List of emperors of Japan

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Timeline of Emperors of Japan

This list of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-seventh century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]

The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 Emperors of Japan, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese calendar system.[3]

Emperors of Japan[edit]

No. Portrait Personal name Reign Posthumous name Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC – 269 AD)
1 Emperor Jimmu.jpg Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto 660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu
神武天皇
  Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu[4]
2 Suizei thumb 1.jpg Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto 581–549 BC Emperor Suizei
綏靖天皇
  Traditional dates;[5] 3rd son of Jimmu;[6] presumed legendary
3 Tennō Annei thumb.jpg Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto 549–511 BC Emperor Annei
安寧天皇
  Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Suizei;[6] presumed legendary
4 Tennō Itoku thumb.jpg Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto 510–476 BC Emperor Itoku
懿徳天皇
  Traditional dates;[7] 2nd son of Annei;[6] presumed legendary
5 Tennō Kōshō thumb.jpg Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto 475–393 BC Emperor Kōshō
孝昭天皇
  Traditional dates;[8] son and heir of Itoku;[6] presumed legendary
6 Tennō Kōan thumb.jpg Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto 392–291 BC Emperor Kōan
孝安天皇
  Traditional dates;[9] 2nd son of Kōshō;[6] presumed legendary
7 Tennō Kōrei thumb.jpg Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto 290–215 BC Emperor Kōrei
孝霊天皇
  Traditional dates;[10] son and heir of Kōan;[6] presumed legendary
8 Tennō Kōgen thumb.gif Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto 214–158 BC Emperor Kōgen
孝元天皇
  Traditional dates;[11] son and heir of Kōrei;[6] presumed legendary
9 Tennō Kaika thumb.jpg Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto 157–98 BC Emperor Kaika
開化天皇
  Traditional dates;[12] 2nd son of Kōgen;[6] presumed legendary
10 Emperor Sujin.jpg Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto 97–30 BC Emperor Sujin
崇神天皇
Traditional dates;[13] first emperor of plausible historicity[14]
11 Emperor Suinin.jpg Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto 29 BC–AD 70  Emperor Suinin
垂仁天皇
Traditional dates[15]
12 Emperor Keikō.jpg Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto 71–130 Emperor Keikō
景行天皇
Traditional dates[16]
13 Emperor Seimu.jpg Waka Tarashihiko 131–191 Emperor Seimu
成務天皇
Traditional dates[17]
14 Tennō Chūaii thumb.gif Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto 192–200 Emperor Chūai
仲哀天皇
Traditional dates[18]
Empress OKINAGA TARASI.JPG Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto 201–269 Empress Jingū
神功皇后
Traditional dates;[19] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered Emperors
Kofun period (269–539)
15 Emperor Ōjin.jpg Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto 270–310 Emperor Ōjin
応神天皇
Traditional dates;[20] deified as Hachiman
16 Nintoku-tennō detail.jpg Ō Sazaki no Mikoto 313–399 Emperor Nintoku
仁徳天皇
Traditional dates[21]
17 No image.png Isaho Wake no Mikoto 400–405 Emperor Richū
履中天皇
Traditional dates[22]
18 No image.png Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto 406–410 Emperor Hanzei
反正天皇
Traditional dates[23]
19 Emperor Ingyō.jpg Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune 411–453 Emperor Ingyō
允恭天皇
Traditional dates[24]
20 Emperor Ankō.jpg Anaho no Mikoto 453–456 Emperor Ankō
安康天皇
Traditional dates[25]
21 Tennō Yūryaku detail.jpg Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto 456–479 Emperor Yūryaku
雄略天皇
Traditional dates[26]
22 No image.png Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto 480–484 Emperor Seinei
清寧天皇
Traditional dates[27]
23 Emperor Kenzō.jpg Ohoke no Mikoto 485–487 Emperor Kenzō
顕宗天皇
Traditional dates[28]
24 Emperor Ninken.jpg Ohoshi (Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Shimano Iratsuko 488–498 Emperor Ninken
仁賢天皇
Traditional dates[29]
25 No image.png Wohatsuse Wakasazaki 498–506 Emperor Buretsu
武烈天皇
Traditional dates[30]
26 Statue of Emperor Keitai.jpg Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) 507–531 Emperor Keitai
継体天皇
Traditional dates[31]
27 No image.png Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto 531–535 Emperor Ankan
安閑天皇
Traditional dates[32]
28 No image.png Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto 535–539 Emperor Senka
宣化天皇
Traditional dates[33]
Asuka period (539–710)
29 Emperor Kinmei.jpg Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto 539–571 Emperor Kinmei
欽明天皇
Traditional dates;[34] all Emperors from Kinmei onwards are historically verifiable[35]
30 No image.png Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto 572–585 Emperor Bidatsu
敏達天皇
Traditional dates[36]
31 Yomeitenno.jpg Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto 585–587 Emperor Yōmei
用明天皇
Traditional dates[37]
32 No image.png Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto 587–592 Emperor Sushun
崇峻天皇
Traditional dates[38]
33 Empress Suiko.jpg Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime 592–628 Empress Suiko
推古天皇
Traditional dates;[39] first non-legendary female Emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34 No image.png Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) 629–641 Emperor Jomei
舒明天皇
Traditional dates[40]
35 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 642–645 Empress Kōgyoku
皇極天皇
Traditional dates;[41] reigned twice
36 No image.png Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) 645–654 Emperor Kōtoku
孝徳天皇
Traditional dates[42]
37 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 655–661 Empress Saimei
斉明天皇
Traditional dates;[43] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38 Hyakuninisshu 001.jpg Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) 661–672 Emperor Tenji
天智天皇
Traditional dates[44]
39 Emperor Kōbun.jpg Ōtomo 672 Emperor Kōbun
弘文天皇
Traditional dates;[45] usurped by Tenmu; posthumously named (1870)
40 Emperor Tenmu.jpg Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) 672–686 Emperor Tenmu
天武天皇
Traditional dates[46]
41 Hyakuninisshu 002.jpg Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 686–697 Empress Jitō
持統天皇
Traditional dates[47]
42 Monmu.gif Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) 697–707 Emperor Monmu
文武天皇
Traditional dates[48]
Nara period (710–794)
43 Empress Gemmei.jpg Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) 707–715 Empress Genmei
元明天皇
Traditional dates[49]
44 Empress Genshō.jpg Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 715–724 Empress Genshō
元正天皇
Traditional dates[50]
45 Emperor Shomu.jpg Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) 724–749 Emperor Shōmu
聖武天皇
Traditional dates[51]
46 Empress Koken.jpg Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 749–758 Empress Kōken
孝謙天皇
Traditional dates;[52] reigned twice
47 No image.png Ōi 758–764 Emperor Junnin
淳仁天皇
Traditional dates[53] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48 Empress Koken.jpg Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 764–770 Empress Shōtoku
称徳天皇
Traditional dates;[54] second reign of Empress Kōken
49 No image.png Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) 770–781 Emperor Kōnin
光仁天皇
Traditional dates[55]
50 Emperor Kammu large.jpg Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) 781–806 Emperor Kanmu
桓武天皇
Traditional dates[56]
Heian period (794–1185)
51 No image.png Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) 806–809 Emperor Heizei
平城天皇
Traditional dates[57]
52 Emperor Saga large.jpg Kamino 809–823 Emperor Saga
嵯峨天皇
Traditional dates[58]
53 No image.png Ōtomo 823–833 Emperor Junna
淳和天皇
Traditional dates[59]
54 No image.png Masara 833–850 Emperor Ninmyō
仁明天皇
Traditional dates[60]
55 Emperor Montoku.jpg Michiyasu 850–858 Emperor Montoku
文徳天皇
Traditional dates[61]
56 Emperor Seiwa.jpg Korehito 858–876 Emperor Seiwa
清和天皇
Traditional dates[62]
57 Hyakuninisshu 013.jpg Sadaakira 876–884 Emperor Yōzei
陽成天皇
Traditional dates[63]
58 Tennō Kōkō.jpg Tokiyasu 884–887 Emperor Kōkō
光孝天皇
Traditional dates[64]
59 Emperor Uda large.jpg Sadami 887–897 Emperor Uda
宇多天皇
Traditional dates[65]
60 Emperor Daigo.jpg Atsuhito 897–930 Emperor Daigo
醍醐天皇
Traditional dates[66]
61 No image.png Yutaakira 930–946 Emperor Suzaku
朱雀天皇
Traditional dates[67]
62 Emperor Murakami.jpg Nariakira 946–967 Emperor Murakami
村上天皇
Traditional dates[68]
63 No image.png Norihira 967–969 Emperor Reizei
冷泉天皇
Traditional dates[69]
64 No image.png Morihira 969–984 Emperor En'yū
円融天皇
Traditional dates[70]
65 Tennō Kazan detail.jpg Morosada 984–986 Emperor Kazan
花山天皇
Traditional dates[71]
66 Emperor Ichijō.jpg Kanehito 986–1011 Emperor Ichijō
一条天皇
Traditional dates[72]
67 Hyakuninisshu 068.jpg Okisada/Iyasada 1011–1016 Emperor Sanjō
三条天皇
Traditional dates[73]
68 No image.png Atsuhira 1016–1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō
後一条天皇
Traditional dates[74]
69 No image.png Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi 1036–1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku
後朱雀天皇
Traditional dates[75]
70 No image.png Chikahito 1045–1068 Emperor Go-Reizei
後冷泉天皇
Traditional dates[76]
71 Emperor Gosanjō.jpg Takahito 1068–1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō
後三条天皇
Traditional dates[77]
72 Emperor Shirakawa.jpg Sadahito 1073–1087 Emperor Shirakawa
白河天皇
Traditional dates[78]
73 No image.png Taruhito 1087–1107 Emperor Horikawa
堀河天皇
Traditional dates[79]
74 Emperor Toba.jpg Munehito 1107–1123 Emperor Toba
鳥羽天皇
Traditional dates[80]
75 Emperor Sutoku2.jpg Akihito 1123–1142 Emperor Sutoku
崇徳天皇
Traditional dates[81]
76 No image.png Narihito 1142–1155 Emperor Konoe
近衛天皇
Traditional dates[82]
77 Emperor Go-Shirakawa2.jpg Masahito 1155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa
後白河天皇
Traditional dates[83]
78 Nijotenno.jpg Morihito 1158–1165 Emperor Nijō
二条天皇
Traditional dates[84]
79 No image.png Yorihito 1165–1168 Emperor Rokujō
六条天皇
Traditional dates[85]
80 Emperor Takakura.jpg Norihito 1168–1180 Emperor Takakura
高倉天皇
Traditional dates[85]
81 Emperor Antoku.jpg Tokihito 1180–1185 Emperor Antoku
安徳天皇
Traditional dates[86]
Kamakura period (1185–1333)
82 Emperor Go-Toba.jpg Takahira 1183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba
後鳥羽天皇
Traditional dates[87]
83 Emperor Tsuchimikado.jpg Tamehito 1198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado
土御門天皇
Traditional dates[88]
84 Emperor Juntoku large.jpg Morihira/Morinari 1210–1221 Emperor Juntoku
順徳天皇
Traditional dates[89]
85 No image.png Kanehira/Kanenari 1221 Emperor Chūkyō
仲恭天皇
Traditional dates;[90] posthumously named (1870)
86 Emperor Go-Horikawa.jpg Yutahito 1221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa
後堀河天皇
Traditional dates[91]
87 Emperor Shijō.jpg Mitsuhito/Toshihito 1232–1242 Emperor Shijō
四条天皇
Traditional dates[92]
88 Emperor Go-Saga.jpg Kunihito 1242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga
後嵯峨天皇
Traditional dates[93]
89 Emperor Go-Fukakusa.jpg Hisahito 1246–1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa
後深草天皇
Traditional dates[94]
90 Emperor Kameyama.jpg Tsunehito 1260–1274 Emperor Kameyama
亀山天皇
Traditional dates[95]
91 Emperor Go-Uda.jpg Yohito 1274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda
後宇多天皇
Traditional dates[96]
92 Emperor Fushimi.jpg Hirohito 1287–1298 Emperor Fushimi
伏見天皇
Traditional dates[97]
93 Emperor Go-Fushimi.jpg Tanehito 1298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi
後伏見天皇
Traditional dates[98]
94 Emperor Go-Nijō.jpg Kuniharu 1301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō
後二条天皇
Traditional dates[99]
95 Tennō Hanazono detail.jpg Tomihito 1308–1318 Emperor Hanazono
花園天皇
Traditional dates[100]
96 Emperor Godaigo.jpg Takaharu 1318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo
後醍醐天皇
Traditional dates;[101] Southern Court
Northern Court (1331–1392)
Emperor Kōgon.jpg Kazuhito 1331–1333 Emperor Kōgon
光厳天皇
Traditional dates[102]
Emperor Kōmyō.jpg Yutahito 1336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō
光明天皇
Traditional dates[103]
No image.png Okihito 1348–1351 Emperor Sukō
崇光天皇
Traditional dates[104]
Emperor Go-Kōgon.jpg Iyahito 1352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon
後光厳天皇
Traditional dates[105]
Emperor Go-En'yū detail.jpg Ohito 1371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū
後円融天皇
Traditional dates[106]
Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Motohito 1382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu
後小松天皇
Traditional dates;[107] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period (1333–1603)
97 Emperor Go-Murakami.jpg Norinaga/Noriyoshi 1339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami
後村上天皇
Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
98 No image.png Yutanari 1368–1383 Emperor Chōkei
長慶天皇
Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
99 Emperor Go-Kameyama.jpg Hironari 1383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama
後亀山天皇
Traditional dates;[110] Southern Court
100 Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Motohito 1392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu
後小松天皇
Traditional dates;[111] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101 No image.png Mihito 1412–1428 Emperor Shōkō
称光天皇
Traditional dates[112]
102 Emperor Go-Hanazono.jpg Hikohito 1428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono
後花園天皇
Traditional dates[113]
103 No image.png Fusahito 1464–1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
後土御門天皇
Traditional dates[114]
104 No image.png Katsuhito 1500–1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara
後柏原天皇
Traditional dates[115]
105 Emperor Go-Nara.jpg Tomohito 1526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara
後奈良天皇
Traditional dates[116]
106 Emperor Ogimachi2.jpg Michihito 1557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi
正親町天皇
Traditional dates[117]
107 Emperor Go-Yōzei2.jpg Kazuhito/Katahito 1586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei
後陽成天皇
Traditional dates[118]
Edo period (1603–1867)
108 Emperor Go-Mizunoo2.jpg Kotohito 1611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)

後水尾天皇
Traditional dates[119]
109 Meisho of Japan.jpg Okiko 1629–1643 Empress Meishō
明正天皇
Traditional dates[120]
110 Emperor Go-Kōmyō.jpg Tsuguhito 1643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō
後光明天皇
Traditional dates[121]
111 Emperor Go-Sai.jpg Nagahito 1655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai
後西天皇
Traditional dates[122]
112 Emperor Reigen.jpg Satohito 1663–1687 Emperor Reigen
霊元天皇
Traditional dates[123]
113 Emperor Higashiyama.jpg Asahito/Tomohito 1687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama
東山天皇
Traditional dates[124]
114 Emperor Nakamikado.jpg Yasuhito/Yoshihito 1709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado
中御門天皇
Traditional dates[125]
115 Emperor Sakuramachi.jpg Teruhito 1735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi
桜町天皇
Traditional dates[126]
116 Emperor Momozono.jpg Toohito 1747–1762 Emperor Momozono
桃園天皇
Traditional dates[127]
117 Empress Go-Sakuramachi.jpg Toshiko 1762–1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi
後桜町天皇
Traditional dates[128] Last female Emperor. Abdicated; died in 1813
118 Emperor Go-Momozono.jpg Hidehito 1771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono
後桃園天皇
Traditional dates[129]
119 Emperor Kōkaku.jpg Morohito 1780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku
光格天皇
Traditional dates[130] Died in 1840
120 Emperor Ninkō.jpg Ayahito 1817–1846 Emperor Ninkō
仁孝天皇
121 The Emperor Komei.jpg Osahito 1846–1867 Emperor Kōmei
孝明天皇
Last instance of an Emperor with multiple era names
Modern Japan (from 1867)
122 Black and white photo of emperor Meiji of Japan.jpg Mutsuhito 1867–1912 Emperor Meiji
明治天皇
The first Emperor of the Empire of Japan
123 Emperor Taishō.jpg Yoshihito 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō
大正天皇
Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") 1921–1926
124 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg Hirohito 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa
昭和天皇
Served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") 1921–1926.
The last Emperor of the Empire of Japan
125 Emperor Akihito (2016).jpg Akihito 1989–2019 N/A Abdicated at the end of 30 April 2019, first to abdicate in over 200 years. Referred to as Jōkō (上皇) in Japanese, and as "Emperor Emeritus" in English. He will be known as "Emperor Heisei" (平成天皇) posthumously.
126 Naruhito 2019–present N/A Ascended on 1 May 2019. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇; "the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika (天皇陛下; "His Majesty the Emperor") in Japanese, and as "Emperor Naruhito" in English. He will be known as "Emperor Reiwa" (令和天皇) posthumously.[131]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. ^ A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen on the Japanese Wikipedia page 天皇の一覧 (List of Japanese monarchs).
  4. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1–3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84–88;
  5. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, p. 248.
  7. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  8. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  9. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251–252; Varley, p. 90.
  10. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92.
  11. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93.
  12. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  13. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93–95.
  14. ^ Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
  15. ^ Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Brown, pp. 253–254; Varley, pp. 95–96.
  16. ^ Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99.
  17. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  18. ^ Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  19. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  20. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, pp. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  21. ^ Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  23. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  26. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  28. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  29. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  30. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  31. ^ Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  33. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. ^ Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei."
  36. ^ Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  38. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  42. ^ Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  44. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  47. ^ Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  48. ^ Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  49. ^ Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  50. ^ Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  52. ^ Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  53. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  54. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  55. ^ Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  58. ^ Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  59. ^ Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
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  75. ^ Brown, pp. 310–311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162.
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  88. ^ Brown, pp. 339–341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230.
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  92. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245.
  93. ^ Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247.
  94. ^ Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253.
  95. ^ Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261.
  96. ^ Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269.
  97. ^ Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274.
  98. ^ Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275.
  99. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278.
  100. ^ Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281.
  101. ^ Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286, and Titsingh, p. 290–294.
  102. ^ Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
  103. ^ Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
  104. ^ Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
  105. ^ Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
  106. ^ Titsingh, pp. 310–316.
  107. ^ Titsingh, pp. 317–327.
  108. ^ Varley, pp. 269–270 | Titsingh, p. .
  109. ^ Titsingh, p. .
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  114. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–364.
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  117. ^ Titsingh, pp. 382–402.
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  123. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414–415.
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  126. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417–418.
  127. ^ Titisngh, pp. 418–419.
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References[edit]

External links[edit]