List of Darmstadt Society of Forty members

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Hermann Spiess,[1] Ferdinand Ludwig Herff[2] and Gustav Schleicher [3] founded Darmstadt Die Vierziger (the Society of Forty), sometimes referred to as the Socialistic Colony and Society. The founders, as well as many of the members, were from Darmstadt. They originally planned to establish socialistic communes in Wisconsin.

Spiess and Herff were approached in Wiesbaden by Adelsverein Vice President and Executive Secretary-Business Director Count Carl Frederick Christian of Castell-Castell,[4] who made a deal with them to colonize 200 families on the Fisher–Miller Land Grant territory in Texas. In return, they were to receive $12,000 in money, livestock, equipment and provisions for a year. After the first year, the colonies were expected to support themselves.[5] The colonies attempted were Castell,[6] Leiningen, Bettina,[7] Schoenburg and Meerholz in Llano County; Darmstädler Farm in Comal County; and Mills County in Kendall County.[8] Of these, only Castell and Tusculum survives. The colonies failed after the Adelsverein funding expired, and also due to conflict of structure and authorities. Some members moved to other Adelsverein settlements in Texas. Others moved elsewhere, or returned to Germany.

The Forty[edit]

The following list is derived from the first-hand account of Louis Reinhardt.[9]

Darmstadt Society of Forty
Name Ship Notes
Otto Amelung St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Lawyer
Heinrich Backofen St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Maker of musical instruments
Peter Bub St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Maker of musical instruments
Unknown Deichert Blacksmith
Christoph Flach St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Mechanic
Wilhelm Friedrich St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Lawyer
Rudolph Fuchs Lawyer
Adolph Hahn St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Lieutenant of the military
Unknown Heff Carpenter
Ferdinand Ludwig Herff 1846 Physician
Unknown Herrmann Forester
Christian Hesse Lawyer
Johannes Hoerner
Louis Kappelhoff Ship carpenter
Heinrich Kattmann St. Pauli, July 4, 1847
Adam Koeppel St. Pauli, July 4, 1847
Jacob Kuechler St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Forester
August Lerch St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Architect
Ferdinand Jacob Lindheimer 1834 Naturalist
Louis Friedrich St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Forester
Unknown Merting Minister
Friedrich Michel St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Brewer
Franz Mordes
Edward Mueller St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Agriculturalist
Unknown Neff Carpenter
Unknown Neff Butcher
Unknown Ottmer Miller
Ludwig (Louis) Reinhardt St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Botanist
Unknown Rockan American who joined in Victoria, Texas
Phillipp Friedrich Karl Theodore (Fritz) Schenck St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Forester
Gustav Schleicher St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Engineer
Theodore Schlenning St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Physician
Leopold Schuze
Anton Schunk Maker of musical instruments
Hermann Spiess 1846
August Strauss St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Mechanic
Adam Vogt St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Forester
Julius Wagner St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Lawyer
Unknown Wundt Lawyer
Phillip Zoeller St. Pauli, July 4, 1847 Architect

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ragsdale, Crystal Sasse. "Hermann Spiess". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  2. ^ Stembridge, Vernie A. "Ferdinand Ludwig Herff". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  3. ^ Heinen, Hubert Plummer. "Gustav Schleicher". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  4. ^ Brister, Louis E. "Count Carl of Castell-Castell". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
  5. ^ King (1967) p.122
  6. ^ Heckert-Greene, James B. "Castell, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  7. ^ Lich, Glen E. "Bettina, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  8. ^ Lich, Glen E. "The Forty". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  9. ^ Reinhardt, Louis (1900). "The Communistic Colony of Bettina". The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association. Denton, TX: Texas State Historical Association. 3: 33–40. Retrieved July 10, 2017.; "Immigration Database". Galveston Historical Foundation. Retrieved July 10, 2017.; "Indianola Immigrant Database". Victoria Tx Regional History Center. Archived from the original on 2010-11-25. Retrieved July 10, 2017.

Source material[edit]