List of CubeSats

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The following is a list of CubeSats, nanosatellites used primarily by universities for research missions, typically in low Earth orbits. Some CubeSats became their country's first national satellite.

Research and development[edit]

  • An ambitious project is the QB50, an international network of 50 CubeSats for multi-point by different Universities and other teams, in-situ measurements in the lower thermosphere (90–350 km) and re-entry research. QB50 is an initiative of the Von Karman Institute and is funded by the European Union. Double-unit ("2-U") CubeSats (10x10x20 cm) are foreseen, with one unit (the 'functional' unit) providing the usual satellite functions and the other unit (the 'science' unit) accommodating a set of standardised sensors for lower thermosphere and re-entry research. 35 CubeSats are envisaged to be provided by universities in 19 European countries, 10 by universities in the US, 2 by universities in Canada, 3 by Japanese universities, 1 by an institute in Brazil, and others. Ten double or triple CubeSats are foreseen to serve for in-orbit technology demonstration of new space technologies. All 50 CubeSats may be launched together on a single Cyclone-4 launch vehicle in February 2016.[1] The Request for Proposals (RFP) for the QB50 CubeSat was released on February 15, 2012.
  • AAU CubeSat, by Aalborg University: The Danish students in this project, beginning in the summer of 2001, designed a satellite that would evaluate the technology and demonstrate the capabilities of the CubeSat concept. In order to successfully show the technology to the public, the team installed a camera on board the spacecraft, and outfitted it with a magnetically based attitude control system. But upon reaching orbit, the radio signals were weaker than expected and the batteries failed after only one month of semi-operational activity.[2]
  • AAUSAT-II is the second student-built CubeSat built and operated by students from Aalborg University in Denmark. It was launched 28 April 2008 05:54 UTC from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India on a PSLV rocket. AAUSAT-II carries a radiation sensor.
  • AAUSAT3 is the third student-built CubeSat from Aalborg University in Denmark. The primary payload is an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver which primary task is to receive AIS data from ships around Greenland. Launched 25 February 2013 on the Indian PSLV C20. AAUSAT3 is the very first student satellite operating AIS receivers and the first demonstration of the AAU developed CSP communication protocol - internally on CANBUS on spacelink at UHF (FSK, 9600/19200). The mission has been successful.
  • PW-Sat, by Warsaw University of Technology: This experiment revolves around CubeSats themselves. The test will involve developing a method to deorbit CubeSats by engaging an atmospheric drag device.[3] The mission's focus will be the testing of this foil device; its deployment to intentionally bring the satellite back into the thicker portion of Earth's atmosphere to bring the mission to an end.[4] The satellite is Poland's first.[5] The satellite was delivered to orbit on the maiden flight of the European Space Agency's new launch vehicle in 2012.[6]
  • OUFTI-1, by the University of Liège and I.S.I.L (Haute École de la Province de Liège): This is a 1-unit CubeSat that is being built by Belgian students. The name is an acronym for Orbital Utility For Telecommunication Innovation. This Belgian satellite was planned to launch on the maiden flight of Vega. The goal of the project is to develop experience in the different aspects of satellite design and operation. In the communications portion of the device, the academic team will be experimenting with the D-STAR digital voice mode and communications protocol that is popular with amateur radio operators.[3][7] The satellite has a mass of just 1 kilogram and will utilize a UHF uplink and a VHF downlink.[8]
  • CubeSat TestBed 1, by Boeing: Boeing successfully completed all of its design and operational goals with its first nanosatellite. It was built and flown to explore the possibilities with the new CubeSat standard.[9] Boeing satellites are usually much larger; a Boeing 601 or 702 satellite has 1,000 times the mass of their 1 kilogram CubeSat.[10]
  • InnoSAT, by Astronautic Technology Sdn Bhd: This CubeSat will test attitude control and navigation technologies developed by five Malaysian universities.[11]
  • XSAS, by University of Michigan: This project, based on graduate research, will house an accordion folded solar array inside a 1U CubeSat. The array will extend into a long solar panel once in orbit, thereby increasing by many times the power available to an attached CubeSat.[12]
  • Clyde Space is a company that started development of subsystems for CubeSats in 2005, including electrical power systems, attitude control systems, and pulsed-plasma thruster propulsion systems. In 2010 the UK Space Agency awarded Clyde Space the UK's first CubeSat mission, UKube-1, a 3U CubeSat due to launch mid-2013.[13]
  • Aerojet began developing a propulsion system for cubesats in 2011 that occupies a 1U baseline volume and readily integrates with other CubeSat platforms to create modular, fully mobile cubesats. Dubbed "CHAMPS", this system utilizes chemical propulsion and offers significantly more total impulse compared to cold gas propulsion systems.[14]
  • Alta SpA develops electric and chemical propulsion systems suited for satellites of various size. A critical analysis of different electric propulsion systems was carried out by the company in 2011.[15] The IL-FEEP thruster, a field emission, linear slit propulsion system based on the FEEP heritage, is specially suited for CubeSats and is provided in a compact, 1U version for use on 2U or 3U missions.[16]
  • The Vermont Lunar CubeSat launched by Vermont Technical College and funded in part by a grant from Vermont Space Grant Consortium and NASA.[17]
  • OPUSAT was launched to test Lithium-ion capacitor technology in space.
  • e-st@r (Educational Satellite @ Polytechnic University of Turin) is a miniaturized satellite built by the Polytechnic University of Turin. It was launched into Low Earth Orbit on the maiden flight of Arianespace's Vega rocket on the 13th Feb 2012. It is a 1-U CubeSat design weighing 1 kg. The launch was a multi-payload mission shared with LARES, ALMASat-1, Goliat, MaSat-1, PW-Sat, ROBUSTA, UniCubeSat-GG and Xatcobeo.

Earth remote sensing[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Earth remote sensing.

Space tether[edit]

NASA's GeneSat 1
For more details on tethers in space, see Tether satellite.
For more details on space missions using tethers, see Space tether missions.
  • MAST, by Tethers Unlimited: The Multi-Application Survivable Tether experiment, based in the United States, was launched 17 April 2007 aboard a Dnepr rocket. This 1 km multistrand, interconnected tether (Hoytether) is being used to test and prove the long-term survivability for tethers in space. The three MAST pico-satellites ejected from the P-POD successfully, but the communications system had difficulties,[23][24] and the separation mechanism did not function properly, preventing full deployment of the tether.[25] Nonetheless, the experiment operated for over a month and downloaded over 2 MB of data on tethered satellite dynamics as well as images of the tether. While Stanford University formed the academic portion of the team, Tethers Unlimited, from Seattle, Washington, formed the commercial portion of the team.[26]
  • STARS (Kukai), by the Kagawa Satellite Development Project at Kagawa University, Japan: The Space Tethered Autonomous Robotic Satellite (STARS) mission launched 23 January 2009 as a secondary payload on a H-IIA launch. After launch, the satellite was named KUKAI, and consisted of two subsatellites, "Ku" and "Kai," to be linked by a 5-meter tether. It was successfully separated from the rocket and transferred into the planned orbit.[27] See also STARS-II microsatellite follow-up with longer (300m) tether.
  • Tempo3, by The Mars Society: This operation is called the Tethered Experiment for Mars inter-Planetary Operations and is meant to demonstrate the generation of artificial gravity. The project seeks to enhance knowledge about long term space flight.[28]

Biology[edit]

  • GeneSat 1, by the NASA Ames Research Center: In December 2006, a Minotaur launch vehicle carried this satellite into orbit from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to carry out a genetics experiment. The team assembled the biological growth and analysis systems to perform experiments with E. coli bacteria.[29] The project is not cheap by CubeSat standards: the total spent on the satellite and its experiments were $6 million before the launch took place. The goal is to establish methods for studying the genetic changes that come from being exposed to a space environment.[30] The satellite was outfitted with a UHF beacon.

Other uses[edit]

  • StudSat, first Indian satellite of Pico-Category was developed by a group of 35 students from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, India, and was launched 12 July 2010 by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.[31]
  • Cubesat ROBUSTA, by Montpellier 2 University: A mission to test the effects of radiation on electronics.[3] The goal is to specifically check the deterioration of electronic components based on bipolar transistors when exposed to the space radiation environment. The results of this experiment will be used to validate a test method proposed in the laboratory. The French satellite launched on the maiden flight of Vega in early 2012.[6]
  • TJ³Sat, by Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, Alexandria, VA, which was the first CubeSat ever launched by high school students on November 19, 2013.[32]
  • Xatcobeo, by University of Vigo and Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial: The goal for this project is to test software defined radio and to experiment with solar panel deployment.[3] The Spanish satellite launched on the maiden flight of Vega.[3][6]
  • CINEMA, a collaborative effort between the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, Imperial College London, Kyung Hee University, and the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico: The project's goal is to develop a cubesat that monitors space weather using a combination of magnetometers and particle detectors.[33]
  • A CubeSat Inflatable Deorbit Device, by Old Dominion University: This study describes a deployable aerodynamic drag device that can be incorporated in basic 1U CubeSat units that can meet the 25-year orbital lifetime constraint for initial orbit perigees of up to 900 km.[34]
  • The NEE-01 Pegaso launched by the Ecuadorian Space Agency in early 2013 was the first known cubesat able to transmit real time video from orbit and broadcast the live feed over the internet.[35]
  • INVADER (Artsat-1) launched by JAXA in 2014 to provide voice broadcast from orbit.

List of launched CubeSats[edit]

There are five types of CubeSats: 0.5U, 1U, 2U, 3U, and 6U. The number corresponds to the length of the CubeSat in decimetres. Width and Depth are normally ten centimetres, or one decimetre. A 6U Cubesat measures 1x2x3 decimetres.[36]

This list can be sorted by clicking on the heading of any column.

Name COSPAR ID[37]
SATCAT №
Type Organisation Mission Mission status Launch Date (UTC) Time Launch Vehicle Reentry date Remarks
MinXSS 41474U 3U University of Colorado Boulder / Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics Solar soft x-ray studies Active 6 Dec 2015, ISS deployed 16 May 2016 08:44 Atlas V ,[38][39]
AeroCube-6 1U Aerospace Corporation Radiation studies in LEO 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11 Dnepr [40][41]
UniSat 6 2014-033C In-orbit CubeSat launcher GAUSS Deployed TigriSat, Lemur 1, ANTELSAT and AeroCube 6 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11 Dnepr [40][42][43]
ExoCube[44] 3U Cal Poly
PolySat
Space weather 31 Jan 2015 14:22[45] Delta II via ELaNa-X [46][47]
FIREBIRD II 1.5U ×2 Montana State University
University of New Hampshire
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Aerospace Corp
Space weather 31 Jan 2015 14:22[45] Delta II via ELaNa-X Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Burst, Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD) II[46][48]
GRIFEX 3U University of Michigan
NASA JPL
Atmospheric studies technology 31 Jan 2015 14:22[45] Delta II via ELaNa-X Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) In-Flight Performance Experiment (GRIFEX)[46][49][50]
OptiCube 3 3U Cal Poly, SLO Targets for orbital debris studies Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51][52]
AeroCube 8B 1.5U Aerospace Corp. Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
AeroCube 8A 1.5U Aerospace Corp. Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
OptiCube 2 3U Cal Poly, SLO Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
GEARRS-2 3U NearSpace Launch Inc Technology/Communications Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
OptiCube 1 3U Cal Poly, SLO Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
BRICSat-P 1.5U U.S. Naval Academy Transponder experiment, electric propulsion technology Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51][53][54]
PSat A 1.5U U.S. Naval Academy Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51][55]
USS Langley 3U U.S. Naval Academy Active 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V [51]
CanX-1 2003-031H
27847
1U UTIAS Technology demonstration[56] Failed 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM No signal from spacecraft[58]
DTUsat 2003-031C
27842
1U DTU Tether research[59] Failed 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM No signal from spacecraft[59]
AAU CubeSat[60] 2003-031G
27846
1U Aalborg University Imaging[61] Failed 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM Battery problems, deactivated on 2003 Sep 22[62]
QuakeSat 2003-031F
27845
3U Stanford University Earthquake detection[63] Active 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM
CUTE-I (Oscar 55) 2003-031E
27844
1U Tokyo Institute of Technology Amateur radio Active[64][65] 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM
Cubesat XI-IV (Oscar 57) 2003-031J
27848
1U University of Tokyo Amateur radio Active[66] 30 Jun 2003 14:15[57] Rokot/Briz-KM
Cubesat XI-V (Oscar 58) 2005-043F
28895
1U University of Tokyo Amateur radio Active[67] 27 Oct 2005 14:15[68][69] Kosmos-3M
nCube-2 2005-043H
28897
1U ARR/NSC Amateur radio Failed 27 Oct 2005 14:15[68][69] Kosmos-3M No signal[70]
UWE-1 2005-043C
28892
1U University of Würzburg Technology/Communications[71] Failed 27 Oct 2005 14:15[68][69] Kosmos-3M Contact lost on 2005 Nov 17[72]
SACRED 1U University of Arizona Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
ION 2U University of Illinois Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
Rincon 1 1U University of Arizona Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
ICE Cube 1 1U Cornell University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
KUTESat 1U University of Kansas Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
NCUBE-1 1U ARR/NSC Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
HAUSAT-1 1U Hankuk Aviation University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
SEEDS-1 1U Nihon University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
CP-2 1U California Polytechnic University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
AeroCube 1 1U Aerospace Corporation Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
MEROPE 1U Montana State University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
Mea Huaka`i (Voyager) 1U University of Hawaii Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
ICE Cube 2 1U Cornell University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
CP-1 1U California Polytechnic University Destroyed 26 Jul 2006 19:43[73] Dnepr-1 Launch failure[74]
GeneSat-1 2006-058C
29655
3U NASA/Santa Clara University Biological research
Technology demonstration[75]
Completed 16 Dec 2006 12:00[76] Minotaur 2010 Aug 04 Primary mission complete[76]
CSTB1 2007-012F
31122
1U Boeing Active[77] 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1
AeroCube 2 2007-012R
31133
1U Aerospace Corporation Failed 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1 Solar converter malfunction on 2007 Apr 18[77]
CP-4 2007-012Q
31132
1U California Polytechnic University Active[77] 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1
Libertad-1 2007-012M
31128
1U Sergio Arboleda University Successful 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1 Designed to only operate for 50 days. However continued for over 2 years.
CAPE-1[79] 2007-012P
31130
1U University of Louisiana at Lafayette Active[77] 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1
CP-3 2007-012N
31129
1U California Polytechnic University Active[77] 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1
MAST 2007-012K
31126
1U Tethers Unlimited Tether experiments 17 Apr 2007 06:46[78] Dnepr-1 Failed to deploy, but radio contact made[23][77]
Cute-1.7 + APD II 2008-021C
32785
2U Tokyo Institute of Technology Separation system demonstration and Avalanche Photo Diode sensor experiment Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
COMPASS-1 2008-021E
32787
1U FH Aachen Demonstration of commercial off-the-shelf components and taking photos Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
AAUSAT-II[80] 2008-021F
32788
1U University of Aalborg, Denmark ADCS system and a gamma ray detector Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
Delfi-C3 2008-021G
32789
3U Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands On-orbit testing of thin film solar cells (TFSC) and autonomous wireless sun sensor (AWSS), Demonstrating the world's first linear amateur radio transponder on a CubeSat[81] Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
CanX-2 2008-021H
32790
3U University of Toronto, Canada Technology demonstrator for formation flying Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
SEEDS-2 2008-021J
32791
1U Nihon University, Japan Amateur radio experiments and preprogrammed message sending Active 28 Apr 2008 03:53 PSLV-CA
PREsat 3U NASA Technology Destroyed 3 Aug 2008 03:34 Falcon 1 Launch failure
NanoSail-D 3U NASA Technology Destroyed 3 Aug 2008 03:34 Falcon 1 Launch failure
PharmaSat 2009-028B
35002
3U NASA Ames Research Center, Santa Clara University, UTMB Measured the effect of antifungal countermeasures on yeast strains in microgravity. ~96 hour experiment.[82] Completed 19 May 2009 23:55 Minotaur I 2012 Aug 14
CP6 2009-028C
35003
1U California Polytechnic University 19 May 2009 23:55 Minotaur I 2011 Oct 06
HawkSat I 2009-028D
35004
1U HISS 19 May 2009 23:55 Minotaur I 2011 Sep 04
AeroCube 3 2009-028E
35005
1U Aerospace Corporation 19 May 2009 23:55 Minotaur I 2011 Jan 06
SwissCube-1 2009-051B
35932
1U Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Upper atmospheric science Active 23 Sep 2009 06:21[83][84] PSLV-CA First Swiss satellite
BeeSat-1 2009-051C
35933
1U Berlin Institute of Technology Reaction wheel technology qualification Active 23 Sep 2009 06:21[83][84] PSLV-CA
UWE-2 2009-051D
35934
1U Universität Würzburg ADCS technology demonstrator Active 23 Sep 2009 06:21[83][84] PSLV-CA
ITUpSAT1 2009-051E
35935
1U Istanbul Technical University Imagery, technology Active 23 Sep 2009 06:21[83][84] PSLV-CA
Hayato 2010-020A
36573
1U Kagoshima University Failed[citation needed] 20 May 2010 21:58 H-IIA 202 2010 Jun 28
Waseda-SAT2 2010-020B
36574
1U Waseda University Unclear[citation needed] 20 May 2010 21:58 H-IIA 202 2010 Jul 12
Negai☆'' 2010-020C
36575
1U Soka University Successful[citation needed] 20 May 2010 21:58 H-IIA 202 2010 Jun 26
TIsat-1 2010-035E
36799
1U SUPSI Active[citation needed] 12 Jul 2010 03:53 PSLV-CA
StudSat 2010-035B
36796
1U StudSat Inactive[citation needed] 12 Jul 2010 03:53 PSLV-CA First Indian picosatellite
RAX-1 2010-062B
37223
3U University of Michigan Ionospheric research Premature End 20 Nov 2010 01:25 Minotaur 4 (STP-S26) anomaly on the solar panels resulted in degradation of power generation[85]
O/OREOS 2010-062C
37224
3U NASA SMD Life sciences 20 Nov 2010 01:25 Minotaur 4 (STP-S26) [86]
NanoSail-D2 2010-062L
37361
3U NASA Ames Research Center Technology Completed 20 Nov 2010 01:25 Minotaur 4 (STP-S26) 2011 Sep 17 failed to eject 2010 Dec 06; spontaneously ejected 2011 Jan 19 to complete mission[87]
Perseus 000 2010-066H
37251
1.5U[88] Los Alamos National Laboratory[88] Developing a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types[88] Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9[88] 2010 Dec 30
Perseus 001 2010-066E
37248
1.5U[88] Los Alamos National Laboratory[88] Developing a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types[88] Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9[88] 2010 Dec 31
Perseus 002 2010-066G
37250
1.5U[88] Los Alamos National Laboratory[88] Developing a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types[88] Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9[88] 2010 Dec 30
Perseus 003 2010-066D
37247
1.5U[88] Los Alamos National Laboratory[88] Developing a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types[88] Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9[88] 2010 Dec 31
QbX1 2010-066F
37249
3U NRL Technology demonstration Successful 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9 2011 Jan 06 [89]
QbX2 2010-066B
37245
3U NRL Technology demonstration Successful 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9 2011 Jan 16 [89]
SMDC-ONE 2010-066C
37246
3U US Army SMDC Communications Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9 2011 Jan 12 [90]
Mayflower-Caerus 2010-066J
37252
3U Northrop Grumman (Mayflower); University of Southern California (Caerus) Technology Completed 8 Dec 2010 15:43[88] Falcon 9 2010 Dec 22 [91]
KySat-1[92] 1U Kentucky Space Educational, technology testing, amateur radio Destroyed 04 Mar 2011 10:09:43 Taurus-XL via ELaNa-1 Launch failure[93]
Hermes 1U University of Colorado at Boulder Destroyed 04 Mar 2011 10:09:43 Taurus-XL Launch failure[93]
Explorer-1 [Prime] 1U Montana State University Destroyed 04 Mar 2011 10:09:43 Taurus-XL Launch failure[93]
Jugnu[94] 2011-058B
37839
3U IIT Kanpur Micro-imaging system, near infrared camera to observe vegetation, GPS Receiver to aid tracking Active 12 Oct 2011 05:30 PSLV-CA
M-Cubed 2011-061F
37855
1U University of Michigan Obtaining a mid resolution image to date of Earth with at least 60% land mass and a maximum of 20% cloud coverage from a single CubeSat platform[95] 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3 M-cubed and Explorer-1 Prime Unit 2 (HRBE) were magnetically attached to one another. Speculation is that this is due to the permanent magnets each have for passive attitude control. M-cubed remains alive and transmitting.[96]
DICE-1 2011-061B
37851
1.5U Space Dynamics Laboratory Ionospheric research Active 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3
DICE-2 2011-061C
37852
1.5U Space Dynamics Laboratory Ionospheric research Active 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3
Explorer-1 [Prime] Unit 2 2011-061F
37855
1U Montana Space Grant Consortium Magnetospheric Research Active 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3 M-cubed and Explorer-1 Prime Unit 2 (HRBE) were magnetically attached to one another. Speculation is that this is due to the permanent magnets each have for passive attitude control.[96] HRBE did not suffer from this connection with M-cubed.[97]
RAX-2 2011-061D
37853
3U University of Michigan Ionospheric research Active 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3 [85]
AubieSat-1 2011-061E
37854
1U Auburn University Technology Active 28 Oct 2011 09:48 Delta II via ELaNa-3 First CubeSat from Auburn University
ROBUSTA 2012-006H
38084
1U Université Montpellier 2 Radiation effects on bipolar-transistor-based circuits Failed 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega 2014 First French CubeSat
e-st@r[98] 2012-006C
38079
1U Politecnico di Torino Development and test of an active ADCS
Test of COTS
Tumbling[99] 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega
MaSat-1 2012-006E
38081
1U BME Technological demonstration Active 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega First Hungarian satellite
Xatcobeo[100] 2012-006F
38082
1U University of Vigo[101] Verification of a new system for measuring the amount of ionizing radiation (RDS)
Development of a new Software defined reconfigurable radio (SRAD) system
Experimental solar panel deployment system (PDM)
Active 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega
Goliat 2012-006D
38080
1U University of Bucharest Romania Earth imaging and space environment measuring[102][103] 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega First Romanian satellite
PW-Sat 2012-006G
38083
1U Warsaw University of Technology Poland Technology experiments 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega First Polish satellite
UniCubeSat-GG 2012-006J
38085
1U GAUSS team-Sapienza University of Rome Italy Deployable powered boom for gravity gradient libration study 13 Feb 2012 10:00 Vega First Italian CubeSat (together with e-st@r)
F-1[104] 2012-038E
38855
1U FPT University Training for students and young engineers/Education
Test of 3-axis SDTM magnetometer
Will be the first Vietnamese satellite developed domestically
Failed; No signal received 21 Jul 2012 02:06[105] H-IIB to ISS[106] 9 May 2013 Deployed from ISS 2012 Oct 4.[107]
TechEdSat 2012-038D
38854
1U San Jose State University SPA hardware and software, inter-satellite communication link analysis 21 Jul 2012 02:06[105] H-IIB to ISS 2013 May 5 Deployed from ISS 2012 Oct 4.[108]
Raiko 2012-038B
38852
2U Tohoku University/Wakayama University Ku-band communication, prototype star tracker and deployable membrane technology demonstration Successful 21 Jul 2012 02:06[105] H-IIB to ISS 2013 Aug 6 Deployed from ISS 2012 Oct 4
We-Wish 2012-038F
38856
1U Meisei Electric Infrared camera imaging Failed, no signal received[109] 21 Jul 2012 02:06[105] H-IIB to ISS 2013 Mar 11 Deployed from ISS 2012 Oct 4
CSSWE 2012-048D
38761
3U University of Colorado Boulder / LASP Space Weather Research Active[110] 13 Sep 2012 21:39)[111] Atlas V 401[112] via ELaNa-VI Expected 2028 Extended Mission Complete
FITSAT-1 (NIWAKA)[113] 2012-038C
38853
1U Fukuoka Institute of Technology The main mission objective is to demonstrate the developed high-speed transmitter. Active 4 Oct 2012 15:44 H-IIB to ISS 2013 Jul 04 Deployed from ISS 2012 Oct 4.[114]
AAUSAT3[115] 2013-009B
39087
1U University of Aalborg, Denmark Double AIS system for tracking ships in Arctic regions. Active 25 Feb 2013 12:31[84] PSLV-CA C20 Denmark's CubeSat number 4
BeeSat-2 2013-015G
39136
1U Berlin Institute of Technology Reaction wheel technology qualification Active 19 Apr 2013 10:00 Soyuz
BeeSat-3 2013-015E
39134
1U Berlin Institute of Technology Reaction wheel technology qualification Active 19 Apr 2013 10:00 Soyuz
SOMP 2013-015F
39135
1U Dresden University of Technology, Germany Education, testing software defined radio, measuring atomic oxygen concentration, demonstrating TFSC 19 Apr 2013 10:00 Soyuz [116]
PhoneSat 1.0 (Graham) 2013-016E
39146
1U NASA Ames Research Center ongoing NASA project, part of the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, of building nanosatellites using unmodified consumer-grade off-the-shelf smartphones 21 Apr 2013 21:00 Antares 110 A-ONE 2013 Apr 26 First PhoneSat Launch
PhoneSat 1.0 (Bell) 2013-016A
39142
1U NASA Ames Research Center ongoing NASA project, part of the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, of building nanosatellites using unmodified consumer-grade off-the-shelf smartphones 21 Apr 2013 21:00 Antares 110 A-ONE 2013 Apr 27 First PhoneSat Launch
PhoneSat 2.0.beta (Alexander) 2013-016C
39144
1U NASA Ames Research Center ongoing NASA project, part of the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, of building nanosatellites using unmodified consumer-grade off-the-shelf smartphones 21 Apr 2013 21:00 Antares 110 A-ONE 2013 Apr 27 First PhoneSat Launch
NEE-01 Pegasus[117][118] 2013-018B
39151
1U Ecuadorian Space Agency Technological demonstration/Education
Test of real time video transmission
Test of Thermal/Radiation shield
Test of multiphase solar array
Test of passive antenna deployment
Test of carbon nanotubes thermal control system
Active 25 Apr 2013 04:13 Long March 2D First Ecuadorian satellite, first CubeSat to transmit real-time video
SkyCube 1998-067EL
39567
1U Southern Stars LLC Crowdfunding, messaging, imaging, balloon inflation Active 9 Jan 2014 18:07:05[84] Cygnus CRS Orb-1 to ISS First crowdfunded satellite with inflatable balloon; Deployed from ISS 2014 Feb 28.[119]
ESTCube-1[120] 2013-021C
39161
1U University of Tartu Space test of the electric solar wind sail Active[121][122] 7 May 2013 02:06:31 Vega First Estonian satellite
UAPSAT[123] 1998-067EM
39568
1U University Alas Peruanas Technology demonstration 9 Jan 2014 18:07:05[84] Cygnus CRS Orb-1 to ISS 2014 May 22 Deployed from ISS 2014 Feb 28.[124]
OPUSAT 2014-009D
39575
1U Osaka Prefecture University technology 27 Feb 2014 18:37[84] H-IIA 202 24 Jul 2014
ITF-1 (Yui) 2014-009B
39573
1U Tsukuba University amateur radio 27 Feb 2014 18:37[84] H-IIA 202 29 Jun 2014
INVADER (Artsat-1) 2014-009F
39577
1U Tama Art University art, voice broadcast 27 Feb 2014 18:37[84] H-IIA 202
KSAT2 (Hayato-2) 2014-009G
39578
1U Kagoshima University climatology research 27 Feb 2014 18:37[84] H-IIA 202 2014 May 18
VELOX-P2 2013-066Y
39438
1U Satellite Research Center, Nanyang Technological University Undergraduate Satellite Program. Technology demonstration for in house development of the sensors. 21 Nov 2013 07:10 Dnepr-1 [125]
VELOX-1-NSAT 2014-034E
40057
1U Satellite Research Center, Nanyang Technological University Undergraduate Satellite Program. Technology demonstration for in house development of the sensors. 30 Jun 2014 04:22[84] PSLV-CA [126]
VELOX-1-PSAT 2014-034E
40057
1U Satellite Research Center, Nanyang Technological University Undergraduate Satellite Program. Technology demonstration for in house development of the sensors. 30 Jun 2014 04:22[84] PSLV-CA [127]
NEE-02 Krysaor[128] 2013-066AB
39441
1U Ecuadorian Space Agency Technological demonstration / Education
Orbital debris and small asteroids monitoring
21 Nov 2013 07:10 Dnepr-1 Will be the second Ecuadorian satellite in constellation with NEE-01; Build and testing completed on 15 July 2012
PUCPSAT-1[129] 2013-066AC
39442
1U Universidad Católica del Perú Technology demonstration 21 Nov 2013 07:10 Dnepr/GAUSS Srl deployer
LightSail-1[130] 3U The Planetary Society Demonstrating increased orbital energy with controlled solar sailing in Earth orbit Completed (Reentered) 20 May 2015 15:05 Atlas V via ELaNa-XI
Perseus-M[131] 40037 40039 6U Canopus Systems US (Operated by Aquila Space, Inc.) 6U Cubesat Bus Demonstration and AIS ship tracking payload Active 19 June 2014 19:11:11 Dnepr[40]
STRaND-1 2013-009E
39090
3U Surrey Space Centre (SSC), University of Surrey, & Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) STRaND: Surrey Technology Research & Nanosatellite Demonstrator. Various payloads: high precision AOCS system, pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) & smart-phone technology demonstration. Operational 25 Feb 2013 12:31[84] PSLV-CA C20 First in STRaND Programme
CHASQUI - I 1U UNI[132] Technology demonstration Unknown 9 Jan 2014 18:07:05[84] Cygnus CRS Orb-1 to ISS Peruvian. Deployed from ISS 17 Aug 2014[133]
ArduSat1 1998-067DA
39412
1U Nanosatisfi LLC Allow general public to use the satellite sensors for their own creative purposes. 3 Aug 2013 19:48 H-IIB 304 to ISS 2014 Apr 16 Deployed from ISS 2013 Nov 19.[134]
ArduSatX 1998-067DC
39414
1U Nanosatisfi LLC Allow general public to use the satellite sensors for their own creative purposes. 3 Aug 2013 19:48 H-IIB 304 to ISS 2014 Apr 15 Deployed from ISS 2013 Nov 19.[134]
ArduSat2 1998-067EQ
39571
1U Nanosatisfi LLC Allow general public to use the satellite sensors for their own creative purposes. 9 Jan 2014 18:07:05[84] Cygnus CRS Orb-1 to ISS 2014 Jul 01 Deployed from ISS 2014 Feb 28.[135]
LEMUR-1 3U Nanosatisfi 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11 Dnepr [40]
TSat 2014-022C
39682
Taylor University Low Earth Orbit Plasma Research[136] 18 Apr 2014 19:25:22[84] Falcon 9 via ELaNa-V 2014 May 28
Firefly 2013-064AA
39404
3U Taylor University Space Communication Research[137] Operational 20 Nov 2013 01:15[84] Minotaur I
TUSat1 1U Taylor University Space Communication Research[137] 30 Jun 2003 14:15[138] Rokot/Briz-KM First Satellite from Indiana[138]
ChargerSat-1 2013-064AB
39405
1U University of Alabama in Huntsville Technological demonstration Launched. No contact established. Maximum time before passive return and destruction: 24 months 20 Nov 2013 01:15[84] Minotaur I via ELaNa-IV Built by the UAH Space Hardware Club.[139]
Vermont Lunar 2013-064AD
39407
1U Vermont Technical College Testing navigation components to be used in a follow up 3U ion drive CubeSat to the Moon Active 20 Nov 2013 01:15[84] Minotaur I via ELaNa-IV First university satellite from New England. Built by the Vermont Tech CubeSat Lab.[140]
Antelsat 2014-033AA
40034
2U FING-IIE (Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de la República, Instituto de Ingeniería Eléctrica), Antel (Administración Nacional de Telecomunicaciones) Open source satellite to encourage students, engineers and technicians, to learn and develop space technology. UHF telemetry, VHF telecommand, S-Band download data from color & infrared cameras Active 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11[84] Dnepr-1 First entirely Uruguaian artificial satellite. [3] [4]
Flock-1c x 11 3U Planet Labs, US Optical imaging Active 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11[84] Dnepr-1
NanoSatC-Br 1 1U UFSM, INPE, Brazil Magnetosphere research Active 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11[84] Dnepr-1
POPSAT-HIP 1 3U Microspace Rapid Technology (demonstrate the functionality of a high resolution optical payload and attitude control propulsion system) Active 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11[84] Dnepr-1
QB50P1, QB50P2 2U Von Karman Institute, Belgium Thermosphere research (Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometers) Active 19 Jun 2014 19:11:11[84] Dnepr-1 Pair of the first Belgium satellites; first cubesats under QB50 program
iCUBE-1 2013-066S
39432
1U Institute of Space Technology Islamabad Pakistan Small satellite designed by the students Active 21 Nov 2013 07:10 Dnepr-1 First Pakistani CubeSat.[141][142]
FUNcube-1[143] 2013-066AE
39444
1U AMSAT-UK[144] / National Radio Centre[145] Primary/ secondary education (UK) Active 21 Nov 2013 07:10[146] Dnepr-1 http://funcube.org.uk/2013/11/22/belated-launch-day-report
Delfi-n3Xt 2013-066N
39428
3U Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Technology demonstrations of a micro-propulsion system developed by TNO in cooperation with TU Delft and University of Twente called T3µPS and an in-orbit configurable, high-efficient transceiver platform developed by ISIS BV, in cooperation with TU Delft and SystematIC BV called ITRX. Active 21 Nov 2013 07:10 Dnepr-1 http://www.delfispace.nl
ZACUBE-1 (TshepisoSat) 2013-066B
39417
1U French South African Institute of Technology at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology Space weather, technology demonstration, education and human capital development. Active[147] 21 Nov 2013 07:10[148] Dnepr-1 Student built satellite. First South African CubeSat[149] - http://www.cput.ac.za/fsati
VELOX-P1 1U Satellite Research Center, Nanyang Technological University Undergraduate Satellite Program. Technology demonstration for in house development of the sensors. 1 Oct 2012  ? Confidential (Neptune) [125]

List of CubeSats in development[edit]

Name COSPAR ID[37]
SATCAT №
Type Organisation Mission Mission status Planned Launch Year Launch Vehicle Reentry date Remarks
UPSat 2U University of Patras, Libre Space Foundation research in testing Part of the QB50 project. First open source hardware and software satellite to be launched. First satellite manufactured in Greece
Aalto-1 3U Aalto University and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland Technical demonstration of a miniaturized spectral imager, a radiation monitor and a plasma brake Awaiting launch availability 2015[150] Will be the first Finnish satellite [5].
ERPSat01 1U Sfax School of Engineering, Tunisia Communication Awaiting launch availability Will be the first Tunisian satellite[151]
OUFTI-1 1U University of Liège and I.S.I.L (Haute École de la Province de Liège, Belgium Testing radio protocol in space Awaiting Vega launch availability 2016[152] Orbital Utility For Telecommunication Innovations (OUFTI).[102]
ExoplanetSat 3U Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA)[153] A Nanosatellite Space Telescope for Detecting Transiting Exoplanets[154] Under development ExoplanetSat demonstrates the graduated growth of a constellation, with the final phase being 100 satellites surveying bright stars for other Earths
OSIRIS-3U 3U Pennsylvania State University SSPL In situ measurements of temporal and spatial characteristics of ionospheric space weather Under development Constellation of three 1U spacecraft launched simultaneously and orbiting in linear formation. Accepted to NASA's CubeSat Launch Initiative in 2013
α (formerly CubeMessenger) 1U BOREAS Space Technological demonstration Under development Haas 2C [155][156]
DynaCube-3U 3U Denel Dynamics Engineering Academy of Learning Graduate Development Program. Capture of Images as well as Electromagnetic Radiation Mapping and Structural Temperature Analysis. Under development 2017[157]
NUTS-1[158] 2U Norwegian University of Science and Technology Student satellite project aiming to design and develop a new CubeSat bus, including using carbon fiber material for the main structure. Under development
Azad-1 TBD Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology Classified Under development[159]
Project BLAST[160] 1U University of Southampton Constructed from off the shelf, commercially available components at TRL7+, specifically a Samsung Galaxy Nexus smartphone. Development on hold
UoS3[161] 1U University of Southampton UoS3, or University of Southampton Small Satellite, is a 1U CubeSat that will carry out experimental research aimed to improve out capabilities to predict re-entry of uncontrolled resident space objects while giving students practical experience in spacecraft design and development. Under development 2016
EQUiSat[162] 1U Brown University Open-source satellite to encourage involvement of students and amateurs in aerospace design. Under development Accepted to NASA's CubeSat Launch Initiative in 2014
CySat I 1U Iowa State University, Softronics Ltd. Wide bandwidth radiometer for measurement of various electromagnetic spectra emanating from cities. Also proof of concept for undergraduate and graduate students as well as faculty and industry partners. Under development https://sites.google.com/site/cysatiowastateuniversity/
StangSat 1U Merritt Island High School CubeSat[163][164] in partnership with CalPoly Shock and vibration experienced by payloads while in orbit. Under development Will be second satellite to launch developed by a high school team. NASA's Launch Services Program sponsors and mentors the team. Demonstration flight occurred in 2013[165]
SkCube 2U (QB50 type) Slovak Organisation for Space Activities (SOSA),[166] University of Žilina, Slovak University of Technology by help of Belgian Von Karman Institute, Faculty of Aeronautics of Technical University of Kosice research and technology demonstration 2016 Will be first Slovak satellite.[167][168][169]
 ? 1U (QB50 type) Dublin Institute of Technology research planned Will be first Irish satellite[170]
 ? Syrian Space Research Center research planned Will be first Syrian satellite[171]
ET-SAT 1U (QB50 type) Ethiopian Space Science Society by help of Belgian Von Karman Institute research Will be first Ethiopian satellite[172][173]
Ethosat 1 Ethiopian Space Science Society by help of Finnish Space Technology and Science Group research 2019 [174]
CubeSTAR[175] 2U University of Oslo Measure the structures of electron clouds in the ionosphere using Langmuir probe Under development [176][177]
Politech.1 3U Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Spain Atmospheric research [178]
SPOC 3U University of Georgia Earth Observation and Multispectral image analysis[179] 2018 Student built and the first satellite from the University of Georgia[180]
MOCI 3U University of Georgia Technical and Algorithmic demonstrations of Structure from motion[179] [181]

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