List of Ecma standards

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This is a list of standards published by Ecma International, formerly the European Computer Manufacturers Association.

ECMA-1 – ECMA-99[edit]

ECMA Name Edition Standard Still applicable
(not withdrawn)
ECMA-1 6 Bit Input/Output Character Code 1963-03 - 1st edition - No
ECMA-2 Subset of ALGOL 60 - ECMALGOL 1965-04 - 1st edition - No
ECMA-3 CMC7 Printed Image Specification 1966-09 - 2nd edition
????-?? - 1st edition
ISO 1004 No
ECMA-4 Flow Charts 1966-09 - 2nd edition
1964-11 - 1st edition
ISO 1028 No
ECMA-5 Data Interchange on 7 Track Magnetic Tape 1970-06 - 3rd edition
????-?? - 2nd edition
1965-04 - 1st edition
- No
ECMA-6 7-Bit Coded Character Set 1991-12 - 6th edition ISO/IEC 646
ITU-T T.50
Yes
ECMA-7 7 Bit Code in Punched Cards 1965-04 - 1st edition ISO 1113 No
ECMA-8 Nominal Character Dimensions of the Numeric OCR-A Font 1977-01 - 2nd edition
1965-04 - 1st edition
ISO 1973-1 No
ECMA-9 FORTRAN 1965-04 - 1st edition ISO/IEC 1539 No
ECMA-10 Data Interchange on Punched Tape 1970-07 - 2nd edition
1965-11 - 1st edition
ISO 1113 No
ECMA-11 Alphanumeric Character Set OCR-B for Optical Recognition 1976-03 - 3rd edition ISO 1073-2 No
ECMA-12 Data Interchange on 9-Track Magnetic Tape at 32 bits per mm (800 bpi) 1970-06 - 2nd edition
1967-11 - 1st edition
ISO/IEC 1863 No
ECMA-13 File Structure and Labelling of Magnetic Tapes for Information Interchange 1985-12 4th edition ISO 1001 Yes
ECMA-14 Rules for the definition of 4 bit sets derived from the ECMA 7 bit coded character set 1967-11 1st edition - No
ECMA-15 Printing specifications for Optical Character Recognition 1975-08 2nd edition - No
ECMA-16 Basic mode control procedures for data communication systems using the ECMA 7-bit code 1973-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-17 Graphic Representation of Control Characters of the ECMA 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange 1968-11 - Yes
ECMA-18 Printing line position on OCR single line documents 1977-01 2nd edition - No
ECMA-19 Coding of character sets for MICR and OCR 1969-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-20 Implementation of the ECMA 7-bit coded character set on punched cards 1969-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-21 Character positioning on OCR journal tape 1969-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-22 Electrical safety requirements for data processing machines 1969-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-23 Keyboards generating the code combinations of the characters of the ECMA 7-bit coded character set 1975-01 2nd edition - No
ECMA-24 Code independent information transfer (an extension to the basic mode transmission control procedures) 1969-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-25 Representation of 8-bit combinations on 12-row punched cards 1970-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-26 Recovery procedures (an extension to the basic mode control procedures for data communication systems) 1971-04 1st edition - No
ECMA-27 Abort and interrupt procedures (an extension of the basic mode control procedures for data communication systems) 1971-04 1st edition - No
ECMA-28 Multiple station selection procedures (an extension of the basic mode control procedures for data communication systems) 1971-04 1st edition - No
ECMA-29 Conversational information transfer (an extension of the basic mode control procedures for data communication systems) 1971-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-30 OCR-B sub-sets for numeric applications 1976-03 2nd edition - No
ECMA-31 Mechanical safety requirements for DTA processing machines 1971-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-32 Mechanical, physical and magnetic characteristics of interchangeable 6-disk packs 1971-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-33 Track format characteristics of interchangeable 6-disk packs 1971-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-34 Data interchange on 3,81 mm magnetic tape cassette (63 ftpmm, phase encoded at 32 bpmm) 1976-09 3rd edition - No
ECMA-35 Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques 1994-12 - 6th edition
????-?? - 5th edition
ISO/IEC 2022
ECMA-36 Data interchange on 9-track magnetic tape at 63 bpmm (1600 bpi) phase-encoded 1971-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-37 Supplementary transmission control functions (an extension of the basic mode control procedures for data communication systems) 1972-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-38 Mechanical, physical and magnetic characteristics of interchangeable single disk cartridges (top loaded) 1973-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-39 Track Format Characteristics of Interchangeable Single Disk Cartridges (top loaded) 1973-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-40 High-level Data Link Control Procedures (HDLC) - Frame Structure 1980-01 3rd edition - No
ECMA-41 Magnetic tape cassette labelling and file structure for information interchange 1973-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-42 Alpha-numeric character set for 7x9 matrix printers 1973-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-43 8-bit coded character set structure and rules 1991-12 3rd edition ISO 4873 Yes
ECMA-44 Implementation of the ECMA 7-bit and 8-bit coded character sets on punched cards 1975-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-45 Data interchange on magnetic 12-disk packs (100 Mbytes) 1975-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-46 Data interchange on 6,30 mm magnetic tape cartridge (63 bpmm, phase encoded) 1976-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-47 Limits and measurements methods for radio interference from EDP units 1076-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-48 Control functions for coded character sets 1991-06 5th edition ISO 6429 Yes
ECMA-49 HDLC - Elements of procedure 1979-08 2nd edition - No
ECMA-50 Programming language PL/1 1976-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-51 Implementation of the numeric OCR-A font with 9x9 matrix printers 1977-01 1st edition - No
ECMA-52 Magnetic 12-disk packs (200 Mbytes) 1977-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-53 Representation of source programs for program interchange - APL, COBOL, FORTRAN, Minimal BASIC and PL/1 1978-01 1st edition - No
ECMA-54 Data interchange on 200 mm flexible disk cartridges using two-frequency recording at 13 262 ftprad on one side 1982-01 2nd edition - No
ECMA-55 Minimal BASIC 1978-01 1st edition - No
ECMA-56 Self-loading cartridges for 12,7 mm wide magnetic tapes 1978-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-57 Safety requirements for data processing equipment 1981-09 2nd edition - No
ECMA-58 Flexible disk cartridge labelling and file structure for information interchange 1981-01 2nd edition - No
ECMA-59 Data interchange on 200 mm flexible disk cartridges using two-frequency recording at 13 262 ftprad on both sides 1979-08 1st edition - No
ECMA-60 HDLC unbalanced class of procedure 1979-08 1st edition ISO 6159 No
ECMA-61 HDLC balanced class of procedure 1979-08 1st edition ISO 6256 No
ECMA-62 Data interchange on 12,7 mm 9-track magnetic tape - 32 ftpmm, NRZ1, 32 cpmm - 126 ftpmm, phase encoding, 63 cpmm - 356 ftpmm, NRZ1, 246 cpmm GCR 1985-03 2nd edition ISO 1863 No
ECMA-63 Representation of numerical values in character strings for information interchange 1980-09 1st edition ISO 6093 No
ECMA-64 Magnetic disk for data storage devices, 160 000 flux transitions per track, 356 mm diameter 1982-09 2nd edition ISO 6901 No
ECMA-65 Magnetic disk for data storage devices, 107 500 flux transitions per track, 266 mm and 356 mm diameter 1980-09 1st edition ISO 6902 No
ECMA-66 Data interchange on 130 mm flexible disk cartridges using two-frequency recording at 7 958 ftprad on one side 1980-09 1st edition ISO 6596 No
ECMA-67 130 mm flexible disk cartridge labelling and file structure 1981-01 1st edition ISO 7665 No
ECMA-68 Reels for 12,7 mm wide magnetic tapes (Sizes 16, 18 and 22) 1981-01 1st edition ISO 8064 No
ECMA-69 Data interchange on 200 mm flexible disk cartridges using MFM recording at 13 262 ftprad on both sides 1981-01 1st edition - No
ECMA-70 Data interchange on 130 mm flexible disk cartridges using MFM recording at 7 958 ftprad on 40 tracks on each side 1986-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-71 HDLC selected procedures 1981-01 1st edition ISO/IEC 13239:2002 No
ECMA-72 Transport protocol 1985-03 3rd edition - No
ECMA-73 Magnetic disk for data storage devices 95 840 flux transitions per track, 200 mm outer diameter, 63,5 mm inner diameter 1982-09 2nd edition - No
ECMA-74 Measurement of Airborne Noise emitted by Information Technology and Telecommunications Equipment 2021-12 19th edition ISO/IEC 7779 Yes
ECMA-75 Session protocol 1982-01 1st edition - No
ECMA-76 Magnetic disk for data storage devices, 158 000 flux transitions per track, 210 mm outer diameter, 100 mm inner diameter 1982-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-77 Magnetic disk for data storage devices, 83 000 flux transitions per track, 130 mm outer diameter, 40 mm inner diameter 1982-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-78 5¼-inch floppy disk 1986-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-79 Data interchange on 6,30 mm magnetic tape cartridge using IMFM recording at 252 ftpmm 1985-09 2nd edition - No
ECMA-80 Local Area Networks (CSMA/C Baseband) Coaxial Cable System 1984-03 ??? edition - No
ECMA-81 Local Area Networks (CSMA/C Baseband) physical layer 1984-03 2nd edition - No
ECMA-82 Local Area Networks (CSMA/C Baseband) link layer 1984-03 2nd edition - No
ECMA-83 Safety Requirements for DTE-to-DCE Interface 1985-09 2nd edition - No
ECMA-84 Data presentation protocol 1982-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-85 Virtual file protocol 1982-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-86 Generic data presentation - Services description and protocol definition 1983-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-87 Generic virtual terminal - Service and protocol description 1983-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-88 Basic class virtual terminal - Service description and protocol definition 1983-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-89 Local Area Networks - Token ring technique 1985-03 2nd edition - No
ECMA-90 Local Area Networks - Token bus technique 1993-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-91 Flexible disk cartridges - File structure and labelling for information interchange 1984-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-92 Connectionless internetwork protocol 1984-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-93 Distributed Application for Message Interchange (MIDA) 1987-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-94 8-Bit coded character sets 1986-06 2nd edition ISO/IEC 8859 Yes
ECMA-95 Limits of interference and measurement methods 1985-03 1st edition - No
ECMA-96 Syntax of Graphical Data for multiple-workstation interface (GDS) 1985-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-97 Local Area Networks - Safety requirements 1992-12 2nd edition - No
ECMA-98 Data Interchange on 6,30 mm magnetic tape cartridge using NRZ1 recording at 394 ftpmm - Streaming mode 1985-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-99 5¼-inch 1.2 megabyte floppy disk 1985-09 1st edition ISO 8630 No

ECMA-100 – ECMA-199[edit]

ECMA-100 Data interchange on 90 mm flexible disk cartridges using MFM recording at 7 958 ftprad on 80 tracks on each side - ISO type 301 1988-12 2nd edition ISO 8860 Yes
ECMA-101 Open Document Architecture (ODA) and interchange format 1988-12 2nd edition - No
ECMA-102 Rate adaptation for the support of synchronous and asynchronous equipment using the V. series type interface on a PCSN 1987-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-103 Physical layer at the basic access interface between data processing equipment and private switching networks 1987-12 2nd edition - No
ECMA-104 Physical layer at the primary rate access interface between data processing equipment and private switching networks 1985-09 1st edition - No
ECMA-105 Private Telecommunication Networks - signalling at the S reference point - data link layer protocol (PTN SSIG-L2) 1993-06 4th edition - No
ECMA-106 Private Telecommunication Networks (PTN) - Signalling protocol at the S reference point - Circuit mode basic services (SSIG-BC) 1993-12 3rd edition - Yes
ECMA-107 File Allocation Table (FAT) file system 1995-06 2nd edition ISO/IEC 9293 Yes
ECMA-108 Determination of high-frequency sound power levels emitted by information technology and telecommunications equipment 2016-12 6th edition ISO9295 Yes
ECMA-109 Declared noise emission values of information technology and telecommunications equipment 2020-12 10th edition ISO 9296 Yes
ECMA-110 Ergonomics - Requirements for monochromatic visual display devices 1985-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-111 Small Computer System Interface – SCSI 1985-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-112 X.25 (1980) Subnetwork-dependent convergence protocol 1985-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-113 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Latin/Cyrillic alphabet 1985-12 3rd edition ISO/IEC 8859-5 No
ECMA-120 Data interchange on 12,7 mm 18-track magnetig tape cartridges 1993-12 3rd edition ISO 9661 Yes
ECMA-121 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Latin/Hebrew alphabet 2000-12 2nd edition - Yes
ECMA-122 MIDA, mailbox service description and mailbox access protocol specification 1987-06 1st edition - No
ECMA-123 In band parameter exchange in private pre-ISDN networks using standard ECMA-102 1990-06 2nd edition - No
ECMA-124 Designation of unrecorded flexible disk cartridges 1987-12 1st edition - No
ECMA-125 Data interchange on 90 mm flexible disk cartridges usign MFM recording at 15 916 ftprad on 80 tracks on each side - ISO type 302 1987-12 1st edition ISO 9529 Yes
ECMA-126
  • ECMA-114 – 8-Bit coded character set, Latin/Arabic (same as ISO/IEC 8859-6)
  • ECMA-118 – 8-Bit coded character set, Latin/Greek (same as ISO/IEC 8859-7)
  • ECMA-119CD-ROM file system (later adopted as ISO 9660:1988)
  • ECMA-120 – Data Interchange on 12,7 mm 18-Track Magnetic Tape Cartridges (ISO 9661)
  • ECMA-121 – 8-Bit coded character set, Latin/Hebrew (same as ISO/IEC 8859-8)
  • ECMA-125 – 3½-inch floppy disk (also ISO/IEC 9529)
  • ECMA-128 – 8-Bit coded character set, Latin Alphabet No 5 (same as ISO/IEC 8859-9)
  • ECMA-130CD-ROM "Yellow Book" format (same as ISO/IEC 10149)
  • ECMA-133Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Reference Configuration for PISN Exchanges (PINX) (ISO/IEC 11579-1/ETSI ETS 300 475-1)
  • ECMA-139 – 4 mm Digital Data Storage (DDS) cartridges (same as ISO/IEC 10777)
  • ECMA-142 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) - Circuit Mode 64kbit/s Bearer Services - Service Description, Functional Capabilities and Information Flows (BCSD) (ISO/IEC 11574/ETSI EN 300 171)
  • ECMA-143 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) - Circuit Mode Bearer Services - Inter-Exchange Signalling Procedures and Protocol (QSIG-BC) (ISO/IEC 11572/ETSI EN 300 172)
  • ECMA-144 – 8-Bit coded character set (same as ISO/IEC 8859-10) (3rd edition Dec 2000)
  • ECMA-145 – 8 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange – Helical Scan Recording (ISO/IEC 11319)
  • ECMA-146 – 4 mm DAT data cartridges (same as ISO/IEC 11321)
  • ECMA-147 – Data Interchange on 90 mm Flexible Disk Cartridges using MFM Recording at 31 831 ftprad on 80 Tracks on Each Side – ISO Type 303 (ISO/IEC 10994)
  • ECMA-148 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) - Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Identification Supplementary Services (ISSD) (ISO/IEC 14136/ETSI ETS 300 173)
  • ECMA-149 – Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) - Abstract Specification (ISO/IEC 13719-1)
  • ECMA-150 – 3,81 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange - Helical Scan Recording – DDS-DC Format using 60 m and 90 m Length Tapes (ISO/IEC 11557)
  • ECMA-151 – Data Compression for Information Interchange - Adaptive Coding with Embedded Dictionary – DCLZ Algorithm (ISO/IEC 11558)
  • ECMA-152 – Data Interchange on 12,7 mm 18-Track Magnetic Tape Cartridges - Extended Format (ISO/IEC 11559)
  • ECMA-153 – Information Interchange on 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type, using the Magneto-Optical Effect (ISO/IEC 11560)
  • ECMA-154 – Data Interchange on 90 mm Optical Disk Cartridges, Read only and Rewritable, M.O. (ISO/IEC 10090)
  • ECMA-155 – Private Integrated Services Networks – Addressing (ISO/IEC 11571/ETSI EN 300 189)
  • ECMA-156 – Private Telecommunication Networks (PTN) – Signalling at the S Reference Point – Generic Keypad Protocol for the Support of Supplementary Services (SSIG-KP) (ETSI ETS 300 190)
  • ECMA-157 – Private Telecommunication Networks (PTN) – Signalling Protocol at the S Reference Point – Identification Supplementary Services (SSIG-ID) (ETSI ETS 300 191)
  • ECMA-158 – Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) – C Programming Language Binding (ISO/IEC 13719-2)
  • ECMA-159 – Data Compression for Information Interchange – Binary Arithmetic Coding Algorithm (ISO/IEC 12042)
  • ECMA-160 – Determination of Sound Power Levels of Computer and Business Equipment using Sound Intensity Measurements; Scanning Method in Controlled Rooms (ISO 9614-2)
  • ECMA-161 – Private Telecommunication Networks (PTN) – Signalling at the S Reference Point – Generic Feature Key Management Protocol for the Control of Supplementary Services (SSIG-FK) (ETSI ETS 300 240)
  • ECMA-162 – Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) – Ada Programming Language Binding (ISO/IEC 13719-3)
  • ECMA-163 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Name Identification Supplementary Services (NISD) (ISO/IEC 13864/ETSI ETS 300 237)
  • ECMA-164 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Name Identification Supplementary Services (QSIG-NA) (ISO/IEC 13868/ETSI ETS 300 238)
  • ECMA-165 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Generic Functional Protocol for the Support of Supplementary Services – Inter-Exchange Signalling Procedures and Protocol (QSIG-GF) (ISO/IEC 11582/ETSI ETS 300 239)
  • ECMA-167Universal Disk Format (same as ISO/IEC 13346)
  • ECMA-168ISO 9660 Level 3 (ISO/IEC 13490)
  • ECMA-169 – 8 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge Dual Azimuth Format for Information Interchange – Helical Scan Recording (ISO/IEC 12246)
  • ECMA-170 – 3,81 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange – Helical Scan Recording – DDS Format Using 60 m and 90 m Length Tapes (ISO/IEC 12247)
  • ECMA-171 – 3,81 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange – Helical Scan Recording – DATA/DAT-DC Format Using 60 m and 90 m Length Tapes (ISO/IEC 12248)
  • ECMA-173 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Call Diversion Supplementary Services (CFSD) (ISO/IEC 13872/ETSI ETS 300 256)
  • ECMA-174 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Call Diversion Supplementary Services (QSIG-CF) (ISO/IEC 13873/ETSI ETS 300 257)
  • ECMA-175 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Path Replacement Additional Network Feature (ANF-PRSD) (ISO/IEC 13863/ETSI ETS 300 258)
  • ECMA-176 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Path Replacement Additional Network Feature (QSIG-PR) (ISO/IEC 13874/ETSI ETS 300 259)
  • ECMA-177 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Call Transfer Supplementary Service (CTSD) (ISO/IEC 13865/ETSI ETS 300 260)
  • ECMA-178 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Call Transfer Supplementary Service (QSIG-CT) (ISO/IEC 13869/ETSI ETS 300 261)
  • ECMA-179 – Services for Computer Supported Telecommunications Applications (CSTA) Phase I
  • ECMA-180 – Protocol for Computer Supported Telecommunications Applications (CSTA) Phase I
  • ECMA-182Cyclic redundancy check polynomial CRC-64-ECMA-182 (ISO/IEC 13421)
  • ECMA-183 – Data Interchange on 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges – Capacity: 1 Gigabyte per Cartridge (ISO/IEC 13481)
  • ECMA-184 – Data Interchange on 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges – Capacity: 1,3 Gigabytes per Cartridge (ISO/IEC 13549)
  • ECMA-185 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Call Completion Supplementary Services (CCSD) (ISO/IEC 13866/ETSI ETS 300 365)
  • ECMA-186 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Call Completion Supplementary Services (QSIG-CC) (ISO/IEC 13870/ETSI ETS 300 366)
  • ECMA-189 – Information Interchange on 300 mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type using the SSF Method (ISO/IEC 13614)
  • ECMA-190 – Information Interchange on 300 mm Optical Disk Cartridges of the Write Once, Read Multiple (WORM) Type using the CCS Method (ISO/IEC 13403)
  • ECMA-191 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Call Offer Supplementary Service (COSD) (ISO/IEC 14841/ETSI EN 300 361)
  • ECMA-192 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Call Offer Supplementary Service (QSIG-CO) (ISO/IEC 14843/ETSI EN 300 362)
  • ECMA-193 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Specification, Functional Model and Information Flows – Do Not Disturb and Do Not Disturb Override Supplementary Services (DND(O)SD) (ISO/IEC 14842/ETSI EN 300 363)
  • ECMA-194 – Private Integrated Services Network (PISN) – Inter-Exchange Signalling Protocol – Do Not Disturb and Do Not Disturb Override Supplementary Services (QSIG-DND(O)) (ISO/IEC 14844/ETSI EN 300 364)
  • ECMA-195 – Data Interchange on 130 mm Optical Disk Cartridges – Capacity: 2 Gigabytes per Cartridge (ISO/IEC 13842)
  • ECMA-196 – Data Interchange on 12,7 mm 36-Track Magnetic Tape Cartridges (ISO/IEC 14251)
  • ECMA-197 – Data Interchange on 12,7 mm 112-Track Magnetic Tape Cartridges – DLT2 Format (ISO/IEC 13962)
  • ECMA-198 – 3,81 mm Wide Magnetic Tape Cartridge for Information Interchange – Helical Scan Recording – DDS-2 Format using 120 m Length Tapes (ISO/IEC 13923)

ECMA-200 – ECMA-299[edit]

ECMA-300 – ECMA-399[edit]

ECMA-400 – ECMA-499[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]