List of Emperors of Ethiopia

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This article lists the Emperors of Ethiopia, from the founding of the Zagwe dynasty in the 9th/10th century until 1974, when the last Emperor from the Solomonic dynasty was deposed.

Kings of Aksum and Dʿmt are listed separately due to numerous gaps and large flexibility in chronology.

Emperors of Ethiopia[edit]

Names in italics indicate rulers who were usurpers or not widely recognized.

Ethiopian Empire[edit]

Zagwe dynasty[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Mara Takla HaymanotZagweMara Takla Haymanot of Ethiopia
TatadimSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagweTatadim of Ethiopia
Jan SeyumSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagweJan Seyum of Ethiopia
Germa SeyumSon of Mara Takla HaymanotZagweGerma Seyum of Ethiopia
Yemrehana KrestosSon of Germa SeyumZagweYemrehana Krestos of Ethiopia
Kedus HarbeSon of Jan SeyumZagweKedus Harbe of Ethiopia
Gebre Mesqel Lalibela11891229Son of Jan SeyumZagweGebre Mesqel Lalibela of Ethiopia
Na'akueto La'abSon of Kedus HarbeZagweNa'akueto La'ab of Ethiopia
YetbarakSon of Gebre Mesqel LalibelaZagweYetbarak of Ethiopia
MairariZagweMairari of Ethiopia
HarbaiZagweHarbai of Ethiopia

Solomonic dynasty[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yekuno Amlak
  • ይኵኖ አምላክ
Died 19 June 128510 August 127019 June 1285SolomonicYekuno Amlak of Ethiopia
Yagbe'u Seyon
  • ይግባ ጽዮን
Died 129419 June 12851294Son of Yekuno AmlakSolomonicYagbe'u Seyon of Ethiopia
Senfa Ared IV
  • ሰይፈ አርድ ፬ኛ
12941295Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicSenfa Ared IV of Ethiopia
Hezba Asgad
  • ህዝብ አስገድ
12951296Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicHezba Asgad of Ethiopia
Qedma Asgad
  • ቅድመ አስግድ
12961297Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicQedma Asgad of Ethiopia
Jin Asgad
  • ጅን አሰገድ
12971298Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicJin Asgad of Ethiopia
Saba Asgad
  • ሳባ አሰገድ
12981299Son of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicSaba Asgad of Ethiopia
Wedem Arad
  • ወደም አራድ
Died 131412991314Brother of Yagbe'u SeyonSolomonicWedem Arad of Ethiopia
Amda Seyon I
  • ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን
Died 134413141344Son of Wedem AradSolomonicAmda Seyon I of Ethiopia
Newaya Krestos
  • ንዋየ ክርስቶስ
Died 137213441372Son of Amda Seyon ISolomonicNewaya Krestos of Ethiopia
Newaya Maryam
  • ንዋየ ማርያም
Died 138213721382Son of Newaya KrestosSolomonicNewaya Maryam of Ethiopia
Dawit I
  • ዳዊት
Died 6 October 141313826 October 1413Son of Newaya KrestosSolomonicDawit I of Ethiopia
Tewodros I
  • ቴዎድሮስ
Died 141414131414Son of Dawit ISolomonicTewodros I of Ethiopia
Yeshaq I
  • ይሥሓቅ
Died 142914141429Son of Dawit ISolomonicYeshaq I of Ethiopia
Andreyas
  • አንድሬያስ
Died 143014291430Son of Yeshaq ISolomonicAndreyas of Ethiopia
Takla Maryam
  • ተክለ ማርያም
Died 143314301433Son of Yeshaq ISolomonicTakla Maryam of Ethiopia
Sarwe Iyasus
  • ሣርወ ኢየሱስ
Died 143314331433Son of Takla MaryamSolomonicSarwe Iyasus of Ethiopia
Amda Iyasus
  • ዓምደ ኢየሱስ
Died 143414331434Son of Takla MaryamSolomonicAmda Iyasus of Ethiopia
Zara Yaqob
  • ዘርአ ያዕቆብ
1399 – 26 August 1468
(aged 69)
19/20 June 143426 August 1468Son of Dawit ISolomonicZara Yaqob of Ethiopia
Baeda Maryam I
  • በእደ ማርያም
1448 – 8 November 1478
(aged 30)
26 August 14688 November 1478Son of Zara YaqobSolomonicBaeda Maryam I of Ethiopia
Eskender
  • እስክንድር
(1471-07-15)15 July 1471 – 7 May 1494(1494-05-07) (aged 22)14787 May 1494Son of Baeda Maryam ISolomonicEskender of Ethiopia
Amda Seyon II
  • ዓምደ ፡ ጽዮን
c. 1487 – 26 October 1494
(aged c. 7)
149426 October 1494Son of EskenderSolomonicAmda Seyon II of Ethiopia
Na'od
  • ናዖስ
Died 31 July 1508149431 July 1508Son of Baeda Maryam ISolomonicNa'od of Ethiopia
Dawit II
  • ዳዊት
1501 – 2 September 1540
(aged 39)
15082 September 1540Son of Na'odSolomonicDawit II of Ethiopia
Gelawdewos
  • ገላውዴዎስ
1521/1522 – 23 March 1559
(aged 38–37)
3 September 154023 March 1559Son of Dawit IISolomonicGelawdewos of Ethiopia
Menas
  • ሜናስ
Died 1 February 156315591 February 1563Son of Dawit IISolomonicMenas of Ethiopia
Sarsa Dengel
  • ሠረጸ ድንግል
1550 – 4 October 1597
(aged 47)
15634 October 1597Son of MenasSolomonicSarsa Dengel of Ethiopia
Yaqob
  • ያዕቆብ
c. 1590 – 10 March 16061597
1604
1603
10 March 1606
Son of Sarsa DengelSolomonicYaqob of Ethiopia
Za Dengel
  • ዘድንግል
Died 24 October 1604160324 October 1604Nephew of Sarsa DengelSolomonicZa Dengel of Ethiopia
Gondarine line[edit]
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Susenyos I
  • ሱስንዮስ
1572 – 17 September 1632
(aged 60)
160617 September 1632Grandson of Dawit IISolomonicSusenyos I of Ethiopia
Fasilides
  • ፋሲልደስ
1603 – 18 October 1667
(aged 64)
163218 October 1667Son of Susenyos ISolomonicFasilides of Ethiopia
Yohannes I
  • ዮሐንስ
c. 1640 – 19 July 1682
(aged c. 42)
166719 July 1682Son of FasilidesSolomonicYohannes I of Ethiopia
Iyasu I
  • Iyasu the Great
  • ኢያሱ
1654 – 13 October 1706
(aged 52)
19 July 168213 October 1706Son of Yohannes ISolomonicIyasu I of Ethiopia
Yeshaq IyasuDied 168516851685Claimed to be grandson of Susenyos ISolomonicYeshaq Iyasu of Ethiopia
Tekle Haymanot I
  • Tekle Haymanot the Cursed
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት
(1684-03-28)28 March 1684 – 30 June 1708(1708-06-30) (aged 24)27 March 170630 June 1708Son of Iyasu ISolomonicTekle Haymanot I of Ethiopia
Amda SeyonDied September 1707September 1707September 1707Non-DynasticAmda Seyon of Ethiopia
Tewoflos
  • ቴዎፍሎስ
Died 14 October 17111 July 170814 October 1711Son of FasilidesSolomonicTewoflos of Ethiopia
Nebahne Yohannes1709July 1710Non-DynasticNebahne Yohannes of Ethiopia
Yostos
  • ዮስቶስ
Died 171614 October 171119 February 1716Grandson of Iyasu ISolomonicYostos of Ethiopia
Dawit III
  • Dawit the Singer
  • ዳዊት
1695 – 18 May 1721
(aged 26)
8 February 171618 May 1721Son of Iyasu ISolomonicDawit III of Ethiopia
Bakaffa
  • በካፋ
Died 19 September 173018 May 172119 September 1730Son of Iyasu ISolomonicBakaffa of Ethiopia
Iyasu II
  • ኢያሱ
(1723-10-21)21 October 1723 – 27 June 1755(1755-06-27) (aged 31)19 September 173027 June 1755Son of BakaffaSolomonicIyasu II of Ethiopia
Hezqeyas17361737SolomonicHezqeyas of Ethiopia
Iyoas I
  • ኢዮአስ
c. 1740 – 14 May 1769
(aged c. 29)
27 June 17557 May 1769Son of Iyasu IISolomonicIyoas I of Ethiopia
Zemene Mesafint[edit]
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yohannes II
  • ዮሓንስ
1699 – 18 October 1769
(aged 70)
7 May 176918 October 1769Son of Iyasu ISolomonicYohannes II of Ethiopia
Tekle Haymanot II
  • ተክለ ሃይማኖት
1754 – 7 September 1777
(aged 23)
18 October 1769
December 1770
August 1770
13 April 1777
Son of Yohannes IISolomonicTekle Haymanot II of Ethiopia
Susenyos II
  • ሱስንዮስ
Died c. 1771August 1770December 1770Possibly the illegitimate son of Iyasu IISolomonicSusenyos II of Ethiopia
Salomon II
  • ሣሎሞን
Died 178213 April 177720 July 1779Son of Abeto AdigoSolomonicSalomon II of Ethiopia
Tekle Giyorgis I
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ
c. 1751 – 12 December 1817
(aged c. 66)
20 July 1779
24 April 1788
January 1794
December 1795
4 January 1798
24 March 1800
8 February 1784
26 July 1789
15 April 1795
20 May 1796
20 May 1799
June 1800
Son of Yohannes IISolomonicTekle Giyorgis I of Ethiopia
Iyasu IIIDied by 181016 February 178424 April 1788Grandson of Iyasu IISolomonicIyasu III of Ethiopia
IyasuDied May 181317871788In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-DynasticIyasu of Ethiopia
Baeda Maryam17871788In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-DynasticBaeda Maryam of Ethiopia
Tekle HaymanotDied before 1810February 17881789In opposition to Iyasu IIINon-DynasticTekle Haymanot of Ethiopia
HezqeyasDied 13 September 181326 July 1789January 1794Son of Iyasu IIISolomonicHezqeyas of Ethiopia
Baeda Maryam II1749 – 1833
(aged 84)
15 April 1795December 1795Possibly son of Salomon IISolomonicBaeda Maryam II of Ethiopia
Salomon III20 May 1796
20 May 1799
15 July 1797
15 July 1799
Son of Tekle Haymanot IISolomonicSalomon III of Ethiopia
YonasDied May 181318 August 17974 January 1798Grandson of FasilidesSolomonicYonas of Ethiopia
DemetrosDied 180225 July 1799
June 1800
24 March 1800
June 1801
Son of ArqedewosNon-DynasticDemetros of Ethiopia
Egwale Seyon
  • እጓለ ጽዮን
Died 12 June 1818June 180112 June 1818Son of HezqeyasSolomonicEgwale Seyon of Ethiopia
Iyoas II
  • ኢዮአስ
Died 3 June 182114 June 18183 June 1821Son of HezqeyasSolomonicIyoas II of Ethiopia
Gigar
  • ጊጋር
c. 1745 – 26 November 1832
(aged c. 87)
3 June 1821
April 1826
April 1826
18 June 1830
Possibly son of Iyasu IIPossibly SolomonicGigar of Ethiopia
Baeda Maryam IIIApril 1826April 1826Non-DynasticBaeda Maryam III of Ethiopia
Iyasu IV
  • ኢያሱ
18 June 183018 March 1832Son of Salomon IIISolomonicIyasu IV of Ethiopia
Gebre Krestos
  • ገብረ ክሪስቶስ
18 March 1832
1832
1832
8 June 1832
Allegedly a descendant of FasilidesSolomonicGebre Krestos of Ethiopia
Sahle Dengel1778 – 11 February 1855
(aged 77)
1832
October 1832
October 1841
1845
1851
1832
29 August 1840
1845
1850
11 February 1855
Brother of Gebre KrestosSolomonicSahle Dengel of Ethiopia
Egwale Anbesa18321832Non-DynasticEgwale Anbesa of Ethiopia
Yohannes IIIc. 1797 – c. 1873
(aged c. 76)
30 August 1840
1845
1850
October 1841
1845
1851
Son of Tekle Giyorgis ISolomonicYohannes III of Ethiopia

Tewodros dynasty[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Tewodros II
  • ቴዎድሮስ
c. 1818 – 13 April 1868
(aged c. 47)
11 February 185513 April 1868Son of Haile Giorgis Wolde GiorgisClaimed the Solomonic lineage later in his reignTewodros II of Ethiopia

Zagwe dynasty[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Tekle Giyorgis II
  • ተክለ ጊዮርጊስ
Died 187311 June 186811 July 1871Son of Wagshum Gebre MedhinClaimed the Zagwe lineage through his father[1]Tekle Giyorgis II of Ethiopia

Solomonic dynasty[edit]

Tigrayan line[edit]
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Yohannes IV
  • ዮሓንስ
(1837-07-11)11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889(1889-03-10) (aged 51)11 July 187110 March 1889Son of Dejazmatch MerchaSolomonicYohannes IV of Ethiopia
Shewan line[edit]
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Menelik II[2]
  • ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ
(1844-08-17)17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913(1913-12-12) (aged 69)10 March 188912 December 1913Son of Negus Haile MelekotSolomonicMenelik II of Ethiopia
Iyasu V[3]
  • Lij Iyasu
  • ኢያሱ፭ኛ
(1895-02-04)4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935(1935-11-25) (aged 40)12 December 191327 September 1916Grandson of Menelik IISolomonicIyasu V of Ethiopia
Zewditu I[4]
  • ዘውዲቱ
(1876-04-29)29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930(1930-04-02) (aged 53)27 September 19162 April 1930Daughter of Menelik IISolomonicZewditu I of Ethiopia
Haile Selassie I
(1st reign)[5]
  • ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ
(1892-07-23)23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975(1975-08-27) (aged 83)2 April 19302 May 1936Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde MikaelSolomonicHaile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Italian East Africa[edit]

House of Savoy[edit]

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Victor Emmanuel III[6]
  • Vittorio Emanuele III
(1869-11-11)11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947(1947-12-28) (aged 78)9 May 19365 May 1941Son of Umberto ISavoyVictor Emmanuel III of Italy

Governors-General of Italian East Africa:

Restored Ethiopian Empire[edit]

Solomonic dynasty[edit]

Shewan line[edit]
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Haile Selassie I
(2nd reign)[7]
  • ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ
(1892-07-23)23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975(1975-08-27) (aged 83)5 May 194112 September 1974Son of Ras Makonnen Wolde MikaelSolomonicHaile Selassie I of Ethiopia
Amha Selassie I[8][9](1916-07-27)27 July 1916 – 17 February 1997(1997-02-17) (aged 80)12 September 197421 March 1975Son of Haile Selassie ISolomonicAmha Selassie I of Ethiopia

Imperial Standard[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also claimed the Solomonic lineage through his mother.
  2. ^ Previously King of Shewa from 1855 to 1856, and from 1865 to 1889. Ruled under the regency of Ras Betwoded Tessema Nadew from 1909 to 1911 and Lij Iyasu from 1911 to 1913.
  3. ^ Never officially crowned as Emperor. Deposed by nobility with the sanction of the Church.
  4. ^ Ruled under the regency of Ras Tafari Makonnen (future Emperor Haile Selassie I).
  5. ^ De facto ruler of the country as regent from 1916 to 1930. Crowned as King in 1928.
  6. ^ Unrecognized only by the United States and Soviet Union in 1940. Renounced title in 1943.
  7. ^ Briefly deposed during the 1960 coup attempt.
  8. ^ Proclaimed Emperor by the Imperial Guards during the 1960 coup attempt.
  9. ^ Designated "King" (not Emperor) by the Derg while out of the country, did not take throne.

References[edit]