List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
This is a list of the 30 present and extant dukes in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after. For a more complete historical listing, including extinct, dormant, abeyant, forfeit dukedoms in addition to these extant ones, see List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.
In the peerage of England, the title of Duke was created 74 times (using 40 different titles: the rest were recreations). Twice a woman was created a Duchess in her own right (but only for life). Out of the 74 times, 37 titles are now extinct (including the two women's), 16 titles were forfeit or surrendered, 10 were merged with the crown, and 11 are extant (see list below). The first, Cornwall, is a title that automatically goes to the heir apparent (if and only if he is also the eldest living son of the Sovereign). One of the duchies that was merged into the crown, Lancaster, still provides income to the sovereign. All but three of the non-royal ducal titles which became extinct did so before the 19th century (the Duke of Leeds became extinct in 1964, the Duke of Newcastle in 1988, and the Duke of Portland in 1990). The last English dukedom to be forfeit became so in 1715. The last British dukedom to become extinct was the title of Duke of Portland in 1990.
The oldest six titles – created between 1337 and 1386 – were Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Lancaster (1351), Duke of Clarence (1362), Duke of York (1385), Duke of Gloucester (1385), and Duke of Ireland (1386). The Duke of Ireland was a title used for only two years and is somewhat confusing since only a small portion of Ireland was really under the control of England in 1386; it is not to be confused with the dukedoms of the peerage of Ireland. Clarence has not been used since 1478, when George (the brother of Edward IV) was executed for treason. (However Clarence has since been used as half of a double title, most recently until 1892 when Victoria's grandson (and son of the Prince of Wales), the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, died at the age of 28.) The titles of Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester have both become extinct more than once and been re-created as titles within the peerage of the United Kingdom. Both titles are reserved for princes (and their descendants). The Duke of Lancaster has merged with the Crown and so is held by the monarch. On 29 September 1397, in an unprecedented move six dukedoms were created on a single day. None of these titles is extant.
Besides the dukedoms of Cornwall and Lancaster, the oldest extant title is that of Duke of Norfolk, dating from 1483 (the title was first created in 1397). The Duke of Norfolk is considered the Premier Duke of England. The premier duke of Scotland is the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon. The premier duke of Ireland is the Duke of Leinster.
Order of precedence
The general order of precedence among dukes is:
- Dukes in the Peerage of England, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Scotland, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Great Britain, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created before 1801, in order of creation
- Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created after 1801, in order of creation
Whilst the general order of precedence is set according to the age of the peerage, the sovereign's Grace may accord any peer higher precedence than his date of creation would warrant. The royal dukes are Dukes of the United Kingdom; but they rank higher in the order of precedence than the age of their titles would suggest, due to their close relationship to the monarch. The Prince of Wales holds precedence above all dukes, royal and non-royal and is the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay.
Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
List of heirs of Dukes in the Peerages of the British Isles
- Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of Rothesay, eldest son of the Duke of Edinburgh
- Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn, eldest son of the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay
- Prince George of Cambridge, only son of the Duke of Cambridge
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel, eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk
- Sebastian Seymour, Lord Seymour, eldest son of the Duke of Somerset
- Charles Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March and Kinrara, eldest son of the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon
- Alfred FitzRoy, Earl of Euston, only son of the Duke of Grafton
- Henry Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, eldest son of the Duke of Beaufort
- Charles Beauclerk, Earl of Burford, eldest son of the Duke of St Albans
- Henry Russell, Marquess of Tavistock, eldest son of the Duke of Bedford
- William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington, eldest son of the Duke of Devonshire (although heirs to that dukedom usually use the greater courtesy title of Marquess of Hartington)
- George Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, eldest son of the Duke of Marlborough
- Charles Manners, Marquess of Granby, eldest son of the Duke of Rutland
- Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale, eldest son of the Duke of Hamilton
- Walter Scott, Earl of Dalkeith, eldest son of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry
- Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, eldest son of the Duke of Argyll
- Michael Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, eldest son of the Duke of Atholl
- James Graham, Marquess of Graham, eldest son of the Duke of Montrose
- Charles Innes-Ker, Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford, eldest son of the Duke of Roxburghe
- George Percy, Earl Percy, eldest son of the Duke of Northumberland
- Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Douro, eldest son of the Duke of Wellington
- James Egerton, Marquess of Stafford, eldest son of the Duke of Sutherland
- James Hamilton, Marquess of Hamilton, eldest son of the Duke of Abercorn
- Charles Carnegie, Earl of Southesk, eldest son of the Duke of Fife
- Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster, eldest son of the Duke of Gloucester
- George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews, eldest son of the Duke of Kent
- Edward FitzGerald is nephew and the present heir presumptive of the Duke of Leinster;
- Kimble Montagu is brother and heir-presumptive of the Duke of Manchester.
Dukes without heirs
- British nobility
- Dukes in the United Kingdom
- List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
- Royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom
- As the eldest son of the Sovereign, the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay ranks higher in precedence than he would by virtue of the seniority of his dukedoms alone.
- The Dukedom of Abercorn was created after the Acts of Union 1800. It takes precedence after earlier Dukedoms of the United Kingdom, between the Dukedom of Sutherland and the Dukedom of Westminster.
- As members of the Royal Family, these dukes rank higher in precedence than they would by virtue of the seniority of their dukedoms alone.