List of English dishes

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This is a list of prepared dishes characteristic of English cuisine. English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.[1][2]

Ingredients that might be used to prepare these dishes, such as English vegetables, cuts of meat, or cheeses do not themselves form part of this list.

English dishes[edit]

Name Image First known Savoury/
Sweet
Region Description
Bedfordshire clanger Bedfordshire Clanger.jpg 1800s (century)[3] Savoury and Sweet Bedfordshire Suet crust dumpling with a savoury filling one end, sweet filling the other. The savoury filling is usually meat with diced potatoes and vegetables. The sweet filling can be jam, cooked apple or other fruit.
Bangers and mash Bangers and mash 1.jpg 410 at latest (Roman Britain: sausages)[4][5] Savoury National[6] Mashed potatoes and sausages, sometimes served with onion gravy or fried onions. Note that while sausages may date to the time given, potatoes are from the Americas and were not introduced to Europe until the 16th century.
Chicken tikka masala Chicken tikka masala.jpg 1900s (century)[7] Savoury National[6] Pieces of chicken tikka in a spiced creamy sauce
Cobbler Cobbler (7303683612).jpg 1800s (century), perhaps earlier[8] Savoury or Sweet National, from British American colonies Fruit or savoury (e.g. beef) filling, covered with a scone mixture and baked
Beef Wellington Beef Wellington - Whole.jpg 1939[9] Savoury National, from Wellington, New Zealand?[10] Beef cooked in a pastry crust
Black peas Savoury Lancashire Purple podded peas soaked overnight and simmered until mushy
Black pudding Boudin3.jpg 800BC (in The Odyssey)[11] Savoury National[a] Blood sausage
Bubble and squeak Full English breakfast with bubble and squeak, sausage, bacon, grilled tomatoes, and eggs.jpg Savoury National[6] Fried mashed potato with cabbage
Cauliflower cheese Cauliflower-cheese.jpg Savoury National Cauliflower in a thick cheese sauce
Cottage pie,
Shepherd's pie
Shepherdspie2.JPG 1791[12] Savoury National Meat, minced or in pieces, with mashed potato crust
Cumberland sausage Cumberland sausage.jpg Savoury Cumberland Long sausage
Devilled kidneys Devilled kidneys.jpg Savoury National [13][14]
Faggots Faggots-and-gravy.jpg 1851[15] Savoury Midlands
Fish and chips Fish and chips.jpg 1870 approx.[16] Savoury National[6][17] White fish fillets in batter (or egg-and-breadcrumbs), deep fried with potato chips
Full English breakfast Full English Breakfast.JPG 1861[b][18] Savoury National A selection of fried foods such as sausages, bacon, eggs, mushrooms, bread, tomatoes; options include kippers, baked beans
Game pie Adriaen van Utrecht - Still Life with Games and Vegetables - Google Art Project.jpg Savoury National
Hog's pudding Savoury Devon, Cornwall
Jellied eels Eels 1385.JPG Savoury East End of London
Kippers Kipper.JPG Savoury National Smoked split herrings
Lancashire hotpot Lancashire hotpot.jpg Savoury Lancashire Meat stew with carrots, potatoes, onions
Lincolnshire sausage Lincolnshire sausage dinner.jpg Savoury Lincolnshire
Liver and onion/Liver and bacon Chicken Livers.jpg Savoury National Pictured is liver and onions
Pasty Cornish pasty.jpeg 1200s (century)[19] Savoury Cornwall, National Pastry shell filled with meat and potatoes
Pease pudding Thamarakt, purée de pois cassés à servir avec un bon filet d'huile d'olive..jpg Savoury National Split peas or lentils cooked until soft and thick
Pie and mash Pieandmashthumb1.jpg Savoury National
Ploughman's lunch Ploughmans lunch.jpg Savoury National Bread, cheese, apple, pickles
Pork pie Pork pie on plate.jpg 1780s[20][21] Savoury Melton Mowbray, National Cylindrical pie filled with pork and meat jelly
Potted shrimps Potted shrimp on toast with pickled cucumber.jpg 1800s (century) or earlier[22] Savoury Lancashire (Morecambe Bay) Shrimps preserved under melted butter
Rag pudding RagPudding Cooked.jpg Savoury Lancashire (Oldham) Minced meat with onions in a suet pastry, which is then boiled or steamed.
Stargazy Pie Baked stargazy pie.jpg 1900s (century) Savoury Cornwall Fish pie with sardines poking out of the piecrust, looking at the stars
Steak pies
with ingredients such as ale, kidney, oysters, potato and root vegetables
Homemade meat pie.jpg 1303[23] Savoury National Meat and gravy in a pastry shell. Steak and kidney pie is a national dish of the United Kingdom.[6]
Steak and kidney pie, see Steak pies
Steak and kidney pudding Steak and Kidney Pudding.jpg 1861[24] Savoury National Suet pudding filled with pieces of beef and kidney in thick gravy
Steak and oyster pie, See Steak pies Steak and oyster pie - 01.jpg
Stottie cake Stotty1.JPG Savoury North East England Heavy flat bread
Suet pudding 1714[25][26] Savoury or sweet National Steamed pudding made with flour and suet, with meat or fruit mixed in
Sunday roast Traditional.Sunday.Roast-01.jpg 1700s (century) Savoury National Roast beef 1700s,[27] Yorkshire pudding (1747),[28] roast potatoes, vegetables. Roast beef with Yorkshire pudding is a national dish of the United Kingdom.[6]
Roast lamb with mint sauce Savoury National
Roast pork with apple sauce Savoury National
Shepherd's pie, see Cottage pie
Toad-in-the-hole Toad in the hole.jpg 1747;[29] 1788[30] 1891[31] Savoury National[6] Sausages cooked in a tray of batter
Welsh rarebit Jielbeaumadier welsh 2010.jpg Savoury National Melted cheese on toast
Yorkshire pudding Yorkshire Pudding.jpg 1747[28] Savoury National Souffle batter baked in very hot oven.
Game pie Savoury National
Panackelty Savoury North East England Slow-baked meat and root vegetables
Parmo Savoury Middlesbrough Chicken or other cutlet in breadcrumbs
Scouse Cookbook-beef-stew.jpg 1706[32] Savoury Liverpool and other seaports, from Northern Europe Lamb or beef stew with potatoes, carrots and onions, cf Norwegian lapskaus
Apple pie Apple pie.jpg 1390[33] Sweet National[c] A pie crust, whether all round or only on top, with a filling of sweetened apple
Bakewell tart Bakewell tart on a plate.jpg 1900s (century)[34] Sweet Derbyshire Pastry shell filled with almond-flavoured sponge cake on a thin layer of jam. Developed from 1826 Bakewell pudding[35]
Banoffee pie Banoffeepie.jpg Sweet Hungry Monk Restaurant, East Sussex Pastry shell filled with bananas, cream and toffee
Battenberg Cake Battenbergcake.jpg Sweet National
Bread and butter pudding Brown Bread and Butter Pudding.jpg Sweet National
Christmas pudding Christmas pudding.JPG Sweet National
Crumble Crumble.jpg Sweet National
Eccles cake Eccles cake.jpg 1793[36] Sweet Greater Manchester Flaky pastry with butter and currants
Eton Mess Eton Mess with strawberry coulis.jpg 1800s (century)[37] Sweet Berkshire (Eton College)
Eve's pudding EvesPudding.jpg Sweet National
Fool Raspberry fool.jpg Sweet National
Gypsy tart Gypsy tart (3560662964).jpg Sweet National
Cornish Hevva Cake Welsh hewa cakes.jpg Sweet Cornwall
Jam Roly-Poly Sweet National
Knickerbocker glory 1920s[38] Sweet National; possibly from New York[38] Ice cream sundae in a tall glass, often with nuts, fruits, meringue, and chocolate sauce; served with whipped cream and a glace cherry
Lardy cake Lardy Cake from Caswell Bakery.jpg Sweet
Madeira cake Cherry madeira cake.jpg Sweet National
Mince pie Mince Pie.jpg Sweet National Usually small pastry shells filled with sweet mincemeat; since Early Modern times actual meat omitted
Parkin YorkShireParkin.jpg Sweet
Pound cake Almond pound cake, angled profile.jpg Sweet National
Queen of Puddings Queen of Puddings.jpg Sweet National
Saffron cake Saffron bun 20051213 001.jpg Sweet National
Scones Scones cream jam.jpg Sweet National, from Scotland Small bread-like cakes often with raisins
Spotted dick SpottedDick.jpg 1800s (century)[39] Sweet National Pudding with suet pastry and dried vine fruits, usually served with custard
Sticky toffee pudding StickyToffeePudding.jpg Sweet National
Summer pudding Summer pudding with currants, July 2008.jpg Sweet National
Sussex Pond Pudding Sussex Pond Pudding 1.jpg Sweet
Syllabub Syllabub.jpg Sweet National Cold dessert made with cream, alcohol and sugar, often with citrus flavouring
Trifle Trifle.jpg Sweet National Cold dessert with varied ingredients, often sponge fingers and fortified wine, jelly, custard, and whipped cream, usually in layers
Treacle tart Treacle Tart with clotted cream.jpg Sweet National Pastry shell filled with thick sweet treacle mixture
Victoria Sponge Cake Cake from WHR(P).jpg Sweet National

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ But also traditional across Europe in both Latin and Germanic countries from Portugal in west to Lithuania in east, and from Italy in south to Sweden in north.
  2. ^ Date is for Mrs Beeton's book, but not exactly the breakfast eaten today.
  3. ^ Apple pies are also found in North America, Netherlands, Germany, Scandinavia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2
  2. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  3. ^ "How do you cook a proper Bedfordshire Clanger?". Bedfordshire on Sunday. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  4. ^ Hickman, Martin (30 October 2006). "The secret life of the sausage: A great British institution". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "Sausage Varieties". Northampton NN3 3AJ, United Kingdom: Sausage Links. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. It is estimated that there are around 400 sausage varieties available in the UK. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Minahan, J.B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 563. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8. 
  7. ^ Grove, Peter; Grove, Colleen (2008). "Is It or Isn't It? (The Chicken Tikka Masala Story)". Retrieved 16 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "Cobbler". ifood.tv. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  9. ^ Hyslop, Leah (21 August 2013). "Potted histories: Beef Wellington". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Dickson Wright, Clarissa, and Scott, Johnny "Sunday Roast" Kyle Cathie Limited, 2006, p26.
  11. ^ "Traditional Black Pudding". English Breakfast Society. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  12. ^ "Cottage pie". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  13. ^ Meyer, E. (2010). 1200 Traditional English Recipes. Bod Third Party Titles. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-86195-289-3. Book first published in 1898. 
  14. ^ O'Connor, K. (2013). The English Breakfast: The Biography of a National Meal, with Recipes. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-85785-491-9. 
  15. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, citing Henry Mayhew.
  16. ^ Panayi, 2010. Pages 16–17
  17. ^ Jurafsky, D. (2014). The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu. W. W. Norton. p. pt5. ISBN 978-0-393-24587-5. 
  18. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 284
  19. ^ Nuttall, P. Austin (1840). A classical and archæological dictionary of the manners, customs, laws, institutions, arts, etc. of the celebrated nations of antiquity, and of the middle ages. Whittaker and Co, and others. p. 555. 
  20. ^ "History of Melton Mowbray Pork Pie". Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Association. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  21. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (June 2003). Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Academy Chicago Publishers. p. 273. 
  22. ^ Cloake, Felicity (20 July 2011). "How to cook perfect potted shrimps". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  23. ^ "FAQs: pie & pastry". Food Timeline. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  citing Oxford English Dictionary
  24. ^ Cloake, Felicity (1 March 2012). "How to cook the perfect steak and kidney pudding". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  25. ^ Lehmann, Gilly (2003). The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books. pp. 83, 198–199. 
  26. ^ Kettilby, Mary (1714). A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery, Physick and Surgery; For the Use of all Good Wives, Tender Mothers, and Careful Nurses. Richard WIlkin. 
  27. ^ "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'?". BBC. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  28. ^ a b Glasse, Hannah (1998) [1747]. The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Applewood Books. ISBN 978-1-55709-462-9. 
  29. ^ Glasse, Hannah (1747) The Art of Cookery has "pigeons in a hole".
  30. ^ Richard Briggs (1788) The English Art of Cookery has "Toad in a Hole", page 175
  31. ^ (Artusi, Pellegrino (1891) La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiare bene has "toad in the hole".
  32. ^ lobscouse in Merriam-Webster
  33. ^ The Forme of Cury, XXIII. "For to Make Tartys in Applis". England, c. 1390
  34. ^ "The History of the Bakewell Pudding". Bakewellonline.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2016. 
  35. ^ Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 0199677336. 
  36. ^ "The history behind (and recipe for) Eccles Cakes". Salford City Council. Retrieved 2007-04-10. 
  37. ^ Arthur Henry Beavan (1896). "Marlborough House and Its Occupants: Present and Past": 162. 
  38. ^ a b "Knickerbocker Glory". The Foods of England Project. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 
  39. ^ Ayto, John (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-19-964024-9. 

Sources[edit]

  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1974) The Cookery of England: being a collection of recipes for traditional dishes of all kinds from the fifteenth century to the present day, with notes on their social and culinary background. London: Andre Deutsch.
  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1980) English Provincial Cooking. London: Mitchell Beazley.
  • Grigson, Jane (1974) English Food. London: Macmillan. Enlarged edition 1979 (ISBN 0-333-26866-0); later editions Ebury Press with foreword by Sophie Grigson.
  • Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House. ISBN 978-1-905-21185-2.
  • Hartley, Dorothy (1954) Food in England. London: Macdonald (reissued: London: Little, Brown, 1996, ISBN 0-316-85205-8)
  • Lehmann, Gilly (2003) The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books.
  • Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-658-2.