are promiscuous, exploitative or demeaning in any way are unacceptable forms of behaviour and contradict God's purpose for us all.
  3. A person shall not be debarred from church on the grounds of sexual orientation in itself.
  4. The Conference reaffirms the traditional teaching of the Church on human sexuality; namely chastity (not celibacy) for all outside marriage and fidelity within it. The Conference directs that this affirmation is made clear to all candidates for ministry, office and membership, and having established this, affirm that the existing procedures of our church are adequate to deal with all such cases.
  5. The Conference resolves that its decision in this debate shall not be used to form the basis of a disciplinary charge against any person in relation to conduct alleged to have taken place before such decisions were made.
  6. Conference recognises, affirms and celebrates the participation and ministry of lesbians and gay men in the church. Conference calls on the Methodist people to begin a pilgrimage of faith to combat repression and discrimination, to work for justice and human rights and to give dignity and worth to people whatever their sexuality.

United Methodist Church


On May 7, 2018, the Bishops in the United Methodist Church, a denomination long divided on questions of LGBT equality, have proposed allowing individual pastors and regional church bodies to decide whether to ordain LGBT clergy and perform same-sex weddings.[108] However, this proposal has not been formally approved yet and will be decided between February 23–26, 2019.[109][110] After voting (February 2019), this proposal was rejected in favor of a "traditional plan" which rejects gay marriage.[111]

The United Methodist Church (UMC) has a General Conference every four years to make decisions and when a decision is made, they add it to the Book of Discipline. From the 2016 Book of Discipline, the United Methodist Church Website cites multiple decisions on homosexuality. On the basis of membership, all persons are eligible to "attend its worship services, participate in its programs, receive the sacraments, upon baptism be admitted as baptized members, and upon taking vows declaring the Christian faith, become professing members in any local church in the connection".[112]

Regarding the ministry of the ordained, the practice of homosexuality is seen as incompatible with Christian teaching. Thus self-identifying homosexuals are not "to be certified as candidates, ordained as ministers, or appointed to serve in The United Methodist Church".[112] Also, "ceremonies that celebrate homosexual unions are not to be conducted by our ministers nor in our churches".[112] On the basis of funds, the UMC does not want any of their ministries' funds used or allocated to LGBTQ+ groups or organizations. Although UMC does not want the funds to be used to condemn any such organizations either.

On 15 July 2016, Reverend Karen Oliveto became the first openly gay United Methodist Bishop after several annual conferences passed resolutions not to conform with any LGBT discriminatory church laws. UMC Bishops are elected for life. Oliveto is married to Robin Ridenour, who is a deaconess in UMC.[113]

On May 1, 2024 the UMC allowed same-sex weddings and struck down the 40 year ban on gay clergy.[107]

Uniting Church in Australia


In July 2018, the Uniting Church in Australia voted by national Assembly to approve the creation of official marriage rites for same-sex couples.[114]

Metropolitan Community Church


The Metropolitan Community Church is an international fellowship of Christian congregations. It is considered by many [who?] to be a full mainline denomination or communion.[citation needed] There are currently 300 congregations in 22 countries,[citation needed] and the Fellowship has a specific outreach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities.[citation needed] Acceptance of homosexuality is an important part of its theology and the church has performed same sex marriage ceremonies since 1968.[115]

The Metropolitan Community Church was instrumental in the first legal challenges to the heterosexual legal definition of marriage in Ontario (see Same-sex marriage in Ontario). Two couples used an old legal procedure called reading the banns to marry without a licence. When same-sex marriage was legalized in Ontario, their marriages were recognized.[115][116]

Moravian Church


The Moravian Church declared in 1974 that gays and lesbians were full members of the Christian community. In 2002, the Northern Provincial Synod placed a moratorium for the time being on further decisions about homosexuality. During the 2014 Northern Province Synod, they voted to permit the ordination of gay and lesbian individuals and create a ritual for solemnizing gay relationships in North America.[117] In 2018, the Southern Province Synod permitted same-sex clergy to marry their same-sex partners.[118] Currently, the questions of marriage and ordination are unresolved in the other provinces in the Moravian Church.

New Apostolic Church


The New Apostolic Church does not approve of homosexual acts:

On the grounds of Biblical tenets and Christian tradition, the New Apostolic Church does not approve of practised homosexuality. It is solely for God to determine whether, and to what extent, a person who is absolutely confirmed in his or her homosexual disposition acquires guilt before God through the practice of his or her homosexuality. In this regard, it should be expressly stated that sexual disposition has no relevance in the pastoral care of our brothers and sisters. Brothers and sisters who are practicing homosexuals, or living in a homosexual partnership, cannot carry out ministerial and teaching duties in our Church.[119]



Most churches in the Pentecostal Movement view homosexual behavior as a sin. The largest Pentecostal Church in the U.S., the Assemblies of God, makes its view clear on homosexuality in a position paper stating: "...there is absolutely no affirmation of homosexual behavior found anywhere in Scripture. Rather, the consistent sexual ideal is chastity for those outside a monogamous heterosexual marriage and fidelity for those inside such a marriage. There is also abundant evidence that homosexual behavior, along with illicit heterosexual behavior, is immoral and comes under the judgment of God."[120]

The Indian Pentecostal Church of God the largest Pentecostal denomination in India has made its position clear that according to the 66 books of the Holy Bible, marriage must be between husband and wife and there must be no sexual union outside of marriage.

The Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) similarly condemns homosexuality.[121] These churches therefore oppose same-sex unions, gay pastors, and would tend to forbid congregants who persist in homosexual practices. Politically, they are likely to support politicians with the same viewpoints. Assemblies of God churches insist that those who engage in homosexual activity should cease such behavior, as with any sin.[122] The Church of God In Christ has taken similar positions which condemn homosexuality and same sex marriage.

Additionally, the bylaws of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel affirm that "marriage is a biblical covenant relationship between a man and a woman established initially by God."

There are, however, a minority of LGBT affirming Pentecostal churches, both denominations and independent churches. These include the Anointed Affirming Independent Ministries, The Anthem Church was birthed out of the Pentecostal Movement, and merged into an Inter Denominational Fellowship with members from the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Catholic Church, Episcopalian, APCI/GAAAP, Affirming Pentecostal Church International, the LDS Church, the Covenant Network,[123] the Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals (GAAAP),[124] the Fellowship of Reconciling Pentecostals International (RPI) [125] and Gay Apostolic Pentecostals. Some Pentecostal churches that are gay affirming base their position on research done into scripture in the original languages, where they believe they find no condemnation of homosexuality.[126]



The Presbyterian Church (USA) is currently the only Presbyterian denomination in the United States that allows same-sex marriage, and ordains self-affirmed LGBT members in committed relationships as teaching elders (clergy), and ruling elders (elders elected to serve on the Session).

On Marriage: In 2014, the Presbyterian Church (USA) voted to change its definition of marriage, allowing its pastors to officiate same-sex marriages wherever gay marriage is legal. In addition, by a vote of 429–175, leaders of the 1.76 million-member Church voted during the biennial General Assembly in Detroit to change the denomination's Book of Order to describe marriage as being between "two people." A vote of the individual presbyteries began immediately after the 2014 General Assembly approval and was completed in 2015.[127][128]

On Ordination: The PC(USA) approved the ordination of non-celibate gays on 8 July 2010, when, by a vote of 373 to 323, the General Assembly voted to propose to the presbyteries a constitutional amendment to remove the restriction against the ordination of partnered homosexuals. This action required ratification by a majority of the 173 presbyteries within 12 months for the proposed amendment to take effect.[129][130] On 10 May 2011, a majority of the presbyteries voted to approve the constitutional change.[131] It took effect on 10 July 2011. Until this vote, denominational policy prohibited non-celibate same-sex relations (as well as non-celibate heterosexual relations outside of marriage) for those serving as ministers or as elders on key church boards. After rancorous debate, that policy was upheld in a vote of presbyteries in 2002, but overruled in 2010. The denomination commissioned a study on the "peace, unity, and purity" of the church which found that homosexuality was not, in and of itself, a stumbling block to ordination. The report also suggested that Presbyteries and local governing bodies be the place where case-by-case decisions be made on the "readiness" of homosexual candidates for ministry. In 2008 the General Assembly sent to the presbyteries a vote to remove the wording from the constitution of the denomination that is seen as barring homosexuals from ordination (G-6.106b). The 2008 General Assembly also removed all precedent-setting cases and "authoritative interpretations" concerning homosexuality since 1978 which were seen by full-inclusion advocates as being stumbling blocks to ordination of homosexual individuals.

Other, smaller American Presbyterian bodies, such as the Presbyterian Church in America,[132] the Evangelical Presbyterian Church,[133] the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church,[134] the Orthodox Presbyterian Church,[135] and the Communion of Reformed Evangelical Churches[136] condemn same-sex sexual behavior as incompatible with Biblical morality, but believe gays and lesbians can repent and abandon the lifestyle.

In New Zealand, the Presbyterian Church of Aotearoa New Zealand has debated homosexuality for many years. In 1985 its General Assembly declared "Homosexual acts are sinful." The most recent decision of the Assembly in 2004 declared "this church may not accept... anyone involved in a sexual relationship outside of faithful marriage between a man and a woman," but added the lemma, "In relation to homosexuality... this ruling shall not prejudice anyone, who as at the date of this meeting, has been accepted for training, licensed, ordained, or inducted."[citation needed]

Many Presbyterians in New Zealand are active in the Association for Reconciling Christians and Congregations,[137] an ecumenical group that supports the full inclusion and participation of all people in the Church, including gay and lesbian persons.

In America, More Light Presbyterians, a coalition of gay-inclusive congregations, was founded in 1980. Today the organization has 194 member churches, while many more informally endorse its mission to more fully welcome people of all sexualities into the life of the church.[138]



Quakers in many countries, such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, are supportive of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people, seeing this as necessary aspect of the Equality Testimony and part of historical Quaker activism against injustice and oppression. Quakers in these countries have become active in the fight for equality of marriage for same-sex couples, and perform same-sex commitment or marriage ceremonies as part of Quaker business.

In the United States of America, the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) is deeply divided on the issue. The Evangelical Friends Church International and the more conservative members of Friends United Meeting consider homosexuality to be sinful; but other Friends, such as those in the Friends General Conference and the more progressive individuals and Monthly Meetings or Churches within Friends United Meeting, strongly support equal ecclesiastical rights for gay and lesbian persons and welcome their full participation as members.[citation needed] Hartford, Connecticut Quakers as far back as 1986 issued a statement recognizing both same-sex and heterosexual celebrations of marriage, and in 1988 the Beacon Hill Quaker Meeting in Massachusetts also issued a statement in support of recognizing same-sex marriage ceremonies.

In 2009, several Quaker meetings including the Twin Cities Friends Meeting (St. Paul and Minneapolis) announced they would stop signing certificates for opposite-sex marriages until same-sex marriages were fully legalized. Conservative Friends have differing theological stances on homosexuality. Ohio Yearly Meeting of Conservative Friends defines marriage as between one man and one woman; it does not sanction same-sex unions, or accept sexual relationships outside of marriage.[139] The other two Conservative yearly meetings do accept same-sex marriage.[140][141]

The majority (52%) of Quakers live in Africa.[142] They do not usually accept homosexuality; for example, Friends Church in Kenya "condemns homosexuality"[143] (Kenya has more Quakers than any other country).[citation needed]

Roman Catholic Church


Homosexuality is considered in the Roman Catholic Church teaching under two distinct aspects: homosexuality as an orientation and homosexual sexual activity.

Homosexuality as an orientation is not considered sinful, though is referred to, in highly technical language, as an "objective disorder" as it is seen as "ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil". The term 'disorder' is used several times throughout The Catechism of the Catholic Church to reference sin in general—e.g. venial sin, sin within marriage, the disorder of divorce, etc. All sin creates a disordering of the direction and proper ordering of nature.

The Church therefore recognizes that homosexuality is an innate condition in most cases, not a choice, and cannot be considered a sin. Homosexual sexual activity, however, is seen as a "moral disorder" and "homosexual acts" as "contrary to the natural law". The same acts would be considered equally 'contrary to the natural law' if performed by heterosexual couples. "They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine effective and sexual complementary."

The Roman Catholic Church believes that marriage is only between one man and one woman, and opposes same-sex marriage at both the religious and civil levels. The Church also holds that same-sex unions are an unfavorable environment for children and that the legalization of such unions damages society.

From the Catechism of the Catholic Church 2396: "Among the sins gravely contrary to chastity are masturbation, fornication, pornography, and homosexual practices."

In the film Francesco from 2020, Pope Francis supported in an interview some legal framework for homosexuals, to guarantee rights such as hospital visitation and inheritance, stating that "that way they are legally covered. I stood up for that."[144] He further stated that families should not expel teenage children from home if they display a homosexual orientation, saying "they [still] have a right to a family."

In his 25 September 2023 response to conservative cardinals' written dubia before the World Synod of Bishops, Pope Francis signaled the Church's openness to blessings for gay couples as long as they did not misrepresent the Church's view of marriage as between one man and one woman.[145][146]

On 18 December 2023, Pope Francis approved Fiducia supplicans which allow priests to give blessings to same-sex couples, as long as they do not "resemble marriage". The formal announcement reiterates that marriage is between a man and a woman and that a same-sex union should not be conferred and blessed at the same time.[147]

Independent Catholic Denominations


There are a number of catholic denominations that claim an apostolic succession but have split from the historic Roman Catholic Church. Acceptance of homosexuality varies between these groups but there are a few that fully support LGBT inclusion. Some of these groups are the American Apostolic Old Catholic Church,[148] American Catholic Church in the United States,[149] American National Catholic Church,[150] Catholic Apostolic Church in North America,[151] Christ Communion,[152] Ecumenical Catholic Communion,[153] Ecumenical Catholic Church,[154] Evangelical Catholic Church,[155] Independent Catholic Christian Church,[156] Liberal Catholic Church,[155] Orthodox-Catholic Church of America,[157] Reformed Catholic Church,[158] The National Catholic Church of America,[155] and United Catholic Church.[159]



The largest Swedenborgian denomination in North America, the General Church of the New Jerusalem, does not ordain gay and lesbian ministers, but the oldest denomination, the Swedenborgian Church of North America, does. Ministers in Swedenborgian Church of North America may determine individually whether or not they will marry same-sex couples. Ministers of the General Church of the New Jerusalem are not permitted to marry or bless any same-sex couples.[citation needed]

The Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma has no official doctrine on the debate of homosexuality. Personal opinions vary, but respecting others and not condemning anyone is an important facet of the Lord's New Church: "Human freedom is necessary if men are to be led in freedom according to reason by the Lord into the life in the Lord which is freedom itself." So the Church values the "expression of the thoughts and feelings of all in the Church provided they are not in opposition to the Essentials and the Principles of Doctrine of the Church"[160]

United Church of Canada


The United Church of Canada, the largest Protestant denomination in Canada, affirms that gay and lesbian persons are welcome in the church and the ministry. The resolution "A) That all persons, regardless of their sexual orientation, who profess Jesus Christ and obedience to Him, are welcome to be or become full member of the Church. B) All members of the Church are eligible to be considered for the Ordered Ministry." was passed in 1988. This was not done, however, without intense debate over what was termed "the issue"; some congregations chose to leave the church rather than support the resolution. In August 2012, the governing body of the church, General Council - which gathers trianually to determine the leadership and direction of the church - selected Rev. Gary Paterson to be its moderator. He is believed to be the first openly gay leader of any mainline Christian denomination anywhere in the world.

The church campaigned starting in 1977 to have the federal government add sexual orientation to federal non-discrimination laws, which was accomplished in 1996.[161] The church has also engaged in activism in favour of the legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada, and on 20 July 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world and the first country in the Americas and the first country outside Europe to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide with the enactment of the Civil Marriage Act. In 2012, Gary Paterson became first open gay moderator of United Church of Canada.

United Church of Christ


The United Church of Christ (UCC) was formed by the General Council of Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Church. Its polity is such that the views of one setting of the church cannot be unwillingly 'forced' on another church setting, whether between congregations of local churches, or between the upper levels of the church and individual congregations. Each individual church is independent and autonomous, in effect ecclesiastically sovereign.[162] Thus, views on many controversial matters can and do vary among congregations. David Roozen, director of the Hartford Institute for Religion Research who has studied the United Church of Christ, said surveys show the national church's pronouncements are often more liberal than the views in the pews but that its governing structure is set up to allow such disagreements.[163]

The United Church of Christ General Synod in 1985 passed a resolution entitled "Calling on United Church of Christ Congregations to Declare Themselves Open and Affirming"[164] saying that "the Fifteenth General Synod of the United Church of Christ encourages a policy of non-discrimination in employment, volunteer service and membership policies with regard to sexual orientation; encourages associations, Conferences and all related organizations to adopt a similar policy; and encourages the congregations of the United Church of Christ to adopt a non-discrimination policy and a Covenant of Openness and Affirmation of persons of lesbian, gay and bisexual orientation within the community of faith". General Synod XIV in 2003 officially added transgender persons to this declaration of full inclusion in the life and leadership of the Church.

In July 2005, the 25th General Synod[165] encouraged congregations to affirm "equal marriage rights for all", and to consider "wedding policies that do not discriminate based on the gender of the couple." The resolution also encouraged congregations to support legislation permitting civil same-sex marriage rights. By the nature of United Church of Christ polity, General Synod resolutions officially speak "to, but not for" the other settings of the denomination (local congregations, associations, conferences, and the national offices). This Synod also expressed respect for those bodies within the church that disagree and called for all members "to engage in serious, respectful, and prayerful discussion of the covenantal relationship of marriage and equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender."

Some associations permit ordination of non-celibate gay clergy and some clergy and congregations are willing to perform or allow same-sex marriages or union services. Approximately 10% of UCC congregations have adopted an official "open and affirming" statement welcoming gay and lesbian persons in all aspects of church life. A few congregations explicitly oppose the General Synod Equal Marriage Rights resolution – an independent movement called "Faithful and Welcoming Churches(FWC)" that partly defines faithful as "Faithful... to the preservation of the family, and to the practice and proclamation of human sexuality as God's gift for marriage between a man and a woman."[166] Many congregations have no official stance; these congregations' de facto stances vary widely in their degree of welcome toward gay and lesbian persons.

The United Church of Christ Coalition for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns Archived 8 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine is one of the officially recognized "Historically Underrepresented Groups" in the United Church of Christ, and as such has a dedicated seat on the United Church of Christ Executive Council and a number of other boards. The Biblical Witness Fellowship, a notable conservative renewal organization within the UCC, formed in the 1970s in response to general synods opinions on the sexuality issue and has argued that there "has been a deliberate and forceful attempt within the mainline church to overthrow Biblical revelation [about] ... what it means to be human particularly in the Biblical revelation of a humanity reflective of God and sexually created for [heterosexual] marriage and family."[167]

Uniting Church in Australia


The Uniting Church in Australia allows for the membership and ordination of gay and lesbian people and permits local presbyteries to ordain gay and lesbian ministers,[168] and extends the local option to marriage; a minister may bless a same-sex marriage. In July 2018, the Uniting Church in Australia voted by national Assembly to approve the creation of official marriage rites for same-sex couples.[114]

The role of gay and lesbian people in the church, their possibility of being ordained and the blessing of same-sex unions have been issues debated throughout the Uniting Church's history. The fairly broad consensus has been that a person's sexual orientation should not be a bar to attendance, membership or participation in the church. More controversial has been the issue of sexual activity by gay and lesbian people and the sexual behaviour of ordination candidates. In 2003, the church voted to allow local presbyteries to decide whether to ordain gay and lesbian people as ministers.[169] Ministers were permitted to bless same-sex couples entering civil unions even before same-sex marriage was legalized in Australia in late 2017.[170] In July 2018, the national assembly approved the creation of marriage rites for same-sex couples.[114]

Since 1997, some ministers living in same-sex relationships have come out without their ordination (or ministry) being challenged. In 2011, the church approved the blessing of same-sex unions.[171] Seven years later it allowed local congregations and ministers to decide whether to perform same-sex marriages, and ministers may now do so.[172]

United Reformed Church


A detailed report was submitted to the 2007 General Assembly of the United Reformed Church exploring its position on homosexuality.[173] In 2011, The United Reformed Church in United Kingdom allowed the blessing of same-sex unions.[174] On 9 July 2016 the church formally voted by 240 votes to 21 in favour of allowing any local church to offer same-sex marriages, if it chooses to obtain a licence.[175]

Swiss Reformed Church


In August 2019, the blessing of same-sex marriages is allowed in Swiss Reformed Church.[176]

Vineyard Churches, USA


The United States branch of the Association of Vineyard Churches issued a statement on LGBT issues in 2014. The statement "affirms marriage as a covenantal union between a man and a woman" and states "that outside of the boundaries of marriage, the Bible calls for abstinence." At the same time, the statement expresses repentance for "sinful stigmatization" of homosexual persons and encourages the expression of grace and compassion towards all who are tempted by extramarital sex.[177]

Unity Church


Unity Church issued a Statement of Diversity in 1995 which stated in part: "We strive for our ministries, publications and programs to reach out to all who seek Unity support and spiritual growth. It is imperative that our ministries and outreaches be free of discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, age, creed, religion, national origin, ethnicity, physical disability or sexual orientation. Our sincere desire is to ensure that all Unity organizations are nondiscriminatory and support diversity."[178] Unity has stated on their website that: "Unity proudly supports the LGBTQIA+ community. We believe everyone is divine and that every person shines with the light of God!"[179]

While Unity does not impose formal requirements on individual Unity churches to perform same-sex marriages, many Unity churches do perform same-sex marriages. Unity performs same-sex marriages at their world headquarters in Unity Village, Missouri.[178]

Unity allows LGBTQ people to become ministers and licensed Unity teachers.[178]

Philippine Independent Church


Officially known as the Iglesia Filipina Independiente and colloquially called the Aglipayan Church, an Independent Catholic denomination with Anglo-Catholic[180] orientation, the church has adopted an official and binding position of inclusion and full acceptance of LGBT individuals and organizations since 2017 after the question of inclusiveness was raised in an official leadership meeting by a gay member of the church in 2014. Its youth organization wing has also repeatedly elected presidents, vice presidents, and executives who belong to the Filipino LGBT youth sector.[181] On February 24, 2023, the church ordained Wylard "Wowa" Ledama, a trans woman, to the diaconate as the church's first trans clergy.[182]

Summary of denominational positions in North America, Europe, and Asia


The following table summarizes various denominational practices concerning members who are currently in a homosexual relationship. See also: Blessing of same-sex unions in Christian churches.

Denomination Allows homosexuals as members Ordains homosexuals Blesses unions Marries
Adventist[183] No[184] No No No
Alliance of Baptists Yes Yes Yes Yes
Anglican Church in North America[185] No No No No
American Baptist Churches USA Varies[186] No[26] No (official denominational position; local congregational practices may differ)[26][27] No (official denominational position; local congregational practices may differ)[26][27]
Assemblies of God[122][187] No No No No
National Baptist Convention[29] Varies No Varies Varies
Southern Baptist Convention[188] No[189] No No No
Catholic Church Varies (Catechism considers homosexual acts to be sinful, but states that homosexuals must be treated with respect, compassion and sensitivity.)[190] No No[191] No
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)[33] Yes (General Assembly has affirmed all orientations; local regions and congregations can make their own choice) Yes (General Assembly has affirmed all orientations; local regions and congregations can make their own choice)[32] Varies Varies (General Assembly does not have a stated a position on same-sex marriage; local regions and congregations may perform)[34]
Christian Reformed Church in North America[35][192] No No No No
Reformed Church in America[193] Yes Varies Varies Varies (decided within classes)
Churches of Christ No No No No
Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) Yes No No No
Indian Pentecostal Church of God No No No No
Church of the Nazarene[194] No No No No
Church of England[citation needed] Yes No[195] Yes[196] No
Church of Scotland[197][198] Yes Yes Varies Yes
Eastern Orthodox[citation needed] No (Weaning from the sacrament for 15 years. In case of termination and repentance for 3 years.) [199] No.[200] No No
Episcopal Yes Yes (All dioceses ordain candidates regardless of orientation. A minority of bishops require celibacy; others have shown an expectation that homosexual clergy should take advantage of what legal and ecclesiastical recognition is available for their unions[201]). Yes Yes
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) Yes[202][203] (Homosexual behavior is considered sinful and may be subject to church discipline short of excommunication)[204] No No No
Community of Christ Yes[205] Varies. In nations where it is illegal, even punishable by death, homosexuals will not be ordained into the priesthood[73][205] Varies (In nations where it is illegal, even punishable by death, same-sex unions of any kind will not be blessed)[73] Varies (In nations where it is illegal, even punishable by death, same-sex marriages will not be performed)[73][206]
Evangelical Covenant Church No[207][208] No[209] No[209] No[209]
Evangelical Free Church of America No No No No
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America[75] Yes Yes Varies (by discernment of congregation and pastor) Varies (in civil jurisdictions where allowable and by discernment of congregation and pastor)
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod[210] No No No No
Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada[85] Yes Yes Yes Yes
German Lutheran and United Churches in Evangelical Church in Germany Yes Yes Yes[211] Varies[212][213]
Mennonite Varies Varies[214] Varies Varies
United Methodist Church[215] Yes Yes[107] Yes[216] Yes[107][216]
Metropolitan Community Church[115] Yes Yes Yes Yes
United Pentecostal Church International[217] No No No No
Evangelical Presbyterian Church[133] No No No No
Orthodox Presbyterian Church[135] No No No No
Presbyterian Church (USA)[218] Yes Yes[219] Varies Yes
Presbyterian Church in America No[220] No[132] No[132] No[132]
Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)[citation needed] Yes Varies Varies Varies
Union of Scranton (Old Catholic)[221] No No No No
Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches (Italy) Yes Yes Yes No
Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches[citation needed] Yes Yes Yes No
Swedenborgian[citation needed] Yes Varies Varies Varies
Church of Sweden Yes Yes Yes Yes
Church of Denmark Yes Yes Yes Yes
Church of Iceland Yes Yes Yes Yes
Church of Norway Yes Yes Yes Yes
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland Yes Yes Yes No
Unification Church[222] No No No No
Unitarian and Free Christian Churches[a] (UK) Yes Yes Yes Yes
United Church of Canada[223][224] Yes Yes Not applicable Varies
United Church of Christ[225] Yes Yes Yes Yes
Vineyard USA[177] No No No No
The Wesleyan Church No No No No
Rosicrucian Fellowship (Esoteric Christians) Undefined (homosexual activity is considered sinful; members are expected to eventually abstain from any sexual practice other than for procreation, performed as a sacramental act)[226][227] No (the Fellowship does not ordain; however, access to Discipleship requires Generative Purity)[228] No No (marriage is seen as a sacrament binding man and woman; the marriage service requires the presence of an ordained Minister of a Christian church)[229]
Unity Church[178] Yes Yes Varies Varies
Philippine Independent Church (Iglesia Filipina Independiente)[181] Yes[181] Yes[182] No No


  1. ^ Unitarian Universalism is not a Christian religion

See also



  1. ^ Annual Council of the General Conference Executive Committee (3 October 1999). "Position Statement on Homosexuality". Seventh-day Adventist Church Statements. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  2. ^ "About Us". Ancient Church of the East. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  3. ^ "Human Sexuality". Church of England. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  4. ^ "BBC NEWS | UK | England | Beds/Bucks/Herts | Gay cleric's 'wedding' to partner". news.bbc.co.uk. August 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  5. ^ "Resolution I.10". Lambeth Conference Archives – 1998. The Lambeth Conference. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  6. ^ Vara, Richard (11 January 2008). "Carey says Anglican Communion is in crisis". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  7. ^ "CofE Bishop Nicholas Chamberlain reveals he is in gay relationship". BBC News. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  9. ^ "No sanctions against Melbourne gay marriage priests". Anglican Ink 2018 ©. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  10. ^ "AD Clerum Changes to the Marriage Law". Scribd. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  11. ^ "Anglican Bishop's refusal to consider gay man for ordination upheld by New Zealand Human Rights Review Tribunal". lawandreligionuk.com. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Anglican church to ordain gay deacon". www.gaynz.com. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  13. ^ "Gay priest predicts a new conservatism". Otago Daily Times Online News. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  14. ^ "Saint Columba Church - Services". www.saintcolumbas.org.nz. Archived from the original on 6 April 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  15. ^ CalledSouth. "Liturgical Resources". calledsouth.org.nz. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  16. ^ Quiqcorp. "Anglican Taonga: New Zealand's Anglican News Leader". anglicantaonga.org.nz. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  17. ^ "Anglican Church around the world". BBC News. 15 July 2008.
  18. ^ Wyatt, Caroline (11 January 2016). "Anglican communion's 'bitter divide' over gay rights". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  19. ^ Anna, Morrell (6 April 2016). "Same-sex marriage statement". The Church in Wales. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  20. ^ "Canadian Anglicans to Continue Same-Sex Ceremonies, Even After Failed Vote". Christianity Today. 19 July 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Southern African synod to consider blessing same-sex civil unions". www.anglicannews.org. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  22. ^ "Why This Archbishop Wept When His Church Rejected Same-Sex Blessings | Christian News on Christian Today". www.christiantoday.com. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  23. ^ "Scottish Episcopal Church approves gay marriage". BBC News. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  24. ^ "IEAB synod adopts same-sex marriage canon". Anglican Ink 2018 ©. 1 June 2018. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Southern Baptist Convention". sbc.net. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d "We Are American Baptists". American Baptist Churches USA. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  27. ^ a b c Allen, Bob (30 March 2010). "Legal gay marriage pushes sexuality to forefront for churches". Associated Baptist Press. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  28. ^ "AWAB Mission". The Association of Welcoming & Affirming Baptists. 2006. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  29. ^ a b Salmon, Jacqueline (19 August 2007). "Rift Over Gay Unions Reflects Battle New to Black Churches". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  30. ^ "Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: National Baptist Convention USA Inc". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  31. ^ "MESSAGE FROM BISHOP FRANCIS KALABAT REGARDING SAME-SEX BLESSINGS". Chaldeanchurch.org. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  32. ^ a b Potts, Andrew (25 July 2013). "Disciples of Christ church moves to allow LGBT clergy". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  33. ^ a b General Assembly of the Disciples of Christ (July 2013). "GA-1327 "Becoming a People of Grace and Welcome to All"" (PDF). Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  34. ^ a b Kilen, Mike (16 September 2014). "Iowa women in love for 72 years finally wed". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  35. ^ a b "Homosexuality". Christian Reformed Church in North America. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  36. ^ "Homosexuality: Reformed church in Toronto welcomes active gay l..." Christianity Today. 9 December 2002. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  37. ^ "Holy Synod - Encyclicals - Synodal Affirmations on Marriage, Family, Sexuality, and the Sanctity of Life". oca.org. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  38. ^ a b c "2013 Assembly Statement on Marriage and Sexuality". assemblyofbishops.org. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  39. ^ "Should Christians Hate Homosexuals?". Awake!: 13–15. 8 December 1997.
  40. ^ "Homosexuality—How Can I Avoid It?". Awake!: 28–30. 7 July 2007.
  41. ^ "Does the Bible Comment on Same-Sex Marriages?". The Watchtower.
  42. ^ "Does God Approve of Same-Sex Marriage?". Awake!: 27. 8 April 2005.
  43. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage". LDS Church.
  44. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Mormon and Gay. LDS Church. October 2016. If you experience same-sex attraction, you may choose to use a sexual orientation label to describe yourself. ... If you decide to ... openly identify as gay, you should be supported.
  45. ^ Oaks, Dallin H.; Wickman, Lance B. (September 2006). "Same-Gender Attraction". Newsroom (Interview: Transcript). Interviewed by LDS Church Public Affairs staffers. Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church. See also the Salt Lake Tribune archived transcript here.
  46. ^ Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998). "What Are People Asking about Us?". Ensign. LDS Church.
  47. ^ "Worship with Us: What to Expect". mormon.org. LDS Church. Archived from the original on 15 February 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  48. ^ Gedicks, Frederick Mark (31 July 2008). "Church Discipline and the Regulation of Membership in the Mormon Church". Ecclesiastical Law Journal. 7 (32). Cambridge University Press: 43. doi:10.1017/S0956618X00004920. S2CID 143228475.
  49. ^ "Gospel Topics: Temples", churchofjesuschrist.org, LDS Church, retrieved 2 July 2014
  50. ^ "Gospel Topics: Church Disciplinary Councils", churchofjesuschrist.org, LDS Church, retrieved 2 July 2014
  51. ^ Beaver, Michelle (11 March 2011). "Mormon church has a fractured history with gays". The Mercury News. San Jose, CA: MediaNews Group, Inc. Bay Area News Group. There are three levels to the heaven in which Mormons believe, and to make it to the highest level, one must be married. Perhaps the most sacred church ordinance is the temple marriage, a "sealing" between a man and a woman that is believed to be eternal, according to Richley Crapo, a Utah State University professor. There is no place for homosexuality in Mormon marriages, and no place for noncelibate homosexuals in the top level of Mormon heaven, unless that person has repented accordingly in the afterlife.
  52. ^ Petrey, Taylor G. (4 February 2015). "My Husband's Not Gay: Homosexuality and the LDS Church". Religion & Politics. Washington University in St. Louis. John C. Danforth Center on Religion and Politics. In the Mormon cosmos, as presently understood, there is simply no room for same-sex relationships. For Mormons, the afterlife consists of heterosexual pairs of divinized men and women. Often church leaders have counseled Mormons who experience same-sex attraction that their unwelcome feelings will disappear in the afterlife. ... [T]he very structure of heaven can only accommodate opposite-sex marriages.
  53. ^ Kimball, Spencer W. (1969), The Miracle of Forgiveness, Bookcraft, ISBN 978-0-88494-192-7, [Homosexuality] is curable and forgivable. ... Certainly it can be overcome .... [T]o those who say that this practice ... is incurable, I respond: 'How can you say the door cannot be opened until your knuckles are bloody ...? It can be done.' Quoted on page 31 of "Conservative Christian Identity & Same-Sex Orientation: The Case of Gay Mormons."
  54. ^ Kimball, Spencer W. (10 July 1964). A Counselling Problem in the Church. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University. pp. 13–14. We know such a disease [homosexuality] is curable.
  55. ^ Understanding and Helping Those Who Have Homosexual Problems. LDS Church. 1992. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 3 November 2016. [S]uch thoughts and feelings, regardless of their causes, can and should be overcome and sinful behavior should be eliminated. ... Change is possible.
  56. ^ Prince, Gregory A. (27 September 2017). "Science vs. Dogma: Biology Challenges the LDS Paradigm of Homosexuality" (PDF). thc.utah.edu. University of Utah Tanner Humanities Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2017. Video of the presentation.
  57. ^ a b Quinn, D. Michael (1996). Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans: A Mormon Example. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02205-0.
  58. ^ a b Prince, Gregory A. (2019). Gay Rights and the Mormon Church: Intended Actions, Unintended Consequences. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-1-60781-663-8.
  59. ^ Schow, Ron (Fall 2005). "Homosexual Attractions and LDS Marriage Decisions" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 38 (3): 133–143. doi:10.2307/45227379. JSTOR 45227379. S2CID 254393745. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  60. ^ "Love One Another: A Discussion on Same-Sex Attraction". mormonsandgays.org. LDS Church. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012.
  61. ^ Jones, Morgan (7 February 2018). "The Weeds' story is one of many stories of LGBT Latter-day Saints that continue to be written". Deseret News. LDS Church. Today, [LDS] Family Services says it offers the following: 'We assist individuals and families as they respond to same-sex attraction. Our therapists do not provide what is commonly referred to as 'reparative therapy' or 'sexual orientation change efforts'.'
  62. ^ "Interview With Elder Dallin H. Oaks and Elder Lance B. Wickman: "Same-Gender Attraction"". Mormon Newsroom. LDS Church. September 2006. The Church does not have a position on the causes of any of ... same-gender attraction. Those are scientific questions ....
  63. ^ Fish, Jessica N.; Russell, Stephen T. (August 2020). "Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Change Efforts are Unethical and Harmful". American Journal of Public Health. 110 (8): 1113–1114. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305765. PMC 7349462. PMID 32639919. With substantial evidence of serious harms associated with exposure to [sexual orientation and gender identity change efforts (SOGICE)] particularly for minors, 21 states (and multiple cities and counties) have passed bipartisan laws or regulations prohibiting SOGICE. ... Furthermore, compared with LGBTQ youths with no exposure, those exposed to SOGICE showed 1.76 times greater odds of seriously considering suicide, 2.23 times greater odds of having attempted suicide, and 2.54 times greater odds of multiple suicide attempts in the previous year.
  64. ^ Phillips, Rick (2005). Conservative Christian Identity & Same-Sex Orientation: The Case of Gay Mormons (PDF). Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8204-7480-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  65. ^ Cook, Bryce (Summer 2017). "What Do We Know of God's Will for His LGBT Children? An Examination of the LDS Church's Current Position on Homosexuality". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 50 (2). doi:10.5406/dialjmormthou.50.2.0001. S2CID 190443414.
  66. ^ "First Presidency Statement on Same-Gender Marriage". LDS Church. 20 October 2004. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  67. ^ Browning, Bill (21 December 2021). "Utah billionaire leaves Mormon church with blistering accusation it is actively harming the world". LGBTQ Nation. San Francisco. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  68. ^ Winters, Rosemary (19 October 2010). "Mormon apostle's words about gays spark protest". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  69. ^ Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (11 November 2016). "Mormon Church to exclude children of same-sex couples from getting blessed and baptized until they are 18". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  70. ^ Murphy, Caryle. "Most U.S. Christian groups grow more accepting of homosexuality". pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  71. ^ Levin, Sam (15 August 2016). "'I'm not a Mormon': fresh 'mass resignation' over anti-LGBT beliefs". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  72. ^ Hatch, Heidi (13 April 2016). "Millennial Mormons leaving faith at higher rate than previous generations". CBS Television Sinclair Broadcast Group. KUTV.
  73. ^ a b c d "USA National Conference". Cofchrist.org. 31 March 2014. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  74. ^ "USA National Conference Recommends Policy Changes" (PDF). Community of Christ. 21 April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. The 2013 USA National Conference recommends the sacrament of marriage be extended, where legal in the USA, to persons of the same sex/gender. ... The 2013 USA National Conference recommends allowing a priesthood call to be processed according to established procedures regardless of sexual orientation, including a person in a monogamous, committed, same-sex/gender relationship ....
  75. ^ a b c "A Social Statement on Human Sexuality: Gift and Trust" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. 2009.
  76. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (26 July 2010). "Lutherans Offer Warm Welcome to Gay Pastors". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  77. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. "Supplemental Resources for use within the Evangelical Lutheran Worship Service of Marriage" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Worship. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  78. ^ ReconcilingWorks (24 August 2015). "Reconciling in Christ". Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  79. ^ "World news and comment from The Guardian - The Guardian". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  80. ^ "ELCA votes to allow gay pastors". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  81. ^ "ELCA Lutherans elect first openly gay bishop | Religion News Service". Religionnews.com. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  82. ^ Heinze, Jeremy. "Welcome". holycrosslutheran.ca. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  83. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. (2011, July 16). The Thirteenth Biennial Convention of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, Saskatoon, SK. https://elcic.ca/In-Convention/2011-Saskatoon/documents/2011ConventionMinutes.pdf Archived 12 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  84. ^ Civil Marriage Act S.C. 2005, c. 33, https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-31.5/page-1.html
  85. ^ a b c Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (17 July 2011). "Delegates To 2011 ELCIC National Convention Approve Motions On Unity, Same-Sex Blessings And Qualifications For Ordination". Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  86. ^ Wiedemann, Dennis. "HuK e. V. - Ökumenische Arbeitsgruppe Homosexuelle und Kirche". Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  87. ^ "Church of Sweden: Service of blessing for registered partnerships" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  88. ^ "Island: Parlament einstimmig für Ehe-Öffnung". Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  89. ^ "Norwegens Bischöfe freunden sich mit Ehe-Öffnung an". queer.de.
  90. ^ Kirken.no: Biskopen som vant folks hjerter, October 30, 2022
  91. ^ m.b.H., STANDARD Verlagsgesellschaft. "Kirchliche Trauung für dänische Lesben und Schwule". Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  92. ^ "Finnish Church OKs Prayers for Gay Couples". 12 November 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  93. ^ "French Protestant church authorises gay marriages". RFI. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  94. ^ "Verenigde Protestantse Kerk staat inzegening homohuwelijk toe. - holebi.info". holebi.info. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  95. ^ "Gay sticker: not for all churches". RNW Media. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  96. ^ Johns, Loren L. "Homosexuality and the Mennonite Church". ljohns.ambs.edu. Department of Theological Studies; Loyola Marymount University. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  97. ^ "Supportive Communities Network - List of Current Members". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  98. ^ Clark, Heather (2 January 2014). "Mennonite Church USA Ordains First Openly Homosexual 'Pastor'". Christian News Network. Retrieved 12 July 2014..
  99. ^ "Southeast Conference removes ministerial credential". Archived from the original on 29 May 2014.
  100. ^ "Central District takes 2-part action on pastor's credentials". Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.
  101. ^ "Decision not to discipline pastor stands at WDC". Archived from the original on 18 June 2014.
  102. ^ "Homosexuality and bisexuality in the Mennonite churches: censuring of congregations". Religious Tolerance. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  103. ^ "MennoCon 2019 Schedule". Pink Menno Campaign.
  104. ^ Advocate: United Methodist Church ends 40-year ban on LGBTQ+ clergy, May 1, 2024
  105. ^ UMNews.org: 40-year ban on gay clergy struck down , May 1, 2024
  106. ^ "HOMOSEXUALITY, SCHISM AND UNITY: TRANSLATORS NEEDED". Archived from the original on 10 October 2007.
  107. ^ a b c d UMNews: 40-year ban on gay clergy struck down, May 1, 2024
  108. ^ Ring, Trudy (5 May 2018). "Methodist Bishops Back Choice on LGBT Clergy, Same-Sex Marriage". The Advocate. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  109. ^ Hahn, Heather (31 July 2018). "LGBTQ advocates conflicted on way forward". UM News. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  110. ^ Gilbert, Kathy L (30 July 2018). "Plans Prayerfully Pondered by United Methodists". UM News. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  111. ^ Steele, Jeremy (26 February 2019). "United Methodists to Keep Traditional Marriage Stance". Christianity Today. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  112. ^ a b c "What is the denomination's position on homosexuality - The United Methodist Church". Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  113. ^ Communications, United Methodist. "Western Jurisdiction elects openly gay United Methodist bishop - The United Methodist Church". Archived from the original on 18 July 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  114. ^ a b c Sandeman, John (13 July 2018). "Uniting Church to hold same sex marriages". Eternity. Australia. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  115. ^ a b c James N. Birkitt, Jr. "MCC and Marriage Equality". Metropolitan Community Church. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  116. ^ "Equal Marriage Case Timeline". Metropolitan Community Church of Toronto. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  117. ^ "Moravian Church Northern Province Synod approves ordination of gay and lesbian pastors". Moravian.org. Bethlehem, Pa: Moravian Church. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  118. ^ Journal, John Hinton Winston-Salem (11 May 2018). "Moravian synod will let gay clergy marry". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  119. ^ "Position of the New Apostolic Church on Certain Issues of Sexual conduct" (PDF). New Apostolic Church International. 10 September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  120. ^ "Homosexuality" (PDF). Assemblies of God USA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  121. ^ "Moral Purity". Church of God International Offices. Archived from the original on 11 August 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
  122. ^ a b "Sexuality: Homosexual Conduct". Assemblies of God USA. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  123. ^ "New Covenant Church of Atlanta - A Covenant Network Church". New Covenant Church of Atlanta.
  124. ^ "Best dating worldwide <3". Archived from the original on 3 September 2011.
  125. ^ "Leadership". Fellowship of Reconciling Pentecostals International. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  126. ^ "Hope Remains: Homosexuality and the Bible". Hope Remains: Homosexuality and the Bible.
  127. ^ Kaleem, Jaweed (19 June 2014). "Presbyterian Church Votes To Allow Gay Marriages". Huffington Post.
  128. ^ Ford, Dana (25 June 2014). "Presbyterians vote to allow same-sex marriage". CNN. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  129. ^ "PCUSA Assembly OKs Lifting Gay Ordination Ban". Christianpost.com. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  130. ^ "Presbyterians Approve Gay Clergy". Advocate.com. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  131. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (10 May 2011). "Presbyterians Approve Ordination of Gay People". New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  132. ^ a b c d "PCA Position Papers: Assembly Actions on the Matter of Homosexuality (1996)". Presbyterian Church in America. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  133. ^ a b "Position Paper on Homosexuality". Evangelical Presbyterian Church. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  134. ^ Stein, Letita (27 February 2015). "South Carolina college scrutinized for 'biblical' stance on homosexuality". Reuters. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  135. ^ a b "Orthodox Presbyterian Church". opc.org. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  136. ^ "A CREC Statement on Sexuality". Communion of Reformed Evangelical Churches. 15 July 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  137. ^ "Auckland Refugee Community Coalition". arcc.org.nz. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  138. ^ mlp.org (25 January 2012). "Directory of More Light Churches & Chapters". Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  139. ^ Ohio Yearly Meeting Conservative "The Book of Discipline"[permanent dead link] 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  140. ^ Iowa Yearly Meeting Conservative "Faith and Practice" 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  141. ^ North Carolina Yearly Meeting Conservative "The Interim Discipline" 2018. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  142. ^ "Finding Quakers Around the World" (PDF). Friends World Committee for Consultation. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  143. ^ "Quakers & Homosexuality Press Statement, from Friends Church Kenya". 15 November 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  144. ^ "Pope Francis calls for civil union law for same-sex couples, in shift from Vatican stance". Catholic News Agency. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  145. ^ McElwee, Joshua J. (2 October 2023). "Pope signals openness to blessings for gay couples, study of women's ordination". National Catholic Reporter. Kansas City: Joe Ferullo. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  146. ^ Allen, Elise Ann (2 October 2023). "Pope offers cautious 'yes' on blessing some same-sex unions, 'no' on woman priests". Crux. Crux Catholic Media. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  147. ^ "Pope approves blessings for same-sex couples if the rituals don't resemble marriage". AP News. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 18 December 2023.
  148. ^ "What We Believe". The American Apostolic Old Catholic Church. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  149. ^ "The American Catholic Church in the United States | Overview of the ACCUS". Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  150. ^ "Beliefs". American National Catholic Church. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  151. ^ "A Church Where All Are Welcome". www.cacina.org. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  152. ^ "Our Beliefs". Christ Communion. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  153. ^ "Welcome". Ecumenical Catholic Communion. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  154. ^ "Iglesia Católica Ecuménica". Ecumenical Catholic Church.
  155. ^ a b c "Affirming Denominations". GayChurch.org. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  156. ^ "Who We Are and What We Believe". Independent Catholic Christian Church. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  157. ^ "Contact The Orthodox-Catholic Church of America". www.orthodoxcatholicchurch.org. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  158. ^ "Our History". The Reformed Catholic Church. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  159. ^ "Articles of Association". United Catholic Church. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  160. ^ "Freedom in the Church - The Lord's New Church Which is Nova Hierosolyma". thelordsnewchurch.com. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  161. ^ "UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA AND HOMOSEXUALITY". religioustolerance.org. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  162. ^ Jenkins, Daniel T. (9 April 2021). "Congregationalism: Protestant movements". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  163. ^ "Local News - The Courier-Journal - courier-journal.com". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  164. ^ "United Church of Christ". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2006.
  165. ^ "United Church of Christ" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  166. ^ "United Church of Christ". Archived from the original on 18 May 2006. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  167. ^ "Biblical Witness Fellowship". Biblicalwitness.org. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  168. ^ "Global Trend: World's oldest Protestant churches now ordain gays and lesbians". ucc.org. United Church of Christ. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  169. ^ O'brien, Kerry. "Nile quits church over gay ordination decision". abc.net.au. ABC. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  170. ^ Hiatt, Bethany. "Uniting Church may overhaul rules of marriage". au.news.yahoo.com. AU News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  171. ^ UnitingNetworkAustralia Archived 2011-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
  172. ^ "Uniting Church to allow same-sex marriages". SBS News. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  173. ^ "Moratorium on Policy Decisions on Homosexuality, Document 2" (PDF). The United Reformed Church. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  174. ^ "United Reformed Church votes to host same-sex civil partnerships - Ekklesia". ekklesia.co.uk. 8 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  175. ^ "URC votes to allow the marriage of same-sex couples in its churches". Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  176. ^ Kirchenbund.de: Rat des Kirchenbundes befürwortet die Öffnung der Ehe für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare (german) Archived 30 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine, August 29, 2018
  177. ^ a b Vineyard USA Executive Team (August 2014), Position Paper: Pastoring LGBT Persons (PDF), Vineyard USA, pp. 60–61, archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016
  178. ^ a b c d "Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Unity". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  179. ^ "LGBTQIA+ Communities". Unity.org. Unity. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  180. ^ "'Women are called': Photo of female church leaders breaks religious stereotypes". Yahoo! News Philippines. Coconuts Manila. 20 December 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  181. ^ a b c "Iglesia Filipina Independiente asks forgiveness from LGBT community, extends hand with pro-equality statement - Outrage Magazine". Outragemag.com. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  182. ^ a b Dagle, Robbin M. (24 February 2023). "Historic, revolutionary: Iglesia Filipina Independiente ordains first trans woman clergy in PH". Rappler. Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  183. ^ "Homosexuality". Adventist.org. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2018. The Bible makes no accommodation for homosexual activity or relationships. Sexual acts outside the circle of a heterosexual marriage are forbidden.
  184. ^ Seventh Day Adventist Church Manual (17th ed.). Secretariat General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 2005. p. 195. ISBN 0-8280-1947-9. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
  185. ^ "To Be a Christian: An Anglican Catechism" (PDF). Anglican Church in North America. p. 60. Retrieved 26 July 2017. How else is the Seventh Commandment broken? Fornication, same-gender sexual acts, rape, incest, pedophilia, bestiality, pornography, lust, or any other form of self-centered sexual desire and behavior, all violate this law.
  186. ^ Tomlin, Gregory (18 May 2006). "Split among American Baptists over homosexuality is final". Baptist Press. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  187. ^ "Carl Lentz on how Hillsong Church is becoming 'gay welcoming' without compromising their convictions". 10 August 2015.
  188. ^ "Resolution On Homosexuality". Southern Baptist Convention. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  189. ^ Wright, John (29 June 2009). "Southern Baptist Convention severs ties with Broadway Baptist Church in Fort Worth". Dallas Voice. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  190. ^ "Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church". The Holy See. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2005. Retrieved 9 July 2019. 492. What are the principal sins against chastity?

    Grave sins against chastity differ according to their object: adultery, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution, rape, and homosexual acts. These sins are expressions of the vice of lust. These kinds of acts committed against the physical and moral integrity of minors become even more grave.
  191. ^ "On the Pastoral Meaning of Blessings". 18 December 2023. Retrieved 18 December 2023. Therefore, rites and prayers that could create confusion between what constitutes marriage—which is the "exclusive, stable, and indissoluble union between a man and a woman, naturally open to the generation of children"—and what contradicts it are inadmissible. This conviction is grounded in the perennial Catholic doctrine of marriage; it is only in this context that sexual relations find their natural, proper, and fully human meaning. The Church's doctrine on this point remains firm. The Church does not have the power to confer its liturgical blessing when that would somehow offer a form of moral legitimacy to a union that presumes to be a marriage or to an extra-marital sexual practice.
  192. ^ Alons, R.; Bouma, M.; De Boer, C. J.; Engelhard, D. H.; Hugen, M. D.; Oh, C. Y.; et al. (11 June 2002). Pastoral Care for Homosexual Members (PDF). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Christian Reformed Church in North America. p. 23. Homosexualism—as explicit homosexual practice—must be condemned as incompatible with obedience to the will of God as revealed in Holy Scripture.
  193. ^ "GENERAL SYNOD STATEMENTS: HOMOSEXUALITY". Reformed Reformed Church in America. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  194. ^ Blevins, Dean G.; Rodes, Stanley J.; Sowden, Terry S.; Spear, James W.; Wilson, David P., eds. (2017). "The Covenant of Christian Conduct". Human Sexuality and Marriage. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. Retrieved 26 July 2018. Because we believe that it is God's intention for our sexuality to be lived out in the covenantal union between one woman and one man, we believe the practice of same-sex sexual intimacy is contrary to God's will for human sexuality.
  195. ^ Roberts, Rachel (30 April 2017). "First married gay vicar quits as minister in 'institutionally homophobic' Church of England". The Independent. London. Retrieved 26 July 2018. Officially, the Church forbids same-sex marriage for its clergy. . .
  196. ^ "Prayers for God's blessing for same-sex couples take step forward after Synod debate".
  197. ^ "General Assembly allows ministers and deacons in same-sex marriages". The Church of Scotland. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  198. ^ "Same-sex marriage". The Church of Scotland. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  199. ^ "ГОМОСЕКСУАЛИЗМ". www.pravenc.ru.
  200. ^ "The Stand of the Orthodox Church on Controversial Issues". goarch.org. 2015.
  201. ^ "Churches struggle with New York's same-sex marriage law". Oneidadispatch.com. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  202. ^ "LDS Church dumps its controversial LGBTQ policy, cites 'continuing revelation' from God". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  203. ^ "First Presidency Shares Messages From General Conference Leadership Session". Mormon Newsroom. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  204. ^ "Handbook 2: Administering the Church". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 2019. 21.4.5-6. Retrieved 9 July 2019. Sexual relations are proper only between a man and a woman who are legally and lawfully wedded as husband and wife. Adultery, fornication, homosexual or lesbian relations, and every other unholy, unnatural, or impure practice are sinful. Members who violate the Lord's law of chastity or who influence others to do so are subject to Church discipline.
  205. ^ a b Church Administrator's Handbook (PDF). Independence, Missouri: Herald Publishing House. 2005. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8309-1119-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  206. ^ Church Administrator's Handbook (PDF). Independence, Missouri: Herald Publishing House. 2005. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8309-1119-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  207. ^ "1996 Human Sexuality". The Evangelical Covenant Church. In the local church, we encourage ministries to address these needs: ...to care for persons involved in sexual sins such as adultery, homosexual behavior and promiscuity, compassionately recognizing the potential of these sins to take the form of addiction.
  208. ^ Shimron, Yonat (28 June 2019). "Evangelical denomination expels entire congregation over LGBT policy". Religion News Service. Retrieved 9 July 2019. The ECC's position on human sexuality states that heterosexual marriage, faithfulness within marriage and abstinence outside of marriage constitute the Christian standard.
  209. ^ a b c King, Tim (July 2012). "Retelling the Story". Sojourners.
  210. ^ "LCMS Views - Marriage/Human Sexuality". The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  211. ^ Evangelisch.de: Segnung Homosexueller: Bunt wie ein Regenbogen (german), October 20, 2020
  212. ^ "Evangelische Kirche im Rheinland will Homosexuelle trauen". Der Spiegel. 15 January 2016 – via www.spiegel.de.
  213. ^ "gleichgeschlechtliche ehe homsexuelle evangelische kirche". www.zeit.de. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  214. ^ Clark, Heather (2 January 2014). "Mennonite Church USA Ordains First Openly Homosexual 'Pastor'". Christian News.
  215. ^ "What is the denomination's position on homosexuality?". The United Methodist Church. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  216. ^ a b Advocate.com: United Methodist Church ends 40-year ban on LGBTQ+ clergy, May 1, 2024
  217. ^ "Homosexuality". United Pentecostal Church International. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  218. ^ "Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) - News & Announcements - Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) approves marriage amendment". www.pcusa.org. 17 March 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  219. ^ Bolcer, Julie. "Presbyterians Gay Clergy Yes Gay Marriage No". Advocate.com. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  220. ^ "PCA Position Papers: Homosexuality (1977)". Presbyterian Church in America. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  221. ^ "The Declaration of Scranton - Official Commentary" (PDF). Union of Scranton. 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2018. Given the clear teachings of Scripture and Tradition, the Church cannot in any way approve of or condone homosexual conduct.
  222. ^ "What is the Unificationist view on homosexuality and same-sex marriage?". Family Federation for a Heavenly USA. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification USA. Retrieved 26 July 2018. We affirm that those with same-sex attraction are children of God who offer much to the world, and we strive to love and understand everyone. Nonetheless, we consider that homosexuality is not part of God's design for us.
  223. ^ "Gender and Orientation". The United Church of Canada. Retrieved 26 July 2018. We welcome into full membership and ministry people of all sexual orientations and gender identities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, two spirit, trans,* queer+).
  224. ^ "Marriage". The United Church of Canada. Retrieved 26 July 2018. Congregations of the United Church are free to make their own marriage policies. This reflects the wisdom, which our denomination has followed since its founding in 1925, that some decisions are best made as a denomination—by General Council, the church's governing body—and others are best made locally. Marriages (and worship services in general) are performed under the responsibility of the local congregation's church council. This means that while General Council welcomes same-sex marriage, same-sex marriage is not offered in every United Church.
  225. ^ "In Support of Equal Marriage Rights for All" (PDF). Social Policy Statements on LGBT Concerns. United Church of Christ National Bodies. 25 July 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2018. For more than 30 years, the General Synod of the UCC has adopted resolutions affirming lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons, consistently calling for an end to discrimination, equal protection under the law, deploring LGBT hate crimes and violence, supporting LGBT relationships and families, celebrating the gifts of LGBT persons for ministry and encouraging all settings of the church to be open and affirming of LGBT persons, welcoming them and encouraging their participation in every aspect of the mission and ministry of the church.
  226. ^ "Homo, hetero, auto, or poly perverse expressions of human sexuality". The Rosicrucian Fellowship. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  227. ^ "Gleanings of a Mystic (1910s): The Unpardonable Sin and Lost Souls". The Rosicrucian Fellowship. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  228. ^ "Letters to Students (1910s) no.13: Generative Purity". The Rosicrucian Fellowship. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  229. ^ "Rosicrucian Fellowship Services: Solemnization of Marriage". The Rosicrucian Fellowship. Retrieved 9 April 2010.