List of English words of Hindi or Urdu origin

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This is a list of English-language words of Hindi and Urdu origin, two distinguished registers of the Hindustani language. Many of the Hindi and Urdu equivalents have originated from Sanskrit; see List of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many others are of Persian origin; see List of English words of Persian origin. Some of the latter are in turn of Arabic or Turkic origin. In some cases words have entered the English language by multiple routes - occasionally ending up with different meanings, spellings, or pronunciations, just as with words with European etymologies. Many entered English during the British Raj. These borrowings, dating back to the colonial period, are often labeled as "Anglo-Indian".

A[edit]

Avatar
From Hindi अवतार, from Sanskrit, descent of a deity from a heaven
Aiyo
from South Indian, In southern India and Sri Lanka, expressing distress, regret, or grief; ‘Oh no!’ or ‘Oh dear [1]

B[edit]

Bandanna 
from bandhna (बांधना) to tie.
Bangle 
from bāngṛī बांगड़ी, a type of bracelet.
Blighty 
"Britain" (as a term of endearment among British troops stationed in Colonial India): from Hindi-Urdu vilāyatī (विलायती, ولايتى) "foreign", ultimately from Arabo-Persian ولايتى "provincial, regional".
Bungalow
from बंगला banglA and Urdu بنگلہ banglA, literally, "(house) in the Bengal style".[2]

C[edit]

Charpoy 
from 'chār', चार, meaning 'four' and 'pāī', पाई, meaning 'foot'.
Cheetah 
from chītā, चीता, meaning "variegated".
Chit 
from चिट्ठी chitthi, a letter or note.
Chutney 
from 'chaṭnī', चटनी, ultimately derived from full-infinitive word 'chāṭnā', चाटना, meaning 'to lick'.
Cot 
from khāṭ, खाट, a bed.
Chowkat 
from Chokath, Urdu, a door frame.
Cummerbund 
from kamarband , cf. कमरबन्द - Urdu کمربند, meaning "waist binding" [ultimately from Persian کمربند]
Cushy
probably from khushi, cf. Hindi ख़ुशी - Urdu خوشی "easy, happy, soft" [ultimately from Persian];[3] but some sources prefer an origin from "cushion"[4]

D[edit]

Dacoit 
from Daku, meaning a member of a class of criminals who engage in organized robbery and murder. Hence also dacoity(banditry)
Dekko 
(UK slang for 'a look') from دیکھو देखो Dekho, the imperative 'look', (دیکھو देखो ) meaning look at or study something.
Dinghy
from Dinghi, small boat, wherry-boat
Dungaree
Heavy denim fabric, also referring to trousers made thereof, from Hindi डूंगरी (ḍūṅgrī, “coarse calico”), the name of a village.

G[edit]

Garam masala
from Hindi and Urdu गरम मसाल‌ा گرم مصالح garam masālā, literally "hot ( = spicy) mixture",[5] from Persian گرم garm 'warm, hot' and Arabic مصالح maṣāliḥ 'benefits, requirements, ingredients'.
Gavial
from Hindi ghaṛiyāl, घड़ियाल, ultimately derived from Hindi word ghaṛa, घड़ा, which means 'an earthern pitcher'.
Guru
from Hindi guru "teacher, priest," from Sanskrit गुरुः guruḥ "one to be honored, teacher," literally "heavy, weighty."[6]
Gymkhana 
A term which originally referred to a place where sporting events take place and referred to any of various meets at which contests were held to test the skill of the competitors. In English-speaking countries, a gymkhana refers to a multi-game equestrian event performed to display the training and talents of horses and their rider [-khānā from Pers. khānāh خانه "house, dwelling"]
Ghee 
from Sanskrit, An oil with a rich history in Ayurvedic medicine, ghee remained India’s culinary star for centuries till it was sidelined in the 1980s by vegetable oils because of its high saturated fat. A word with Sanskrit origins, it is described by the dictionary as “clarified butter made from the milk of a buffalo or cow”. [1]

J[edit]

Jaconet
modification of Sanskrit jagannaath, from Jagannath (Puri), [India], where such cloth was first made.[7]
Jodhpurs
Full-length trousers, worn for horseback riding, that are close-fitting below the knee and have reinforced patches on the inside of the leg. Named after Jodhpur, where similar garments are worn by Indian men as part of everyday dress.
Juggernaut 
from Jagannath (Sanskrit: जगन्नाथ jagannātha), a form of Vishnu particularly worshipped at the Jagannath Temple, Puri, Odisha where during Rath Yatra festival thousands of devotees pull temple carts some 14m (45 feet) tall, weighing hundreds of tons through the streets. These carts seat three images of the deity, meant to be brothers for a 'stroll' outside after the ritual worship session. They are fed by thousands and thousands of worshipers with holy food, as if the icons were living. Early European visitors witnessed these festivals and returned with—possibly apocryphal—reports of religious fanatics committing suicide by throwing themselves under the wheels of the carts. So the word became a metaphor for something immense and unstoppable because of institutional or physical inertia; or impending catastrophe that is foreseeable yet virtually unavoidable because of such inertia.
Jungle 
from جنگل जङल् jangal, another word for wilderness or forest.

K[edit]

Khaki
from खकि khākī "of dust colour, dusty, grey", cf. Hindi ख़ाकी - Urdu خاکی [ultimately from Persian].
Karakul
A hat shaped like a fez but made of real or imitation karakul and worn by Pakistani Muslims on occasion.[8] It is called a "Karakulli topi" (Topi meaning cap).
Karma
from Sanskrit, the result of a person's actions as well as the actions themselves. It is a term about the cycle of cause and effect.

L[edit]

Loot 
from Loot لوٹ लूट, meaning 'steal'. Robbery

M[edit]

Multan
from Multan, Pakistan: A kind of rug prevalent there.[9]
Mogul
from Hindi and Urdu: An acknowledged leader in a field, from the Mughal rulers of India like Akbar and Shah Jahan, the builder of the Taj Mahal.
Maharaja
from Hindi and Sanskrit: A king.
Mantra
from Hindi and Sanskrit: a word or phrase used in meditation.

N[edit]

Nirvana
(in Hinduism and Buddhism) a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Hinduism and Buddhism.

P[edit]

Pashmina
from Hindi पश्मीना, Urdu پشمينه, ultimately from Persian پشمينه.
Poori
from Hindi poori, from Sanskrit पुर (pura) or "cake".[10]
Punch
from Hindi and Urdu panch پانچ, meaning "five". The drink was originally made with five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[11][12] The original drink was named paantsch.
Pundit 
from पण्डित Pandit, meaning a learned scholar or Priest.
Pukka 
(UK slang: "genuine") from Pakkā पक्का,پکا cooked, ripe, solid.
Pyjamas
from Hindi and Urdu, पैजामा (paijaamaa), meaning "leg garment", coined from Persian پاى "foot, leg" and جامه "garment" .[13]

R[edit]

Raita
from Hindi and Urdu रायता ریتا rayta.[14] yogurt based dish, some add sliced/chopped/diced, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, pineapples, pomegranate or other salads to complement rice or roti meals.
Roti
from Hindi and Urdu रॊटी روٹی roti "bread"; akin to Prakrit रॊट्ट rotta "rice flour", Sanskrit रोटिका rotika "kind of bread".[15]

S[edit]

Shampoo
Derived from Hindustani chāmpo (चाँपो [tʃãːpoː]) (verb imperative, meaning "rub!"), dating to 1762.[16]

T[edit]

Thug 
from Thagi ठग, meaning "thief or con man".
Tickety-boo
from Hindi ठीक है, बाबू (ṭhīk hai, bābū), meaning "it's all right, sir".
Toddy (also Hot toddy
from Tārī ताड़ी, juice of the palmyra palm.
Typhoon
from Urdu طوفان toofaan.[17] A cyclonic storm.

V[edit]

Veranda
from Hindi baramdaa बरामदा or another Indian language, but ultimately probably from Portuguese or Spanish.[18]

Y[edit]

Yoga
From Sanskrit term (योग) for ancient Hindu spiritual practices common in India that have become internationally popular.
Yaar
From Hindi In the dictionary, the colloquial Indian word, yaar, has been defined as a noun to refer to a ‘familiar form of address: friend, mate’. According to research, yaar was first spotted in English usage in the year 1963. [1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c https://www.thebetterindia.com/81459/aiyo-indian-words-oxford-english-dictionary/
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online - Bungalow
  3. ^ "Cushy". Online Etymological Dictionary. 
  4. ^ "cushy". Dictionary.com. , which says it is "Based on the Random House Dictionary"
  5. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Garam Masaalaa
  6. ^ "guru". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-06-14. 
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Jaconet
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Jinnah Cap
  9. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Multan
  10. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Poori
  11. ^ Loanwords
  12. ^ Punch at the Online Etymology Dictionary
  13. ^ Dictionary Meaning: Pajama; TheFreeDictionary; Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedia
  14. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Raita
  15. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Roti
  16. ^ "shampoo". dictionary.reference.com. 
  17. ^ Etymology Online - Typhoon
  18. ^ veranda. OED. Oxford. 

External links[edit]