List of English civil wars

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Several military conflicts are considered English civil wars:

  • Rebellion of 1088 to 1091 – in England and Normandy, The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in the Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. Hostilities lasted from 3 to 6 months starting around Easter of 1088.
  • The Anarchy (1135–54) – in England, The Anarchy was a civil war in England and Normandy between 1135 and 1154, which resulted in a widespread breakdown in law and order. The conflict began with a succession crisis towards the end of the reign of Henry I, when the king's only legitimate son, William Adelin, died aboard the White Ship in 1120. Henry's attempts to install his daughter, the Empress Matilda, as his successor were unsuccessful and on Henry's death in 1135, his nephew Stephen of Blois seized the throne with the help of his brother, Henry, bishop of Winchester. Stephen's early reign was marked by fierce fighting with English barons, rebellious Welsh leaders and Scottish invaders. Following a major rebellion in the south-west of England, Matilda invaded in 1139 with the help of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester.
  • Revolt of 1173–74 – in England, Normandy, and Anjou, The Revolt of 1173–74 was a rebellion against King Henry II of England by three of his sons, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their rebel supporters. The revolt ended in failure after eighteen months: Henry's rebellious family members had to resign themselves to his continuing rule and were reconciled to him.
  • First Barons' War (1215–17) – in England, The First Barons' War (1215–17) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England in which a group of rebellious barons, led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, made war on King John of England. The war resulted from the king's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta he had sealed on 15 June 1215, and from the ambitions of the French prince, who dragged the war on after many of the rebel barons had made peace with John.
  • Second Barons' War (1264–67) – in England, The Second Barons' War (1264–1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against Royalist forces led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England), in the name of Henry III.
  • Conquest of Wales by Edward I (1277 - 1283) – in England and Wales, The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales[note 1] to distinguish it from the earlier (but partial) Norman conquest of Wales, took place between 1277 and 1283. It resulted in the defeat and annexation of the Principality of Wales, and the other last remaining independent Welsh principalities, by Edward I of England.
  • Peasants' Revolt (1381) – in England, The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the 1340s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years' War, and instability within the local leadership of London.
  • Glyndŵr Rising (1400-1415) Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh, The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against England. It was the last major manifestation of a Welsh independence movement before the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.
  • Wars of the Roses (1455–1487) – in England and Wales; Richard III was the last English king to die in combat, The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. They were fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, the houses of Lancaster and York. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487.
  • Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) – in England, Ireland and Scotland, The Wars of the Three Kingdoms formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651. The English Civil War has become the best-known of these conflicts and included the execution of the kingdoms' monarch, Charles I, by the English parliament in 1649.
  • The First English Civil War (1642–46) (known as The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government)
  • The Second English Civil War (1648–49) (known as The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government)
  • The Third English Civil War (1649–51)(known as The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government)
  • Monmouth Rebellion (1685) – in England, The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II, who had become King of England, Scotland and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II on 6 February 1685.
  • Jacobite Rebellions (1689–91; 1715–16; 1719; 1745–46) – in England, Scotland and Ireland, Jacobitism (/ˈdʒækəbaɪˌtɪzm/ JAK-ə-beye-TIZ-əm;Irish: Seacaibíteachas, Scottish Gaelic: Seumasachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland. The movement took its name from Jacobus, the Renaissance Latin form of Iacomus, the original Latin form of James. Adherents rebelled against the British government on several occasions between 1688 and 1746.

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