List of Dacian names

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This article is a non-exhaustive lists of names used by the Dacian people, who were among the inhabitants of Eastern Europe before and during the Roman Empire. Many hundreds of personal names and placenames are known from ancient sources, and they throw light on the Dacian language and the extent to which it differed from Thracian.

Anthroponyms[edit]

Around 1150 Dacian anthroponyms (personal names) and 900 toponyms (placenames) have been preserved in ancient sources.[1][2] As far as the onomastic (proper names) of Dacians and Thracians is concerned, opinions are divided. According to Crossland (1982), the evidence of names from the Dacian, Mysian and Thracian area seems to indicate divergence of a 'Thraco-Dacian' language into northern and southern groups of dialects, but not so different as to rank Thracian and Dacian as separate languages, There were also the development of special tendencies in word formation and of certain secondary phonetic features in each group.[3] Mateescu (1923), Rosetti (1978) sustain that Thracian onomastic include elements that are common to Geto-Dacians and Bessians (a Thracian tribe).[4] A part of researchers support that onomastically, Dacians are not different from the other Thracians in Roman Dacia's inscriptions.[5] But recently, D. Dana basing himself on new onomastic material recorded in Egyptian ostraka suggested criteria which would make possible to distinguish between closely related Thracian and Dacian-Moesian names and singled out certain specific elements for the latter.[6]

In Georgiev's opinion (1960; 1977) Dacian placenames and personal names are "completely different" from their Thracian counterparts.[7]

Several Dacian names have also been identified with ostracons of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt,[8] i.e. Dadas and Dadazi,[9] Zoutoula,[10] Dotos and Dotouzi,[11] Dieri and Diernais,[10] Diengis,[10] Dida(s),[10] Blaikisa,[12] Blegissa,[12] Diourdanos,[12] Thiadicem,[12] Avizina,[12] Dourpokis,[12] Kaigiza,[13] Dardiolai,[14] Denzibalos (see also Dacian king name Deki-balos),[14] Denzi-balus (attested in Britain),[14] Pouridour,[15] Thiaper and Tiatitis,[16] Dekinais,[14] *Rolouzis,[16] (See Ostraca from Krokodilo and Didymoi)

A[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Avizina Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12] Probably related to Vezina.

B[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Bastiza Name frequently found at Mons Claudianus i.e. two persons have this name on a list of Dacian names but also this name is the patronyme of the soldier named Diernaios.[17] The name ‘'bast'’ is found in Thrace (cf. Decev) but never as Bastiza.[17]
Bikili(s) Decebal's friend (Dio Cassius) [18]
Blegissa Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Blaesus Child of a soldier of cohors I Aelia Dacorum[19]
Blaikisa Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Brasus Inscription at Apulum[20] that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis[21] According to Mommsen (1887) the name formed by the compounds with –poris i.e. Mucaporis appear as Thracian and as Dacian in numerous cases[22]
Burebista "Possessor of so much" cf Sanskrit bhuri "plenty, so much" and cf Ancient Iranian victa "possessor",[23][24] King of Dacians (Strabo,[25] Jordanes and Decree of Dionysopolis) See also: Buri, Buridavense, Buridava, Buricodava. See also Ariovistus.

C[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Charnabon King of the Getae (Sophocles's Triptolemos)
Comosicus Dacian High Priest and King who lived in the 1st century BC (Jordanes[26])
Cothelas, Gudila King of the Getae in the 4th century BC
Cotiso Cotiso 'loved' [27] King of the Dacians in the 1st century BC [27] Tomaschek compared this name with the name Cotela of a Getian prince

and with the name Cotys, name of several princes of Thracian Odrysians and Sapaeans. Also, he compared with the name Kotys of the Thracian goddess worshipped by the Edonians, a tribe that lived around Pangaion Mountain. He sees here again, the letter "o" as an obscured indistinct, pronunciation of "a". Therefore, he compared Cotiso with the Bactrian Kata "loved" [27]

D[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Dablosa He is attested at Mons Claudianus(O. Claud. II 402 and 403).[9]
Dadas Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [9]
Dadazi Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [9]
Daizus Thraco-Getian name Daizus Comozoi, interfectus a Castabocis.[28] Daizus Comozoi is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.[29]
Damanais Damanais attested at Mons Claudianus as the father of the Dacian soldier Dida from Krokodilo.[14]
Dapyx Dacian king.[27]
Danillo Roman Legionnaire
Dardanos 'Darda-‘ appears as both Daco-Mysian and Thracian.[30]
Dardiolai Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [14]
Decaeneus "The one who knows" (dak, dek cf Sanskrit dasa) or "The Dacian" [24] High priest and king of Dacians (Strabo,[31] Dio Cassius, Jordanes)
Decibalus Chid of a soldier of cohors I Aelia Dacorum[19]
Decebalus Dacian word balas /balos is from PIE *bel 'strong, power' cf. Sanskrit bala "force" [32] and Dece from PIE *dek 'to take, to honor'[33]

Also, it had been suggested Decebalus "The force of the Dacians" [24]

King of Dacians (Dio Cassius) Originally named Diurpaneus, after his victory against Romans he was called Decebalus ("The brave one")[34]

Many interpretations are possible for the PIE root *dek that is found also with the name Decaeneus[35]

Denzibalos Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [14]
Denzibalus Attested in Britannia [14]
Dekinais Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [14]
Dicomes king of Dacians [27]
Dida Aelius Dida - Dacian centurion of cohors I Aelia Dacorum stationed in Britannia.[19]
Dida(s) Dacian soldier from Krokodilo.[14]
Diegis Diegis / Degis from *dhegh ‘ to burn' [36] Dacian [27]
Diengis Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [10]
Dieri Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [10]
Diernais Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [10]
Diourdanos Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Diurpaneus "admired from distance" cf. Sanskrit durepanya[35][24] Name of the king of Dacians (Dio Cassius) He was renamed to Decebalus after victory over Romans. It is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube i.e. Dorpanas (IGB, II, 771) and Dyrpanais (Olbia).[29]
Dourpokis Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Dotos Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [11]
Dotouzi Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [11]
Drilgisa With the inscription CIL VI 1801 as Natopor's brother at Rome.[9] Note also the following names: Drigissa in Superior Moesia and Dia-giza, slave at Rome, CIL XV 2445.[9]
Dromichaetes, Dromichaeta Name of the king of Getae[27] It appears this is a Hellenised form [27]
Duccidava Daughter of a dacian soldier mentioned in a Roman military diploma issued in 127 in Mauretania Caesariensis [37]
Duras King of the Dacians between 69 AD - 87 AD (Jordanes)

K[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Kaigiza Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Komakiza Koma-kiza / Koma-kissa is a name attested at Didymoi.[9] The endings term correspond to the Dacian king name Komosicus.[9]
Komozoi Father of Daizus.[28] Daizus Comozoi is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.[29]

M[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Moskon Inscription on silver coins about a 3rd-century BC getic king
Mucapor Inscription at Apulum[20] that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis[21] These names are Thracians and Dacians (as Mucapor is attested as Dacian and as Thracian name).[22] The names containing Muca are found in Thracian but also in the proper Geto-Dacian names[38]
Mucatra Inscription at Apulum[20] that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis[21] These names are probably Thracian, not Dacian, as Mucapor is attested as an ethnic Thracian name (see refs above).[citation needed]

N[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Natoporus cf. Sanskrit nata 'bent', de nam 'bend' and cf. Nath 'lean, rely', 'seek for help'[39] Dacian name of a prince from a Dacian royal family of the tribe of the Costoboci on a Roman inscription (II No. 1801) [39][40] See also Dacian Natu-spardo (attested with Ammianus)[39]

NOTE: some scholars consider this a Thracian name.[citation needed]

O[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Oroles, Orola From ar-, or- 'eagle, big bird' [36] Name of a Dacian prince (Justin) [41]

P[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Petoporus, Petipor Name of a Dacian prince [41]
Pieporus The first element Pie is analogue by initial and vocalism with the name Pie-figoi of a Dacian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy.[41]

The second element Porus is often met with Dacian and also with Bithynian (a Thracian tribe) names. It can be explain by the root *par 'replenish' nourish or *pa-la 'king'[41]

Name of a king of the Costoboci (inscription C.1 Rom. VI, No. 1801).[41][40] NOTE: some scholars consider this a Thracian name.[citation needed]
Pouridour Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [15]

R[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Rescuturme The Dacian name Rescuturme can be related to the Aryan word rai "splendor, wealth" and raevant, revant "brilliant", if "-sk" is part of a derivation.[42] Name of a Dacian woman. Inscription (CIL III 1195),[21] [42] cf. names Resculum (a hamlet from Dacia) and Rascuporis / Rascupolis (name with Sapaean and Bithynian Thracian tribes)[42]
Rhemaxos Getic king who ruled to the north of the Danube around 200 BC
Rholes, Roles Getae chieftain in Scythia Minor (Dio Cassius)
Rigozus Anthroponim.[43]
Rolouzis Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [16]
Rubobostes Dacian king in Transylvania in the 2nd century BC

S[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Scorylo From root *sker ' to leap, spin' [44] Name of a Dacian general[42] Also names: Scoris (Scorinis) It is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.[29]

T[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Tarbus "hard, strong, powerful" cf. Bactrian thaurva (de tarva)[23] possibly a prince of the Free Dacians[23][45]
Thiadicem Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [12]
Thiamarkos Dacian king (inscription "Basileys Thiamarkos epoiei")[46]
Thiaper Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [16]
Tiati With the inscription CIL VI 1801 at Rome.[9]
Tiatitis Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [16]
Tsinna, Zinnas, Sinna
  • Zinnas in IOSPE I2 136, Olbia, late 1st-early 2nd century
  • Tsinna son of Bassus in ISM V 27, Capidava (Scythia Minor), 2nd century
  • Titus Aurelius Sinna from Ratiaria (Moesia Superior) in CIL III 14507, Viminacium (Moesia Superior), year 195
  • Sinna in a military diploma for year 246 (no other details provided, but it was published by Peter Weiss in "Ausgewahlte neue Militardiplome" in Chiron 32 (2002), p. 513-7)
Tsiru Tsiru son of Bassus in ISM V 27, Capidava (Scythia Minor), 2nd century[47]

V[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Vezina 'Active, vigorous, energetic ' PIE *ueg [48] Dacian name[23]

Z[edit]

Dacian name Possible etymology Attestation Notes
Zalmoxis Dacian god[23]
Zebeleizis, Gebeleizis, Gebeleixis, Nebeleizis Other name of the Dacian god Zalmoxis [23]
Zia "mare" cf. Thracian Ziaka, Sanskrit hayaka "horse" (See Ziacatralis Thracian name, that is "who feeds the horses")[23] Dacian name of a princess[23] Variant Ziais
Zoutula Ostracon of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt [10]
Zyraxes "Powerful prince" cf. Bactrian Zura, Zavare "power" and cf. Khsaya "prince" [49] Prince of the Getae [49] A similar name's form is found in the city name Zurobara where bara / vara="city" and zuro="fortified"[49]

See also Zurobara

Toponyms[edit]

No Dacian name Etymology Modern city/Location Attestation Notes
1 Acidava (Acidaua) Enoşeşti, Olt County, Romania Tabula Peutingeriana[50]
2 Amutria (Amutrion, Amutrium, Admutrium,[51] Ad Mutrium, Ad Mutriam, Ancient Greek: Ἀμούτριον[52]) Hypothetically located at one of the following sites in Oltenia (Southwestern Romania): Ptolemy's Geographia, Tabula Peutingeriana[55]
3 Apula (Apulon) Piatra Craivii, 20 km North of Alba-Iulia, Romania Tabula Peutingeriana[50] Apulum in Latin, see also Apuli
4 Bersobis (Berzobim) "White, shine" including birch-tree from root *bhereg > ber(e)z [56]

Alternatively, it could be compared with Berzama, place name from Thrace between Amhialos and Kabyle and Bactrian Bareza 'height' [18]

Modern Berzovia village in Caraș-Severin County, on the bank of river Bârzava, Romania The sole surviving sentence from Trajan's campaign journal in the Latin grammar work of Priscian, Institutiones grammaticae [57]
5 Napoca (Napuca) The following are the most important hypotheses regarding Napoca's etymology:
  • Dacian name having the same root "nap" (cf. ancient Armenian root "nap") with that of the Dacia's river Naparis attested by Herodotus. It has an augmentative suffix uk/ok i.e. over, great [39]
  • Name derived from that of the Dacianized Scythian tribe known as Napae[58]
  • Name probably akin to the indigenous (Thracian) element in Romanian language, the word năpârcă 'viper' cf. Albanian nepërkë, nepërtkë[59]
  • Name derived from the Ancient Greek term napos (νάπος) "timbered valley"
  • Name derived from the Indo-European *snā-p- (Pokorny 971-2) "to flow, to swim, damp".[60]

Independent of these hypotheses, scholars agree that the name of the settlement predates the Roman conquest (AD 106).[60]

Cluj-Napoca, Romania[61] Tabula Peutingeriana[50] [61]

Hydronyms[edit]

Dacian name Modern name Etymology Attestation
Alutus, Aloutas Olt Ptolemy, Jordanes
Amutrion, Amutria Motru
Argessos, Ordessos Argeș
Buseos Buzău Originally Μ[π]ουσεος, where Μπ is pronounced as B
Crisus Criș
Donaris Upper Danube
Hyerassus, Tiarantos, Gerasus, Seratos Siret
Istros Upper Danube[62] The Ancient Greek Istros was a borrowing from Thracian/Dacian meaning "strong, swift", akin to Sanskrit is.iras "swift".[62]
Maris, Marisos Mureș Herodotus, Strabo
Naparis Ialomița a) According to Russu 'Flow' / 'moisture' It has probably the same root with Napoca (Nowadays Cluj-Napoca) [63]

b) According to Parvan, after Tomaschek the meaning is similar with Lith. Napras in which there is a high probability of the root nebh-"to spring". [64]

c) According to Bogrea, 'spring' compared with Old Persian napas 'spring' [64]

Herodotus (IV 48), [63] [65]
Patissus, Pathissus, Tisia Tisa
Pyretus, Pyretos, Pyresos, Porata Prut
Rabon Jiu
Samus Someș
Sargetia Strei
Tyras Dniester
Tibisis Timiș Herodotus

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nandris et al. 1976, p. 730.
  2. ^ Petrescu-Dîmbovița 1978, p. 130.
  3. ^ Crossland 1982, p. 839.
  4. ^ Rosetti 1978, p. 208.
  5. ^ Oltean 2009, p. 95.
  6. ^ Pogorelets, Ivantchik & Savvov 2007, p. 258.
  7. ^ Georgiev 1977, p. 298.
  8. ^ Dana 2003, p. 166.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dana 2003, p. 174.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Dana 2003, p. 185.
  11. ^ a b c Dana 2003, p. 177.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dana 2003, p. 183.
  13. ^ Dana 2003, p. 174 and p=183.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dana 2003, p. 175.
  15. ^ a b Dana 2003, p. 176.
  16. ^ a b c d e Dana 2003, p. 179.
  17. ^ a b Dana 2003, p. 173.
  18. ^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 402.
  19. ^ a b c "PVL Inscriptions - Birdoswald". Per Lineam Valli. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  20. ^ a b c Piso 2001, p. 425.
  21. ^ a b c d Kugener & Herrmann 1977, p. 516.
  22. ^ a b Mommsen 1887, p. 225.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Tomaschek 1883, p. 409.
  24. ^ a b c d Van den Gheyn 1885, p. 177.
  25. ^ Strabo & 20 AD, VII 3,12.
  26. ^ Tomaschek 1883, p. 403.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Tomaschek 1883, p. 404.
  28. ^ a b Protase 2001, p. 299.
  29. ^ a b c d Petolescu 1985, p. 646.
  30. ^ Hamp 1966, p. 108.
  31. ^ Strabo & 20 AD, VII 3,5.
  32. ^ Russu 1969, p. 163 and 109.
  33. ^ Russu 1967, p. 101.
  34. ^ "De Imperatoribus Romanis" (Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions). An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105. During Trajan"s reign one of the most important Roman successes was the victory over the Dacians. The first important confrontation between the Romans and the Dacians took place in the year 87 and was initiated by Domitian. The praetorian prefect Cornelius led five or six legions across the Danube on a bridge of ships and advanced towards Banat (in Romania). The Romans were surprised by a Dacian attack at Tapae (near the village of Bucova, in Romania). Legion V Alaude was crushed and Cornelius Fuscus was killed. The victorious general was originally known as Diurpaneus (see Manea, p.109), but after this victory he was called Decebalus (the brave one).
  35. ^ a b Tomaschek 1883, p. 405.
  36. ^ a b Russu 1967, p. 133.
  37. ^ Dana 2006, pp. 118–119.
  38. ^ Dumistracel 1988, p. 395.
  39. ^ a b c d Tomaschek 1883, p. 406.
  40. ^ a b Dana 2006, p. 117.
  41. ^ a b c d e Tomaschek 1883, p. 407.
  42. ^ a b c d Tomaschek 1883, p. 408.
  43. ^ Russu 1967, p. 156.
  44. ^ Russu 1967, p. 136.
  45. ^ Batty, Roger (2007): Rome and the Nomads: the Pontic-Danubian realm in antiquity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-814936-0, ISBN 978-0-19-814936-1, page 366
  46. ^ Berciu 1981, p. 139-140.
  47. ^ Dana & 2001-2003, p. 88.
  48. ^ Russu 1969, p. 145, 154 and 160.
  49. ^ a b c Tomaschek 1883, p. 410.
  50. ^ a b c Tabula Peutingeriana, Segmentum VIII.
  51. ^ a b Pippidi 1976, p. 17.
  52. ^ Nobbe 1845, p. 10.
  53. ^ Diaconovich 1898, p. 758.
  54. ^ a b Schütte 1917, p. 96.
  55. ^ Tabula Peutingeriana, Segmentum VII.
  56. ^ Parvan 1926, p. 245.
  57. ^ Priscian 520, VI 13.
  58. ^ Pârvan (1982) p.165 and p.82
  59. ^ Paliga (2006) 142
  60. ^ a b Lukács 2005, p. 14.
  61. ^ a b Bunbury 1879, p. 516.
  62. ^ a b Katičić & Križman 1976, p. 144.
  63. ^ a b Russu 1969, p. 130 and 154.
  64. ^ a b Brugmann et al. 2009, p. 324.
  65. ^ Herodotus(author) & Rawlinson (translator), p. 163.

References[edit]

Ancient[edit]

Modern[edit]

  • Kugener, Marc Antoine; Herrmann, Léon (1977). Latomus. 36 Issues 1-2.
  • Brugmann, Karl; Streitberg, Wilhelm; Schmidt, Wolfgang P.; Eggers, Eckhard. 2009. 36. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-020899-3.
  • Van den Gheyn, Joseph (1885). "Les populations Danubiennes". Revue des questions scientifiques. Brussels: Société scientifique de Bruxelles. 17–18.
  • Lukács, József (2005). Povestea "orașului-comoară": Scurtă istorie a Clujului și a monumentelor sale (in Romanian). Apostrof. ISBN 973-9279-74-0.
  • Nandris, John; Friesinger, Herwig; Kerchler, Helga; Pittioni, Richard; Mitscha-Märheim, Herbert (1976). The Dacian Iron Age A Comment in a European Context in Festschrift für Richard Pittioni zum siebzigsten Geburtstag. Wien : Deuticke ; Horn : Berger. ISBN 978-3-7005-4420-3.
  • Nobbe, Karl Friedrich August (1845). Claudii Ptolemaei geographia (in Ancient Greek and Latin). 3. Leipzig: Lipsiae, Sumptibus et typis Caroli Tauchnitii.
  • Oltean, I.A. (2009). "Dacian ethnic identity and the Roman army". The army and frontiers of Rome: papers offered to David J. Breeze on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday and his retirement from Historic Scotland edited by William S. Hanson. Journal of Roman Archaeology. ISBN 978-1-887829-74-8.
  • Pârvan, Vasile, ed. (1982). Getica (in Romanian). Bucharest: Meridiane.
  • Parvan, Vasile (1926). Getica. Cvltvra naţională, Bucvreşti.
  • Paliga, Sorinn, ed. (1982). "Etymological Lexicon of the Indigenous (Thracian) Elements in Romanian" / "Lexicon etimologic al elementelor autohtone (traco-dace) ale limbii române (in Romanian). Bucharest: Evenimentul.
  • Petrescu-Dîmbovița, Mircea (1978). 'Scurta istorie a daciei Preromane'. Junimea.
  • Pippidi, Dionisie M., ed. (1976). Dicţionar de istorie veche a României: (paleolitic - sec. X) (Dictionary of Romanian Old History) (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura ştiinţifică şi enciclopedică.
  • Piso, Ioan, ed. (2001). Inscriptions d'Apulum, Part 2 (in French). Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres.
  • Pogorelets, O.; Ivantchik, A.; Savvov, R. (2007). "A new Roman Military Diploma from the Territory of the Ukraine". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik: Volume 163. Habelt.
  • Rosetti, Alexandru (1978). Istoria limbii romîne. Editura Stiintifica si Enciclopedica.
  • Russu, I. Iosif (1969). "Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker" ('Thraco-Dacian language') (in German). Editura Stiintifica.
  • Russu, I. Iosif (1967). "Limba Traco-Dacilor" ('Thraco-Dacian language') (in Romanian). Editura Stiintifica.
  • Tomaschek, Wilhelm (1883). "Les Restes de la langue dace" in "Le Muséon, Volume 2". Belgium: "Société des lettres et des sciences" Louvain, Belgium.
  • Schütte, Gudmund (1917). Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe: a reconstruction of the prototypes. Copenhagen: H. Hagerup.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]