List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin

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This is a list of English-language words of Hindi and Urdu origin, two distinguished registers of the Hindustani language. Many of the Hindi and Urdu equivalents have originated from Sanskrit; see List of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many others are of Persian origin; see List of English words of Persian origin. Some of the latter are in turn of Arabic or Turkic origin. In some cases words have entered the English language by multiple routes - occasionally ending up with different meanings, spellings, or pronunciations, just as with words with European etymologies. Many entered English during the British Raj. These borrowings, dating back to the colonial period, are often labeled as "Anglo-Indian".

A[edit]

Avatar
From Hindi अवतार, from Sanskrit, descent of a deity from a heaven

B[edit]

Bandana
from bandhna (बांधना) to tie.
Bangle
from bāngṛī बांगड़ी, a type of bracelet.
Blighty
"Britain" (as a term of endearment among British troops stationed in Colonial India): from Hindi-Urdu vilāyatī (विलायती, ولايتى) "foreign", ultimately from Arabo-Persian ولايتي "provincial, regional".
Bungalow
from बंगला banglA and Urdu بنگلہ banglA, literally, "(house) in the Bengal style".[1]

C[edit]

Charpoy
from 'chār', چار, चार, meaning 'four' and 'pāī', पाई, meaning 'foot'.
Cheetah
from chītā, چیتا, चीता, meaning "variegated".
Chhatri
from Hindi छतरी (chatrī, “umbrella, canopy”).
Chit
from چٹھی चिट्ठी chitthi, a letter or note.
Chutney
from 'chaṭnī', چٹنی ,चटनी, ultimately derived from full-infinitive word 'chāṭnā', چاٹنا ,चाटना, meaning 'to lick'.
Cot
from khāṭ, खाट, a bed.
Chowkat
from Chokath, Urdu, a door frame.
Cummerbund
from kamarband , cf. कमरबन्द - originally from Persian کمربند, meaning "waist binding" [ultimately from Persian کمربند]
Cushy
probably from khushi, cf. Hindi ख़ुशी - originally from Persian خوشی "easy, happy, soft" [ultimately from Persian];[2] but some sources prefer an origin from "cushion"[3]

D[edit]

Dacoit
from Daku, meaning a member of a class of criminals who engage in organized robbery and murder. Hence also dacoity (banditry)
Dekko
(UK slang for 'a look') from دیکھو देखो Dekho, the imperative 'look', (دیکھو देखो) meaning look at or study something.
Dinghy
from Dinghi, small boat, wherry-boat
Dungaree
Heavy denim fabric, also referring to trousers made thereof, from Hindi डूंगरी (ḍūṅgrī, “coarse calico”), first worn by labourers in the Dongri area of Mumbai (Bombay).

G[edit]

Garam masala
from Hindi and Urdu गरम मसाल‌ा گرم مصالح garam masālā, literally "hot ( = spicy) mixture",[4] from Persian گرم garm 'warm, hot' and Arabic مصالح maṣāliḥ 'benefits, requirements, ingredients'.
Gavial
from Hindi ghaṛiyāl, घड़ियाल, ultimately derived from Hindi word ghaṛa, घड़ा, which means 'an earthen pitcher'.
Guru
from Hindi guru "teacher, priest," from Sanskrit गुरुः guruḥ "one to be honored, teacher," literally "heavy, weighty."[5]
Gymkhana
A term which originally referred to a place where sporting events take place and referred to any of various meets at which contests were held to test the skill of the competitors. In English-speaking countries, a gymkhana refers to a multi-game equestrian event performed to display the training and talents of horses and their rider [-khānā from Pers. khānāh خانه "house, dwelling"]

J[edit]

Jaconet
modification of Sanskrit jagannaath, from Jagannath (Puri), [India], where such cloth was first made.[6]
Jodhpurs
Full-length trousers, worn for horseback riding, that are close-fitting below the knee and have reinforced patches on the inside of the leg. Named after Jodhpur, where similar garments are worn by Indian men as part of everyday dress.
Juggernaut
from Jagannath (Sanskrit: जगन्नाथ jagannātha), a form of Vishnu particularly worshipped at the Jagannath Temple, Puri, Odisha where during Rath Yatra festival thousands of devotees pull three temple carts some 14m (45 feet) tall, weighing hundreds of tons through the streets. These carts seat three statues of the deities, meant to be two brothers and their sister for a 'stroll' outside after the ritual worship session. They are fed by thousands and thousands of worshipers with holy food, as if the icons were living. Early European visitors witnessed these festivals and returned with—possibly apocryphal—reports of religious fanatics committing suicide by throwing themselves under the wheels of the carts. So the word became a metaphor for something immense and unstoppable because of institutional or physical inertia; or impending catastrophe that is foreseeable yet virtually unavoidable because of such inertia.
Jungle
from جنگل जंगल jangal of Persian origin, another word for wilderness or forest, which was borrowed from Sanskrit जङ्गल jaṅgala meaning "uncultivated land, desert."

K[edit]

Khaki
from ख़ाकी khākī "of dust colour, dusty, grey", cf. Hindi ख़ाकी - Urdu خاکی [ultimately from Persian].
Karma
from Sanskrit, the result of a person's actions as well as the actions themselves. It is a term about the cycle of cause and effect.

L[edit]

Loot
from Loot لوٹ लूट, meaning 'steal'. Robbery

M[edit]

Multan
from Multan, Pakistan: A kind of rug prevalent there.[7]
Mogul
from Hindi and Urdu: An acknowledged leader in a field, from the Mughal rulers of India like Akbar and Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal.
Maharaja
from Hindi and Sanskrit: A king.
Mantra
from Hindi and Sanskrit: a word or phrase used in meditation.

N[edit]

Nirvana
(in Jainism Hinduism and Buddhism) a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Jainism Hinduism and Buddhism.

P[edit]

Pashmina
from Hindi पश्मीना, Urdu پشمينه, ultimately from Persian پشمينه.
Poori
from Hindi poori, from Sanskrit पुर (pura) or "cake".[8]
Punch
from Hindi and Urdu panch پانچ, meaning "five". The drink was originally made with five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[9][10] The original drink was named paantsch.
Pundit
from पण्डित Pandit, meaning a learned scholar or Priest.
Pukka
(UK slang: "genuine") from Pakkā पक्का,پکا cooked, ripe, solid.
Pyjamas
from Hindi and Urdu, पैजामा (paijaamaa), meaning "leg garment", coined from Persian پاى "foot, leg" and جامه "garment" .[11]

R[edit]

Raita
from Hindi and Urdu रायता ریتا rayta.[12] yogurt based dish, some add sliced/chopped/diced, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, pineapples, pomegranate or other salads to complement rice or roti meals.
Roti
from Hindi and Urdu रॊटी روٹی roti "bread"; akin to Prakrit रॊट्ट rotta "rice flour", Sanskrit रोटिका rotika "kind of bread".[13]

S[edit]

Shampoo
Derived from Hindustani chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]) (verb imperative, meaning "rub!"), dating to 1762.[14]

T[edit]

Thug
from Thagi ठग,ٹھگ Thag in Hindi-Urdu,meaning "thief or con man".
Tickety-boo
possibly from Hindi ठीक है, बाबू (ṭhīk hai, bābū), meaning "it's all right, sir".
Toddy (also Hot toddy)
from Tārī ताड़ी, juice of the palmyra palm.
Typhoon
from Urdu طوفان toofaan.[15] A cyclonic storm.

V[edit]

Veranda
from Hindi baramdaa बरामदा, but ultimately from Portuguese.[16][17]

Y[edit]

Yaar
From Hindi In the dictionary, the colloquial Indian word, yaar, has been defined as a noun to refer to a ‘familiar form of address: friend, mate’. It is originally a loanword from Persian "Yaar/یار" in both Hindi and Urdu. According to research, yaar was first spotted in English usage in the year 1963.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Bungalow
  2. ^ "Cushy". Online Etymological Dictionary.
  3. ^ "cushy". Dictionary.com., which says it is "Based on the Random House Dictionary"
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Garam Masaalaa[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "guru". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Jaconet
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Multan
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Poori
  9. ^ Loanwords
  10. ^ Punch at the Online Etymology Dictionary
  11. ^ Dictionary Meaning: Pajama; TheFreeDictionary; Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedia
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Raita
  13. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Roti
  14. ^ "shampoo". dictionary.reference.com.
  15. ^ Etymology Online - Typhoon
  16. ^ "veranda". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  17. ^ Harper, Douglas. "veranda". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  18. ^ "'Aiyo'! Did You Know These 12 Indian Words Are Now a Part of the Oxford Dictionary?". 9 January 2017.

External links[edit]