List of English words of Sanskrit origin

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This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many of these words were not directly borrowed from Sanskrit. The meaning of some words have changed slightly after being borrowed.

Both languages belong to the Indo-European language family and have numerous cognate terms; these words are not of Sanskrit origin and are not included.


The ten avatars of Vishnu.
through Sinhalese: ඇඹරැල්ලා æmbarællā ultimately from Sanskrit: अम्बरेल्ला, a kind of tree.[1]
through German: Anilin, French: Aniline and Portuguese: Anil from Arabic النيل al-nili and Persian نیلا nila, ultimately from Sanskrit नीली nili.[2]
from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s "noble, honorable".[3]
through Maldivean:އަތޮޅު probably ultimately from Sanskrit अन्तला antala.[4]
from French aubergine, in Catalan albergínia, via Arabic (باذِنْجان al-badinjan) and Persian (بادنجان badin-gan) ultimately from Sanskrit वातिगगम vātigagama,[5] meaning Eggplant or Aubergine.
from Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, which means "descent", an avatar refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth. Thus, Krishna and Rāma were both avatars of Vishnu, who also manifested himself as an avatar many other times, ten of which are considered the most significant.[6]


from Sanskrit बन्धन bandhana, "a bond".
from Hindi baniyaa ultimately from Sanskrit वणिज्‌ vaṇij, which means "a merchant".[7]
through Hindi बासमती ultimately from Sanskrit वास vāsa.[8]
from Sanskrit बहुव्रीहि bahuvrīhih, a composite word, meaning 'much rice.'[9]
from Old French beryl, via Latin beryllus, Greek βήρυλλος and Prakrit वेलुरिय (veluriya) ultimately from Sanskrit वैडूर्य vaidūrya, of Dravidian origin, maybe from the name of Belur.[10]
through Hindi बीड़ी ultimately from Sanskrit वितिक vitika.[11]
from Persian بادنجان badingān, probably from Sanskrit भण्टाकी bhaṇṭākī.[12]
from Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha, which means "awakened, enlightened", refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism[13] Also refers to one who is enlightened in accordance with the teachings of Buddha or a likeness of Buddha[14]


Middle English candi, crystallized cane sugar, short for sugre-candi, partial translation of Old French sucre candi, ultimately from Arabic sukkar qandī : sukkar, sugar + qandī, consisting of sugar lumps (from qand, lump of crystallized sugar, from an Indic source akin to Pali kaṇḍa-, from Sanskrit khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ, piece, fragment, perhaps of Munda origin).[15]
which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "uniquely marked".[16]
through Urdu چادر ultimately from Sanskrit छत्रम् chatram.[17]
via Hindi चकोर cakor and Urdu چکور chukar ultimately from Sanskrit चकोर cakorah.[18]
from Hindi चक्कर and Urdu چکرchakkar, from Sanskrit चक्र cakra, "a circle, a wheel".[19]
from Sanskrit चिति पति citi-pati, which means "a funeral pyre lord".[20]
from Hindi खाट khaat "a couch", which is from Sanskrit खट्वा khatva.[21]
from Hindi कौड़ी kauri and Urdu کمتدب kauri, from Marathi कवडइ kavadi, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कपर्द kaparda.[22]
from Old Spanish cremesin, via Medieval Latin cremesinus from Persian قرمز qirmiz "a kermes", which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: "red dye produced by a worm."[23]
from Greek κρόκος crocus, via Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew כרכום karkōm, Aramaic ܟܟܘܪܟܟܡܡܐ kurkama, Persian كركم kurkum, which mean saffron or saffron yellow.[24]); ultimately from Sanskrit कुङ्कुमं kunkumam.[25]


through Hindi दाल dāl ultimately from Sanskrit दलह dalah, meaning cotyledon of a pea pod, a type of Indian food; also refers to lentils.[26]
from Sanskrit दासा daasa, a slave or servant.[27]
through Latin and Hindi: धतूरा dhatūra "jimson weed" ultimately from Sanskrit धत्तुरह dhattūrāh, a kind of flowering plant.[28]
through Hindi देओदार deodār ultimately from Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, a kind of tree.[29]
from Sanskrit देव deva, which means "a god", akin to Latin deus, "god".[30]
from Sanskrit देवी devi, which means "a goddess".[31]
from Pali: धम्म dhamma and Sanskrit: धर्म; akin to Latin: firmus, meaning "conformity to one's duty and nature" and "divine law".[32]
via Hindi dhotī (Hindi: धोती) ultimately from Sanskrit dhautī (Sanskrit: धौती) which means 'to wash', a traditional male garment used in India. Material tied around the waist that covers most of the legs.[33]
from Hindi दिन्गी dingi "a tiny boat", probably from Sanskrit द्रोणम drona-m.[34]


via Hindi गज "elephant bull" ultimately from Sanskrit गांजा gāñjā, which means "of hemp".[35]
via Hindi word gādī (Hindi: गाड़ी) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word garta (Sanskrit: गर्त) which means 'chariot'.[36]
through Hindi गार ultimately from Sanskrit गॊपलि gopālī, an annual legume.[37]
via Hindi गोनी ultimately from Sanskrit गोणी goni "sack".[38]
via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्ष goraksa, "a cowherd".[39]
via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means "a teacher".[40]


from Turkish çakal, from Persian شغال shaghal, from Middle Indic shagal, ultimately from Sanskrit शृगालः srgalah "the howler".[41]
via Portuguese jágara, jagre and Malayalam ഛക്കര chakkara perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā derived from proto-Dravidian.[42]
through Odia ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ Jagannatha ultimately from Sanskrit जगन्नाथ jagat-natha-s, which means "lord of the world".[43]
through Hindi जंगल jangal "a desert, forest" ultimately from Sanskrit जङ्गल jangala, which means "arid".[44]
via Bengali পাট jhuto ultimately from Sanskrit जुतास juta-s, which means "twisted hair".[45]


from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means "action".[46]
probably ultimately from Sanskrit कृशर krśara.[47]
via French: Kermès, and Persian قرمز qermez; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit: कृमिज kṛmija meaning "worm-made."[48]
through Hindi करैत karait probably ultimately from Sanskrit: काराइट, a kind of snake.[49]


through Urdu لاکھ, Persian لاک and Hindi लाख lakh from Prakrit लक्ख lakkha, ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā, meaning lac.[50]
through French: Laque and Portuguese: Laca from Arabic لك lakk, via Prakrit ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā.[51]
through Hindi लुट lut probably ultimately from Sanskrit लंगुलम langūlam.[52]
via Arabic للك lilak from Persian نیلک nilak meaning "bluish", ultimately from Sanskrit नील nila, which means "dark blue".[53]
ultimately from Sanskrit लुण्टा lota-m or लून्त्ति luṇṭhati meaning "he steals" through Hindi लूट lūṭ, which means "a booty, stolen thing".[54]


through Hindi महाराजा ultimately from Sanskrit महा राजन् maha-rājān, which means "a great king".[55]
through Hindi महारानी finally from Sanskrit महा रानी mahārājnī, which means "consort of a maharajah".[56]
from Sanskrit महर्षि maha-rishi, which means "a great sage".[57]
from Sanskrit महात्मा mahatman, which means "a great breath, soul".[58]
from Sanskrit महायान maha-yana, which means "a great vehicle".[59]
via Hindi माहुत (variant of महावत) ultimately from Sanskrit महमत्रह् mahāmātrah.;[60]
from Sanskrit मण्डल mandala, which means "a disc, circle".[61]
via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandarijn, Indonesian and Malay mantri or menteri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri "a councillor" ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means "an advisor".[62]
from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra-s which means "a holy message or text".[63]
from Sanskrit माया māyā, a religious term related with illusion.[64]
from Sanskrit मित्र Mitrah, which means "a friend".[65]
from Sanskrit मोक्ष moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.[66]
via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara ("sea creature"), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily.[67]
Mung bean 
through Hindi मुग mū̃g and Pali/Prakrit मुग्ग mugga ultimately from Sanskrit मुग्दह् mudgah, a kind of bean.[68]
via Middle English muske, Middle French Musc, Late Latin Muscus and Late Greek μόσχος moskhos from Persian موشک mushk, ultimately from Sanskrit मुस्कस् muska-s meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मुस mus ("mouse").[69][70][71]
through Hindi मैना maina ultimately from Sanskrit मदन madana-s, which means "love".;[72]


through Hindi नैनसुख nainsukh and Urdu نینسوکھ ultimately from Sanskrit नयनम्सुख् nayanam-sukh, meaning "pleasing to the eyes".[73]
through Old French narde and Latin nardus from Greek νάρδος nardos, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit नलदम् naladam.[74]
through French Narguilé and Persian نارگيله nārghīleh ultimately from Sanskrit नारिकेलः nārikelah.[75]
probably from Romany nak "a nose", via Hindi नक् nak ultimately from Sanskrit नक्र‌ nakra.[76]
through Hindi निम् nīm ultimately from Sanskrit निम्बः nimbah, a kind of tree.[77]
through Hindi नीलगाय nīlgāy lit., blue cow ultimately from Sanskrit नीलगौः nīla-gauh, an ox-like animal.[78]
from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvana-s which means "extinction, blowing out".[79]


through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah.[80]
through Old French orenge, Medieval Latin orenge and Italian arancia from Arabic نارنج naranj, via Persian نارنگ narang and Sanskrit नारङ्ग naranga-s meaning "an orange tree", derived from proto-Dravidian.[81]


via Hindi word pālakī (Hindi: पालकी) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word palyanka (Sanskrit: पल्यङ्क) which means 'bed' or 'couch'.
via classical Latin panthēr, itself from the ancient Greek word pánthēr (πάνθηρ) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit पाण्डर pāṇḍara which means ("pale").
via Sanskrit पञ्च pancha, meaning "five". The original drink was made from five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[82]
via Sanskrit पण्डित paṇdita, meaning "learned". A person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area.:[83]


ultimately from Sanskrit रजिकतिक्तक rājikātiktakaḥ via Hindi रायता rāytā, a south Asian condiment and side dish made of yogurt and vegetables.[84]
through Hindi राज and Pali/Prakrit रज्ज rajja ultimately from Sanskrit राज्य rājya, which means "a king" or "kingdom." Raj means kingdom or domain of a ruler.[85]
through Hindi राज from Sanskrit राजन् rājān, which means "a king".[86]
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit रामतिलः rāmatilah, which means "a dark sesame".[87]
through Hindi रानी ultimately from Sanskrit राज्ञी rājnī, consort of a rajah.[88]
via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit व्रीहिस् vrihi-s "rice", derived from proto-Dravidian.[89]
through Hindi रुपया rupiyā ultimately from Sanskrit रूप्यकम् rūpyakam, an Indian silver coin.[90]


via Latin Saccharon and Greek σάκχαρον from Pali सक्खर sakkharā, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkarā.[91]
through Afrikaans, Indonesian and Tamil சம்பல் campāl ultimately from Sanskrit सम्बार sambhārei.[92]
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit संभारह् śambarah, a kind of Asian deer.[93]
via Middle English sandell, Old French sandale, Medieval Latin sandalum, Medieval Greek σανδάλιον sandalion (diminutive of σάνδαλον sandalon) and Arabic and Persian صندل; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit चन्दनम् candanam meaning "wood for burning incense;" this is the word sandalwood, not related to sandals which is a type of footwear.[94]
via Old French saphir, Latin sapphirus and Greek σάπφειρος sappheiros from a Semitic tongue (c.f. Hebrew: ספיר sapir); possible ultimate origin in Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya which literally means "sacred to Saturn (Shani)".[95]
through Hindi साड़ी sari and Prakrit सदि sadi, finally from Sanskrit षाटी sati "garment".[96]
through Russian шама́н from Tungus shaman, perhaps from Chinese 萨满 sha men, via Prakrit समन finally from Sanskrit श्रमण sramana-s "a Buddhist monk".[97]
via Anglo-Indian shampoo and Hindi चाँपो champo probably from Sanskrit चपयति capayati, which means "kneads".[98]
from Persian شال shal, finally from Sanskrit सत्ल् satI, which means "a strip of cloth".[99]
via Malay Singapura ultimately from Sanskrit सिंहपुरं Simhapuram, literally "the lion city".[100]
Sri Lanka
from Sanskrit: श्री लंका which means "venerable island." It is said that Shree or Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, resides there.
from Sanskrit शुल्बारी shulbari which means "copper's enemy" since sulfur readily reacts with copper after which the copper loses its metallic properties.[101]
through Old French sucre, Italian zucchero, Medieval Latin succarum, Arabic: سكر sukkar and Persian: شکر shakar ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sharkara which means "ground or candied sugar" (originally "grit" or "gravel"), from proto-Dravidian.[102]
via Hindi: सुन्न ultimately from Sanskrit: सन sāna, a kind of Asian plant.[103]
through Hindi स्वामी swami ultimately from Sanskrit स्वामी svami, which means "a master".[104]
from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm" or Good, god fearing being. It is said to be the form of the Sun.[105]


via Maithili and Bengali: টাকা from Sanskrit तन्कह् tankah.[106]
through Hindi, Indonesian and Malay talipat from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tālapatram, a kind of tree.[107]
via French "stretched" and Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tainduka.[108]
via Hindi तिपाई tipāi and Urdu تپائي tipāʼī,which originated as a Sanskrit compound: त्रि (trí, "three") and पाद (pā́da, "foot").[citation needed]
through Marathi ठग and Hindi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means "a scoundrel".[109]
from Sanskrit तिल tilah, a kind of plant.[110]
through Hindi तरी tari ultimately from Sanskrit तल tala-s, a Dravidian origin is also probable.[111]
through Hindi तुन tūn ultimately from Sanskrit तुन्नह् tunnah, a kind of tree.[112]
through Hindi टॉप ṭop probably from Prakrit थुपो thūpo, finally from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah.[113]
through Middle English tutie, Old French, Medieval Latin tūtia, Arabic توتي tūtiyā, and Persian توتیا ultimately from Sanskrit तुत्थं tuttham meaning "blue vitriol", a Dravidian origin is also probable.[114]


ultimately from Sanskrit वीणा vīṇā through Hindi वीणा vīṇā, a kind of musical instrument.[115]


through Sinhalese: වන්ඩෙරූ vanḍerū finally from Sanskrit वानर vānarah, a kind of monkey.[116]


through Hindi योग ultimately from Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means "yoke, union".[117]
through Hindi योगी yogi from Sanskrit योगिन् yogin, one who practices yoga or ascetic.[118]


through Japanese 禅 and ChineseChán ultimately from Pali झन jhāna and Sanskrit ध्यान dhyana, which means "a meditation".[119]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ambarella
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Aniline
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Aryan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  4. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Atoll
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "aubergine". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Avatar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "banyan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  8. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Basmati rice
  9. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bahuvrihi
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "beryl". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  11. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bidi
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Brinjal
  13. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  14. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  15. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Candy
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chit". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  17. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chuddar
  18. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chukar
  19. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chukker". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  20. ^ – Citipati
  21. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  22. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cowrie". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  23. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crimson". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  24. ^ Babiniotis, Leksiko tis neoellinikis glossas.
  25. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crocus". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  26. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Dahl
  27. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Das
  28. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Datura
  29. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Deodar
  30. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Deva". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  31. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Devi
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ Harper, Douglas. "dinghy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  35. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ganja
  36. ^ [3]
  37. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Guar
  38. ^ Harper, Douglas. "gunny". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  39. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gurkha
  40. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Guru". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  41. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jackal". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  42. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Jaggery
  43. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Juggernaut". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  44. ^ Harper, Douglas. "jungle". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  45. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jute". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  46. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Karma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  47. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kedgeree
  48. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kermes
  49. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Krait
  50. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lac". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  51. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Lacquer
  52. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Langur
  53. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Lilac
  54. ^ Harper, Douglas. "loot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  55. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Maharajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  56. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maharani
  57. ^ Harper, Douglas. "maharishi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  58. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mahatma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  59. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mahayana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  60. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mahout
  61. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandala". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  62. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandarin (bureaucrat)". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  63. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mantra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  64. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maya
  65. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mitra
  66. ^ – Moksha
  67. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Mugger
  68. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mung bean
  69. ^ Harper, Douglas. "musk". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  70. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: musk". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  71. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck. p. 715. ISBN 2-252-03277-4. 
  72. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mynah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  73. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nainsook
  74. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nard
  75. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Narghile
  76. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nark". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  77. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Neem
  78. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nilgai
  79. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nirvana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  80. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Opal
  81. ^ Harper, Douglas. "orange". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  82. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary – Punch
  83. ^ Oxford Dictionary – Pundit
  84. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raita
  85. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raj
  86. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Rajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  87. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ramtil
  88. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rani
  89. ^
  90. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rupee
  91. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Saccharo-
  92. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambal
  93. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambar
  94. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sandal
  95. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sapphire". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  96. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Sari
  97. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Shaman
  98. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shampoo". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  99. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Shawl
  100. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Singapore". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  101. ^ Shearer, Randy L; Poole, Elizabeth B; Nowalk, Joe B (1993). "Application of Gas Chromatography and Flameless Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection to the Analysis of Petroleum Products". Journal of Chromatographic Science. Mathematics & Physical Sciences. 31: 82–87. doi:10.1093/chromsci/31.3.82. 
  102. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sugar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  103. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sunn
  104. ^ Harper, Douglas. "swami". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  105. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Swastika". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  106. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Taka
  107. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Talipot
  108. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tendu
  109. ^ Harper, Douglas. "thug". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  110. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Til
  111. ^ Harper, Douglas. "toddy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  112. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Toon
  113. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tussah
  114. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tutty
  115. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Vina
  116. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Wanderoo
  117. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yoga". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  118. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yogi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  119. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Zen". Online Etymology Dictionary. 

External links[edit]