List of Cornish dialect words

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This is a select list of Cornish dialect words in English—while some of these terms are obsolete others remain in use.[1][2] Many Cornish dialect words have their origins in the Cornish language and others belong to the West Saxon group of dialects: consequently words listed may not be exclusive to Cornwall.[3]

Table of contents:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
See alsoReferencesFurther reading

A[edit]

  • Abroad - open: "laive the door abroad, boy."
  • Addled - 1. spoilt, rotten 2. empty, cracked or broken; e.g. addled eggs
  • Ager - ugly (Zennor, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language hager)[4]
  • Agerever - pollack (Marazion, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language hager euver, meaning 'ugly useless')[4]
  • Aglets - hawthorn berries
  • Agone - ago; as in 'a week agone' (mid and east Cornwall)[5]
  • Ake - a groove made on the stone of a killick (Mousehole, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language ak, meaning 'a slit', or 'a cleft')[4]
  • Allycumpooster - all right (Camborne, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language oll yn kompoester, meaning 'all in order')[4]
  • Anker - a small barrel (mining term, ultimately from Mediaeval Latin anceria ["a small vat"] perhaps influenced by Cornish language keryn, meaning 'open barrel' or 'tub'. Compare Danish anker ["beer barrel, wine cask, anker"])[6]
  • Ansome - lovely (from "handsome"); Me ansome ("my handsome") (familiar way to address a man)
  • Anvon - a hard stone on which large stones are broken (mining term, from Cornish language anwen, meaning 'anvil'))[6]
  • Areah, Arear, Aree faa - an exclamation of surprise (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language revedh, meaning 'strange', 'astounding', or 'a wonder')[4]
  • Arish (also written [and alternatively pronounced] arrish, ersh, aish, airish, errish, hayrish and herrish) - arable field (from Middle English *ersch, from Old English ersc [“a park, preserve; stubble-field”], perhaps influenced by Cornish language arys)[4]
  • Arish mow - a stack of sheaves (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language arys)[4]
  • Are 'em - are 'em/aren't they
  • Aye? - I beg your pardon?, yes?, what was that?
  • Ayes (pronounced, 'ace') - yes (see also: "Ess", below). Perhaps from Old Norse ei ("forever") + Old English sī(e) ("may it be"), like "yes" (which is from Middle English yes, yis, which is from Old English ġēse, ġīse, ġȳse, *ġīese [“yes, of course, so be it”], equivalent to ġēa [“yes", "so”] + sī[e] [“may it be”]). Alternatively, a modification of "aye" based on "yes". Further, possibly a conflation of any (or all) of the previous, and "ess", which may represent a dialectal form of "yes".

B[edit]

The ruins of Poldice mine, Gwennap
Bal maidens at work, showing traditional dress
  • Backalong - in former times
  • Bal - a mine (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language, related to palas, meaning 'to dig')[4]
  • Bal maiden - a woman working at a mine
  • Ball - a pest, used figuratively (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language ball meaning 'a pest', or 'the plague')[4]
  • Bamfer - to worry, harass, or torment
  • Bannal - the broom plant (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language banal, short for banadhel, meaning 'broom')[4]
  • Bean - (see "vean")
  • Berrin - funeral (burying)
  • Better fit/better way - it would be better if...
  • Bilders - cow parsley
  • Bimper - a peeping tom
  • Biskan - a finger-stall (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language byskon, meaning 'thimble', or 'finger sheath')[4]
  • Bits - spinach-beet, green beet-leaves, Chard (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language betys, meaning 'edible plants of the genus Beta')[4]
  • Bladder - blister (part of mid Cornwall and north east Cornwall)[7]
  • Bleddy - local pronunciation of 'bloody' as an emphasising adjective (e.g. "dang the bleddy goat")
  • Bobber lip - bruised and swollen lip
  • Borbas - a rockling (Newlyn, Mousehole, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language barvus, meaning 'bearded')[4]
  • Bothel - a blister (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bothel)[4]
  • Bothack - the bib, or pouting (Mousehole, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bothek, meaning 'bossed', or 'hunchback')[4]
  • Bothack - a hunchback (Mullion, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bothek)[4]
  • Boughten - bought (i.e. food from a shop rather than home-made)
  • Bowjy - a cattle-house (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bowji)[4]
  • Brae / brer - quite a lot
  • Breal - a mackerel (Newlyn, Mousehole, Porthleven, St Ives, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language brithel)[4]
  • Brink - the gills of a fish (Mount's Bay, St Ives, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language brenk)[4]
  • Browjans - small fragments (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language brywsyon, or brywjyon, meaning 'crumbs', 'fragments')[4]
  • Browse - undergrowth
  • Browse - pulped bait (Mount's Bay, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bryws, meaning 'crumbled material', or bros, 'thick broth')[4]
  • Broze - a blaze, a great heat (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bros, meaning 'extremely hot')[4]
  • Brummal Mow - an arish mow of domed form (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bern moel, meaning 'bald stack')[4]
  • Bruyans, Brewions - crumbs, fragments (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language brywyon)[4]
  • Bucca - an imp, hobgoblin, scarecrow[8] (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bocka)[4]
  • Buddy - a cluster, a clump (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bodas, meaning 'bunched', or boden, meaning 'a bunch', or 'a grouping', related to the Breton bodad and boden)[4]
  • Buffon - a bruise (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language bothenn, meaning 'a swelling')[4]
  • Bulgranack - the smooth blenny (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language pol gronek, meaning 'pool toad')[4]
  • Bulorn - a snail (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language, related to Breton bigorn, a sea snail, or to Irish ballan, a shell)[4]
  • Bully - large pebble (from Cornish language bili, meaning 'pebbles')
  • Bulugen - an earthworm (Mousehole, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language buthugan)[4]
  • Bunny (also written as "bunney" and "bonie") - a bunch of ore, an unusual concentration of ore (From Middle English bony, boni [“swelling, tumor”], from Old French bugne, buigne [“swelling, lump”], from Old Frankish *bungjo [“swelling, bump”], from Proto-Germanic *bungô, *bunkô [“lump, clump, heap, crowd”]. Usage perhaps influenced by Cornish language bennigys, meaning 'blessed')[4]
  • Burd - (second person singular) bud as in "buddy"
  • Burgam - a jocular term of reproach (Gwinear, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language berrgamm, meaning 'crookshank')[4]
  • Burn - a load, as much turf, furze, etc., as one can carry; of hake or pollack, twenty-one fish. (in use after the year 1800, either from Cornish language bern, meaning 'a stack', 'a heap', or a variation of bourn ("limit"))[4]
  • Burrow - heap of (usually) mining related waste, but sometimes used simply to mean "pile"
  • Buster - someone full of fun and mischief. (Originally a variant of "burster", but later influenced (and reanalysed) separately by/as "bust" + -er. The combining form of the term has appeared from the early 20th century but been especially prolific since the 1940s, owing to its appearance as military slang).
  • Buzza, Bussa - large salting pot or bread-bin,[9] (still in use, from Cornish language boos seth, meaning 'food jar', or related to Breton boñs, a hogshead barrel)[4] also found in phrase "dafter than a buzza" very daft
  • B'y - boy, (second person singular) like sir

C[edit]

  • Cabester, Cobesta - the part of a fishing tackle connecting the hook with the lead (Mousehole, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kabester, meaning 'a halter', 'noose' or 'loop')[4]
  • Caboolen, Cabooly-stone - a holed stone, tied to a rope, and used to drive pilchards or mackerel back from the opening of a seine (Mount's Bay, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kabolen, meaning 'a stirrer', 'a mixer')[4]
  • Cack - filth (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kawgh, meaning 'excrement')[4]
  • Caggle, Gaggle - to cover in filth (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kagla, meaning 'void excrement', 'spatter with filth)[4]
  • Cakey - soft, feeble minded (from 'put in with the cakes and taken out with the buns' - half baked)
  • Cal - tungstate of iron (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kall)[4]
  • Calamajeena, Calavajina - a thornback (St Ives, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language karleyth vejiner, meaning 'buckle/hinge ray')[4]
  • Calcar - the lesser weever (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kalkar)[4]
  • Calken, Calican - the father-lasher (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kalken)[4]
  • Callan - a hard layer on the face of a rock (St Just, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kales, meaning 'hard', or kall, 'tungstate of iron')[4]
  • Cand, Cam - fluorspar (St Just, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kann, meaning 'brightness')[4]
  • Canker - a harbour crab (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kanker, meaning 'a crab')[4]
  • Cannikeeper - a spider crab (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kanker)[4]
  • Canter - a frame for a fishing-line, originally a peg was used (Newlyn, Mousehole, Sennen, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kenter, meaning 'a nail')[4]
  • Care - the mountain ash, or rowan (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kerdhin)[4]
  • Carn - a pile of rocks (used as a word and also as a place-name element, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language karn)[4]
  • Carn tyer - quartz (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kannter, meaning 'bright whiteness', or kanndir, meaning 'bright white ground')[4]
  • Carrack - a stone composed of quartz, schorl and hornblende (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language karrek, meaning 'a rock')[4]
  • Cassabully - winter cress (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kas beler, meaning 'nasty cress')[4]
  • Casteeg - to flog (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language kastiga)[4]
  • Catched - caught[10]
  • Catchpit - a place in the home where everything is dropped
  • Cauch - a mess (in use after the year 1800, see cack)[4]
  • Caunse - paved way (from Cornish language cons)
  • Chacking - thirsty
  • Chacks - cheeks
  • Chea chaunter, cheechonter - stop your chatter! (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language ti tewelder, meaning 'swear silence')[4]
  • Cheel - child especially girl "a boy or a cheel"
  • Cheldern - children
  • Chewidden Thursday - a miners' festival (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language dy' Yow gwynn, with Late Cornish gwydn, meaning 'white Thursday')[4]
  • Chimley - chimney[11]
  • Chirks - remnants of fire, embers; "chirk" burrows where used coal was found near mines (from Cornish language towargh, via Late Cornish chowark, meaning 'peat or turf for burning')
  • Churchtown - the settlement where the parish church is located
  • Clacky - sticky and chewy food
  • Clim (up) - climb (everywhere except west of Camborne and Helston)[12]
  • Clip - sharp in speaking, curt, having taken offence
  • Cloam - crockery, pottery, earthenware
  • Cloam oven - earthenware built-in oven
  • Clunk - swallow; clunker - windpipe[13]
A "Cousin Jack's" pasty shop in Grass Valley, California
  • Cousin Jack - a Cornish emigrant miner; "Cousin Jacks" is a nickname for the overseas Cornish, thought to derive from the practice of Cornishmen asking if job vacancies could be filled by their cousin named Jack in Cornwall.[14][15]
  • Crease - children's truce term (west Cornwall) [16] (from the Cornish word for "peace")
  • Crib - a mid-morning break for a snack (see below also)[17]
  • Croust (or Crowst) - a mid-morning break for a snack (usually west Cornwall)[18] (from Cornish language croust)
  • Cummas 'zon - come on, hurry up
  • Cundard - a drain
  • Cuss - curse[19]

D[edit]

  • Daft - silly[20]
  • Dag - short hatchet or axe (miner's dag); also in phrase "Face like a dag"
  • Dashel - thistle
  • Denner - dinner, evening meal
  • Devoner - someone from Devon (used in a derogatory sense)
"Dreckly" on souvenir clocks in Cornwall
Wenford Dries
  • Didikoy - gypsy (mid and east Cornwall)[21]
  • Didnus - Didn't we
  • Dilley - wheeled play trolley made from wood and pram wheels
  • Dishwasher - water-wagtail
  • Dobeck - somebody stupid ("great dobeck")
  • Dram - swath[9]
  • Drash - thresh; "drasher" = thresher
  • Dreckley / Dreckly - at some point in the future; soon, but not immediately; like "mañana", but less urgent (derives from English "directly" but differs in meaning) (c.p. Presently, British English, but formerly the meaning was "immediately")
  • Dreckzel - threshold of a doorway
  • Dry (china clay) - a dry is where the sludge gets processed (e.g. Wenford Dries)
  • Dryth - drying power, "There's no dryth in the wind today"
  • Dummity - low light level, overcast
  • Durns - door frame

E[edit]

  • 'e - contraction of "he" but used in place of "it"
  • Ee - contraction of thee
  • Eeval - farmer's fork implement
  • Emmet - ant or more recently tourist (mildly derogatory); four-legged emmet (mid-Cornwall) - newt
  • 'er - she (East Cornwall)[22]
  • Ess - yes (see also, "Ayes", above)
  • Ewe (cat) - she cat (mid and west Cornwall)[23]

F[edit]

Gorse-covered hillside
  • Fains - children's truce term (east Cornwall)[24]
  • Fall - autumn, Fall (south of a line from Mount's Bay to Launceston)[25]
  • Figgy hobbin - lump of dough, cooked with a handful of raisins (raisins being "figs" and figs "broad raisins")
  • Fitty - proper, properly
  • Fizzogg - face (colloquial form of "physiognomy")
  • Flam-new - brand new (from Cornish language flamm noweth)
  • Fly, Flies - hands of a dial or clock
  • Folks - people (mid and east Cornwall)[26]
  • Fossick - to search for something by rummaging, to prospect for minerals (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language feusik, meaning 'lucky' or 'fortunate')[4]
  • Fradge - repair
  • Fuggan - pastry dinner-cake[9]
  • Furze, furzy - gorse,[27] covered with gorse, as in the local saying at Stratton "Stratton was a market town when Bude was just a furzy down", meaning Stratton was long established when Bude was just gorse-covered downland. (A similar saying is current at Saltash about Plymouth.)

G[edit]

A miner's pick
Four women wearing large white bonnets
Bal maidens wearing gooks, 1890
  • Gad - a pick, especially a miner's pick; this kind of pick is a small pointed chisel used with a hammer, e.g. a hammer and gad
  • Gawky - stupid[9]
  • Geeking - gaping[9]
  • Geddon - good show / well done (cf. get on!)
  • Girt licker - very large object, as in "That fish you caught is a girt licker"
  • Giss on! - don't talk rubbish!
  • Glance - bounce (describing a ball) (mid and east Cornwall)[28]
  • Gook - bonnet[9]
  • Gossan - (in mining) a term for the loose mixture of quartz, iron oxide and other minerals often found on the "back" of a lode;[29] decomposed rock[30]
  • Grammersow - woodlouse
  • Granfer - grandfather[31]
  • Griglans - heather[9]
  • Grisly, Grizzly - a grating used to catch and throw out large stones from the sluices (still in use in mining industry worldwide, from Cornish language grysla, meaning 'to grin', 'to show one's teeth')
  • Grushans, Groushans - dregs,[9] especially in bottom of tea cup
  • Guag, Gwag - emptiness, hollow space in a mine (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language gwag, meaning 'empty')[4]
  • Gunnis - an underground excavation left where a lode has been worked out [32]
  • Gurgoe - warren [9]
  • Gwidgee-gwee - a blister, often caused by a misdirected hammer blow

H[edit]

A mounting block at St Buryan
The Huer's Hut overlooking Newquay Bay
  • Haggel - hawthorn berries[33]
  • Hav - summer (hair+v)[clarification needed]
  • Heave - throw (mid Cornwall)[34]
  • Heller - troublesome child
  • Henting - raining hard ("ee's henting out there")
  • Hepping stock - mounting block[35]
  • Hoggan - pastry cake[9]
  • Hoggans - haws[9]
  • Holing - working, mining (from Cornish language hwel, meaning 'a mine working') used in phrase "holing in guag", meaning mining somewhere that has already been mined.
  • Huer - a lookout on land assisting fishermen by shouted directions

J[edit]

A black and white engraving of a woman in 18th century clothing with a bonnet. Fish, a crab, a crustacean and a jug are below
Dolly Pentreath (a fish jowster), in an engraved portrait published in 1781
  • Jackteeth / Jawteeth - molars; "jackteeth" is used in the north east, "jawteeth" in the southeast and mid Cornwall, but "grinders" in the west.[36]
  • Jamien - a hero, legend, honourable person
  • Jowse - shake or rattle
  • Jowster - itinerant seller, e.g. "fish jowster"[37]

K[edit]

L[edit]

Linhay at Higher Troswell
  • Larrups - rags, shreds, bits
  • Launder - guttering, originally a trough in tin mining (from Cornish language londer)
  • Lawn - a field
  • Learn - teach[41] (from Cornish language desky which means both 'to learn' and 'to teach', similar to French apprendre)
  • Linhay - lean-to (of a building)
  • Louster - to work hard
  • Lowance out - to set limits financially (from "allowance")

M[edit]

  • Made/matey/Meh'd - mate
  • Maid - girl, girl-friend (see also Bal maiden)
  • Maund - large basket
  • Mazed - mad, angry
  • Meader - unknown; used in the 'Poldark' novels apparently of a weakling or runt of a litter
  • Milky-dashel - milk thistle
  • Minching - skiving "minching off school"
  • Mind - remember
  • Month - a particular month is referred to with "month" added to its name, e.g. May month
  • Mowhay - barn, hay store, stackyard
  • Murrian, Muryan - (Cornish) ant[9] or more recently a tourist (mainly west Cornwall) (cp. Emmet) (from Cornish language moryon)
  • Mutt - sulk[42]

N[edit]

  • Nestle-bird, nestle-drish (East Cornwall) - the weakest pig of a litter
  • Nip - narrow path or short steep rise
  • Nought but - as in "nought but a child" (east Cornwall)[43]

O[edit]

Tonkin's Ope, Truro

P[edit]

A Cornish pixy
  • Padgypaw, Padgy-pow (West Cornwall) - a newt[9] (from Cornish language pajar paw)
  • Pard - friend ("partner")
  • Party - a young woman
  • Peeth - well[9]
  • Piggy-whidden (West Cornwall) - the runt of a litter of pigs
  • Pig's-crow - pigsty[9]
  • Pike - pitchfork
  • Pilez - Avena nuda (formerly used as a substitute for oatmeal and for fattening calves)[44]
  • Pilth - small balls found in over-rubbed cotton
  • Pisky - pixie
  • Planching/Planchen - a wooden or planked floor
  • Platt - market place (e.g. The Platt at Wadebridge)
  • Prong - fork (such as a hay fork, garden fork, &c.) [45]
  • Proper - satisfactory; "proper job"

Q[edit]

  • Quilkin - frog (from Cornish language qwilkyn)
  • Quillet - small plot of land (for cultivation)

R[edit]

  • Rab - gravel[9]
  • Redders - (adjective) feeling physically hot, either from the weather or from exertion
  • Right on - an informal way of saying goodbye
  • Roar - weep loudly
  • Rumped (up) - huddled up, usually from the cold; phrase "rumped up like a winnard"

S[edit]

  • Scat - to hit or break "scat abroad = smashed up" (e.g. "mind and not scat abroad the cloam");[46] musical beat ('e's two scats behind); "bal scat" is a disused mine (from Cornish language scattra)
  • Scaw - elder tree[9]
  • Screech - to cry loudly
  • Shippen - farm building for livestock. From Middle English schipne, Middle English schepne, schüpene, from Old English scypen (“cow-shed, stall, shippen”), from Proto-Germanic *skupīnō (“stall”), diminutive of *skup- (“shed, barn”). Related to shop.
  • Shram - chill (as in "shrammed as a winnard")
  • Slab - a Cornish range
  • Slock - to coax, entice or tempt "slock 'un 'round"
  • Small coal / slack - coal dust; "slack" only in the far south west[47]
  • Smeech - acrid smoke (also used as a verb 'to smeech'), and also used as the verb in west Cornwall for misty rain, as "its smeeching".
  • Some - very, extremely (as in "'e d' look some wisht", "'tis some hot today")
  • Sowpig - woodlouse
  • Spence - larder in house; "crowded = House full, spence full"
Stargazy pie
Swaling
  • Splatt - patch of grass
  • Spriggan - spirit
  • Sproil - energy[42]
  • Squall - to cry
  • Squallass, squallyass - crybaby
  • Stagged - muddy
  • Stank - to walk,[9] also a word for a long walk as in "that was a fair old stank" (from Cornish language stankya)
  • Stargazy (or starry gazy) pie - a pilchard pie with the fish heads uppermost
  • Steen - stoneware pot
  • Steeved - frozen
  • Stripped up - dressed appropriately
  • Stroyl - couch grass (from Cornish language stroylek 'messy')
  • Stuggy - broad and sturdy (of a person's build)
  • Swale - to burn (moorland vegetation) to bring on new growth

T[edit]

  • Tacker - small child, toddler
  • Teal - to till, cultivate (e.g. 'tealing teddies')
  • Teasy - bad-tempered (from Cornish language tesek)
  • Teddy / tiddy - potato
  • Thirl - hungry[48]
  • Tidden - tender (from "tidn" Cornish language painful)[9]
  • To - at; e.g. ""over to Cury" (at [the parish] of Cury)[49] Also "Where is it?" could be phrased as "Where's he/her to?" and "Where's that" as "Where's that to" (cp. usage in the Bristolian dialect).[50]
  • Tob - a piece of turf
  • Towan - sandhill or dune (from Cornish language tewyn)
  • Towser - a piece of material worn by agricultural workers and tied around the waist to protect the front of trousers, often made from a hessian potato sack
  • Turmut - turnip; or commonly swede (a Cornish pasty is often made of "turmut, 'tates and mate" i.e. swede, potato and meat)

U[edit]

  • Ummin - dirty, filthy. As in 'the bleddy floor is ummin'.
  • Un - him/her (used in place of "it" accusative)
  • Upcountry - a generalised geographical term meaning anywhere which is in England, except for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly.
  • Urts - whortleberries, bilberries
  • Us two / We two - As in 'there are just we two'; "Us two" is used only in north east Cornwall and "we two" in the rest of Cornwall.[51]

V[edit]

  • Vellan - villain
  • Visgy - mattock
  • Vor - furrow, as in a planted field
  • Vug - rock cavity[52]

W[edit]

  • Wasson - what's going on?
  • We be - As in 'Oh yes, we be!'; used in most of mid and east Cornwall, whereas "we are" is used in the far west.[53]
  • Wheal - often incorrectly attributed to meaning a mine, but actually means a place of work; the names of most Cornish mines are prefixed with Wheal, such as Wheal Jane, Wheal Butson, etc.
  • Whidden - weakling (of a litter of pigs)[9]
  • Whitneck - weasel[42]
  • Wilky (Quilkin) - a frog (from Cornish language qwilkyn)
  • Winnard - redwing[citation needed]
  • Wisht - hard-done-by, weak, faint, pale; e.g. "You're looking wisht today"
  • Wo / ho - stop (when calling horses) ("ho" between a line from Crantock to St Austell and a line from Hayle to the Helford River; "way" in the northeast)[54]

Y[edit]

You, yo - as an emphatic end to a sentence, e.g. "Who's that, you?"; "Drag in the cheeld, you! and don't 'ee lev un go foorth till 'ee 's gone"[55]

Z[edit]

Barrett's Zawn on the north Cornish coast
  • Zackley - exactly
  • Zam-zoodled - half cooked or over cooked
  • Zart - a sea urchin (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language sort, meaning a sea urchin, or hedgehog)[4]
  • Zawn - a fissure in a cliff (used as a word and also as a place-name element, in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language sawen, or saven, meaning a cleft or gully)[4]
  • Zew - to work alongside a lode, before breaking it down (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language sewen,, meaning prosperous, successful)[4]
  • Zuggans - the essence of anything (in use after the year 1800, from Cornish language sugen,, meaning juice, sap, syrup, essence)[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillipps, K. C. (1993) A Glossary of the Cornish Dialect ISBN 0-907018-91-2
  2. ^ Cornish dialect dictionary
  3. ^ Little attempt has been made to record the districts where most of these words have been used except in a few cases of East, Mid, or West Cornwall, e.g. crib; crowst.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj Nance, Robert Morton (1923). Glossary of Celtic Words in Cornish Dialect. Falmouth: Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 
  5. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 156–57. 
  6. ^ a b James, C.C. (1949). A History of the Parish of Gwennap in Cornwall. Penzance: C. C. James. 
  7. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 108–09. 
  8. ^ Wakelin, Martyn F. (1977) English Dialects: an introduction; rev. ed. London: Athlone Press; p. 128
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Wakelin, Martyn F. (1977) English Dialects: an introduction; rev. ed. London: Athlone Press; p. 129
  10. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 60–61. 
  11. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 146–47. 
  12. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 164–65. 
  13. ^ Wakelin, Martyn F. (1977) English Dialects: an introduction; rev. ed. London: Athlone Press; p. 128-29
  14. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan (1980), Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (2nd ed.), Harvard University Press, pp. 243–44, ISBN 978-0-674-37512-3 
  15. ^ Jupp, James (2001), The Australian People: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 229, ISBN 978-0-521-80789-0 
  16. ^ Opie, Iona & Peter (1959) The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren. Oxford: Clarendon Press; map on p. 149
  17. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.) has "Food, provisions, light meal, etc." (dialectal) as one of the meanings of "crib" giving several examples including quotations from M. A. Courtney's Glossary (1880) and Rowse's Cornish Childhood (1942).
  18. ^ In An Gerlyver Meur 'croust' is given as meaning 'picnic lunch, meal taken to work, snack', and says it is attested in Origo Mundi, line 1901 (written in the 14th century). It also says it comes from Middle English 'crouste', which in turn came from Old French 'crouste'. So it appears that the word was indeed a loan from Middle English but it was in use as part of the Cornish language long before the language died out, and seems to have entered the Anglo-Cornish dialect from the Cornish language.
  19. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 166–67. 
  20. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 94–95. 
  21. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 80–81. 
  22. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 68–69. 
  23. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 120–21. 
  24. ^ Opie, Iona & Peter (1959) The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren. Oxford: Clarendon Press; map on p. 149 & "fains or fainites", p. 151
  25. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 154–55. 
  26. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 72–73. 
  27. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 136–37. 
  28. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 160–61. 
  29. ^ Collins, J. H. Manual of Mineralogy, 1871
  30. ^ Gossan; The Free Dictionary
  31. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 76–77. 
  32. ^ a b [1]
  33. ^ Vyvyan, C. C. (1948) Our Cornwall. London: Westaway Books; p. 24
  34. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–79. 
  35. ^ Langdon, A. G. (1896) Old Cornish Crosses. Truro: Joseph Pollard; p. 393
  36. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–89. 
  37. ^ Ellis, P. B. (1974) The Cornish Language and its Literature. London: Routledge; p. 115
  38. ^ Kibbal; Online dictionary
  39. ^ Cornwall Wildlife Trust (2012). "Killas". Cornish Geology. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  40. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 100–01. 
  41. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 176–77. 
  42. ^ a b c Vyvyan, C. C. (1948) Our Cornwall. London: Westaway Books; p. 33
  43. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 96–97. 
  44. ^ Borlase, William (1758) Natural History of Cornwall ... Oxford: printed for the author; by W. Jackson: sold by W. Sandby, at the Ship in Fleet-Street London; and the booksellers of Oxford; reissued by E & W Books, London, 1970; p. 89
  45. ^ Copper, Bob, A Song for Every Season. London: Heinemann, 1971; p. 112
  46. ^ Vyvyan, C. C. (1948) Our Cornwall. London: Westaway Books; p. 4
  47. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 148–49. 
  48. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 106–07. 
  49. ^ "There's old Wason over to Cury ..." (referring to Sandys Wason)--Walke, Bernard (2002) Twenty Years at St Hilary. Mount Hawke: Truran; p. 25
  50. ^ "An Introduction to Newfoundland Vernacular English". Language Variation in Canada. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2007. 
  51. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. 
  52. ^ Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms by American Geological Institute and U S Bureau of Mines; pp. 128, 249 & 613
  53. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. 
  54. ^ Upton, Clive; Widdowson, J. D. A. (1996). An Atlas of English Dialects. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 180–81. 
  55. ^ Hamilton Jenkin, A. K. (1945) Cornwall and its People. London: J. M. Dent; p. 235

Further reading[edit]

  • Dyer, Peter (2005) Tintagel: a portrait of a parish. [Cambridge]: Cambridge Books ISBN 0-9550097-0-7 (includes transcriptions of interviews with local dialect speakers)
  • Nance, R. Morton A Guide to Cornish Place-names; with a list of words contained in them; 3rd ed. [Truro]: Federation of Old Cornwall Societies, [1961]
  • North, David J. & Sharpe, Adam A Word-geography of Cornwall. Redruth: Institute of Cornish Studies, 1980 (includes word-maps of Cornish words)
  • Pool, P. A. S. (1969) An Introduction to Cornish Place Names. Penzance: the author
  • Weatherhill, Craig Cornish Place Names & Language. Wilmslow: Sigma Press 1995, 1998, & 2000 ISBN 1-85058-462-1
  • --do.--Place Names in Cornwall & Scilly: Henwyn plasow yn Kernow ha Syllan. Launceston: Wessex, 2005 ISBN 1-903035-25-2
  • --do.--Cornish Place Names & Language; completely revised edition. Wilmslow: Sigma Press, 2007 ISBN 978-1-85058-837-5
  • --do.--A Concise Dictionary of Cornish Place-Names. Westport, Mayo: Evertype, 2009 ISBN 978-1-904808-22-0