List of English words of Sanskrit origin

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This is a list of English words of Sanskrit origin. Many of these words were not directly borrowed from Sanskrit. The meaning of some words have changed slightly after being borrowed.

Both languages belong to the Indo-European language family and have numerous cognate terms; these words are not of Sanskrit origin and are not included.

A[edit]

The ten avatars of Vishnu.
Ambarella 
through Sinhalese: ඇඹරැල්ලා æmbarællā ultimately from Sanskrit: अम्बरेल्ला, a kind of tree.[1]
Aniline 
through German: Anilin, French: Aniline and Portuguese: Anil from Arabic النيل al-nili and Persian نیلا nila, ultimately from Sanskrit नीली nili.[2]
Aryan 
from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s "noble, honorable".[3]
Atoll 
through Maldivean:އަތޮޅު probably ultimately from Sanskrit अन्तला antala.[4]
Aubergine 
from French aubergine, in Catalan albergínia, via Arabic (باذِنْجان al-badinjan) and Persian (بادنجان badin-gan) ultimately from Sanskrit वातिगगम vātigagama,[5] meaning Eggplant or Aubergine.
Avatar 
from Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, which means "descent", an avatar refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth. Thus, Krishna and Rāma were both avatars of Vishnu, who also manifested himself as an avatar many other times, ten of which are considered the most significant.[6]

B[edit]

Baht 
from Sanskrit भण्टा "bhatī", "a goat".
Bandana 
from Sanskrit बन्धन bandhana, "a bond".
Banyan 
from Hindi baniyaa ultimately from Sanskrit वणिज्‌ vaṇij, which means "a merchant".[7]
Basmati 
through Hindi बासमती ultimately from Sanskrit वास vāsa.[8]
Bahuvrihi 
from Sanskrit बहुव्रीहि bahuvrīhih, a composite word, meaning 'much rice.'[9]
Beryl 
from Old French beryl, via Latin beryllus, Greek βήρυλλος and Prakrit वेलुरिय (veluriya) ultimately from Sanskrit वैडूर्य vaidūrya, of Dravidian origin, maybe from the name of Belur.[10]
Bidi 
through Hindi बीड़ी ultimately from Sanskrit वितिक vitika.[11]
Bhakti 
from Hindi भक्ति "bhakti", portion.
Brinjal 
from Persian بادنجان badingān, probably from Sanskrit भण्टाकी bhaṇṭākī.[12]
Buddha 
from Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha, which means "awakened, enlightened", refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism[13] Also refers to one who is enlightened in accordance with the teachings of Buddha or a likeness of Buddha[14]

C[edit]

Candy 
Middle English candi, crystallized cane sugar, short for sugre-candi, partial translation of Old French sucre candi, ultimately from Arabic sukkar qandī : sukkar, sugar + qandī, consisting of sugar lumps (from qand, lump of crystallized sugar, from an Indic source akin to Pali kaṇḍa-, from Sanskrit khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ, piece, fragment, perhaps of Munda origin).[15]
Cashmere 
1680s, "shawl made of cashmere wool," from the old spelling of Kashmir, Himalayan kingdom where wool was obtained from long-haired goats. [16]
Cheetah 
which is from Sanskrit चित्रस chitra-s "uniquely marked".[17]
Chuddar 
through Urdu چادر ultimately from Sanskrit छत्रम् chatram.[18]
Chintz 
from Hindi chint, from Sanskrit chitra-s "clear, bright".[19]
Chukar 
via Hindi चकोर cakor and Urdu چکور chukar ultimately from Sanskrit चकोर cakorah.[20]
Chukker 
from Hindi चक्कर and Urdu چکرchakkar, from Sanskrit चक्र cakra, "a circle, a wheel".[21]
Citipati 
from Sanskrit चिति पति citi-pati, which means "a funeral pyre lord".[22]
Cot 
from Hindi खाट khaat "a couch", which is from Sanskrit खट्वा khatva.[23]
Copra 
from Portuguese copra (16c.), from Malayalam (Dravidian) koppara (cognate with Hindi khopra) "coconut;" related to Hindi khopri "skull," from Sanskrit kharparah "skull."[24]
Cowrie 
from Hindi कौड़ी kauri and Urdu کمتدب kauri, from Marathi कवडइ kavadi, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कपर्द kaparda.[25]
Crimson 
from Old Spanish cremesin, via Medieval Latin cremesinus from Persian قرمز qirmiz "a kermes", which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: "red dye produced by a worm."[26]
Crocus 
from Greek κρόκος crocus, via Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew כרכום karkōm, Aramaic ܟܟܘܪܟܟܡܡܐ kurkama, Persian كركم kurkum, which mean saffron or saffron yellow.[27]); ultimately from Sanskrit कुङ्कुमं kunkumam.[28]

D[edit]

Dhal 
through Hindi दाल dāl ultimately from Sanskrit दलह dalah, meaning cotyledon of a pea pod, a type of Indian food; also refers to lentils.[29]
Das 
from Sanskrit दासा daasa, a slave or servant.[30]
Datura 
through Latin and Hindi: धतूरा dhatūra "jimson weed" ultimately from Sanskrit धत्तुरह dhattūrāh, a kind of flowering plant.[31]
Deodar 
through Hindi देओदार deodār ultimately from Sanskrit देवदारु devadāru, a kind of tree.[32]
Deva 
from Sanskrit देव deva, which means "a god", akin to Latin deus, "god".[33]
Devi 
from Sanskrit देवी devi, which means "a goddess".[34]
Dharma 
from Sanskrit: धर्म dharma; akin to Latin: firmus, meaning "conformity to one's duty and nature" and "divine law".[35]
Dhoti 
via Hindi dhotī (Hindi: धोती) ultimately from Sanskrit dhautī (Sanskrit: धौती) which means 'to wash', a traditional male garment used in India. Material tied around the waist that covers most of the legs.[36]
Dinghy 
from Hindi दिन्गी dingi "a tiny boat", probably from Sanskrit द्रोणम drona-m.[37]

G[edit]

Ganja 
via Hindi गज "elephant bull" ultimately from Sanskrit गांजा gāñjā, which means "of hemp".[38]
Gharry 
via Hindi word gādī (Hindi: गाड़ी) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word garta (Sanskrit: गर्त) which means 'chariot'.[39]
Ginger 
from Old English gingifer, gingiber, from Late Latin gingiber, from Latin zingiberi, from Greek zingiberis, from Prakrit (Middle Indic) singabera, from Sanskrit srngaveram, from srngam "horn" + vera- "body,"[40]
Guar 
through Hindi गार ultimately from Sanskrit गॊपलि gopālī, an annual legume.[41]
Gunny 
via Hindi गोनी ultimately from Sanskrit गोणी goni "sack".[42]
Gurkha 
via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्ष goraksa, "a cowherd".[43]
Guru 
via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means "a teacher".[44]

J[edit]

Jackal 
from Turkish çakal, from Persian شغال shaghal, from Middle Indic shagal, ultimately from Sanskrit शृगालः srgalah "the howler".[45]
Jaggery 
via Portuguese jágara, jagre and Malayalam ഛക്കര chakkara perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā derived from proto-Dravidian.[46]
Java 
originally a kind of coffee grown on Java and nearby islands of modern Indonesia. By early 20c. it meant coffee generally. The island name is shortened from Sanskrit Yavadvipa "Island of Barley," from yava "barley" + dvipa "island." [47]
Juggernaut 
through Odia ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ Jagannatha ultimately from Sanskrit जगन्नाथ jagat-natha-s, which means "lord of the world".[48]
Jungle 
through Hindi जंगल jangal "a desert, forest" ultimately from Sanskrit जङ्गल jangala, which means "arid".[49]
Jute 
via Bengali পাট Pata ultimately from Sanskrit जुतास juta-s, which means "twisted hair".[50]

K[edit]

Karma 
from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means "action".[51]
Kedgeree 
probably ultimately from Sanskrit कृशर krśara.[52]
Kermes 
via French: Kermès, and Persian قرمز qermez; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit: कृमिज kṛmija meaning "worm-made."[53]
Krait 
through Hindi करैत karait probably ultimately from Sanskrit: काराइट, a kind of snake.[54]

L[edit]

Lac 
through Urdu لاکھ, Persian لاک and Hindi लाख lakh from Prakrit लक्ख lakkha, ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā, meaning lac.[55]
Lacquer 
through French: Laque and Portuguese: Laca from Arabic لك lakk, via Prakrit ultimately from Sanskrit लाक्षा lākṣā.[56]
Langur 
through Hindi लुट lut probably ultimately from Sanskrit लंगुलम langūlam.[57]
Lilac 
via Arabic للك lilak from Persian نیلک nilak meaning "bluish", ultimately from Sanskrit नील nila, which means "dark blue".[58]
Loot 
ultimately from Sanskrit लुण्टा lota-m or लून्त्ति luṇṭhati meaning "he steals" through Hindi लूट lūṭ, which means "a booty, stolen thing".[59]

M[edit]

Maharajah 
through Hindi महाराजा ultimately from Sanskrit महा राजन् maha-rājān, which means "a great king".[60]
Maharani 
through Hindi महारानी finally from Sanskrit महा रानी mahārājnī, which means "consort of a maharajah".[61]
Maharishi 
from Sanskrit महर्षि maha-rishi, which means "a great sage".[62]
Mahatma 
from Sanskrit महात्मा mahatman, which means "a great breath, soul".[63]
Mahayana 
from Sanskrit महायान maha-yana, which means "a great vehicle".[64]
Mahout 
via Hindi माहुत (variant of महावत) ultimately from Sanskrit महमत्रह् mahāmātrah.;[65]
Mandala 
from Sanskrit मण्डल mandala, which means "a disc, circle".[66]
Mandarin 
via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandarijn, Indonesian and Malay mantri or menteri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri "a councillor" ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means "an advisor".[67]
Mantra 
from Sanskrit मन्त्र mantra-s which means "a holy message or text".[68]
Maya 
from Sanskrit माया māyā, a religious term related with illusion.[69]
Mithras 
from Sanskrit मित्र Mitrah, which means "a friend".[70]
Moksha 
from Sanskrit मोक्ष moksha, liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth.[71]
Mugger 
via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara ("sea creature"), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily.[72]
Mung bean 
through Hindi मुग mū̃g and Pali/Prakrit मुग्ग mugga ultimately from Sanskrit मुग्दह् mudgah, a kind of bean.[73]
Musk 
via Middle English muske, Middle French Musc, Late Latin Muscus and Late Greek μόσχος moskhos from Persian موشک mushk, ultimately from Sanskrit मुस्कस् muska-s meaning "a testicle", from a diminutive of मुस mus ("mouse").[74][75][76]
Mynah 
through Hindi मैना maina ultimately from Sanskrit मदन madana-s, which means "love".;[77]

N[edit]

Nainsook 
through Hindi नैनसुख nainsukh and Urdu نینسوکھ ultimately from Sanskrit नयनम्सुख् nayanam-sukh, meaning "pleasing to the eyes".[78]
Nard 
through Old French narde and Latin nardus from Greek νάρδος nardos, perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit नलदम् naladam.[79]
Narghile 
through French Narguilé and Persian نارگيله nārghīleh ultimately from Sanskrit नारिकेलः nārikelah.[80]
Nark 
probably from Romany nak "a nose", via Hindi नक् nak ultimately from Sanskrit नक्र‌ nakra.[81]
Neem 
through Hindi निम् nīm ultimately from Sanskrit निम्बः nimbah, a kind of tree.[82]
Nilgai 
through Hindi नीलगाय nīlgāy lit., blue cow ultimately from Sanskrit नीलगौः nīla-gauh, an ox-like animal.[83]
Nirvana 
from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvana-s which means "extinction, blowing out".[84]

O[edit]

Opal 
through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah.[85]
Orange 
through Old French orenge, Medieval Latin orenge and Italian arancia from Arabic نارنج naranj, via Persian نارنگ narang and Sanskrit नारङ्ग naranga-s meaning "an orange tree", derived from proto-Dravidian.[86]

P[edit]

Pal
1788, from Romany (English Gypsy) pal "brother, comrade," variant of continental Romany pral, plal, phral, probably from Sanskrit bhrata "brother" [87]
Palanquin
via Hindi word pālakī (Hindi: पालकी) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit word palyanka (Sanskrit: पल्यङ्क) which means 'bed' or 'couch'.
Panther
via classical Latin panthēr, itself from the ancient Greek word pánthēr (πάνθηρ) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit पाण्डर pāṇḍara which means ("pale").
Parcheesi
1800, from Hindi pachisi, from pachis "twenty-five" (highest throw of the dice), from Sanskrit panca "five" [88]
Pepper
Old English pipor, from an early West Germanic borrowing of Latin piper "pepper," from Greek piperi, probably (via Persian) from Middle Indic pippari, from Sanskrit pippali "long pepper."[89]
Punch
via Sanskrit पञ्च pancha, meaning "five". The original drink was made from five ingredients: alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, and tea or spices.[90]
Pundit 
via Sanskrit पण्डित paṇdita, meaning "learned". A person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area.:[91]

R[edit]

Raita 
ultimately from Sanskrit रजिकतिक्तक rājikātiktakaḥ via Hindi रायता rāytā, a south Asian condiment and side dish made of yogurt and vegetables.[92]
Raj 
through Hindi राज and Pali/Prakrit रज्ज rajja ultimately from Sanskrit राज्य rājya, which means "a king" or "kingdom." Raj means kingdom or domain of a ruler.[93]
Rajah 
through Hindi राज from Sanskrit राजन् rājān, which means "a king".[94]
Ramtil 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit रामतिलः rāmatilah, which means "a dark sesame".[95]
Rani 
through Hindi रानी ultimately from Sanskrit राज्ञी rājnī, consort of a rajah.[96]
Rice 
via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit व्रीहिस् vrihi-s "rice", derived from proto-Dravidian.[97]
Rupee 
through Hindi रुपया rupiyā ultimately from Sanskrit रूप्यकम् rūpyakam, an Indian silver coin.[98]

S[edit]

Saccharo- 
via Latin Saccharon and Greek σάκχαρον from Pali सक्खर sakkharā, ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sarkarā.[99]
Sambal 
through Afrikaans, Indonesian and Tamil சம்பல் campāl ultimately from Sanskrit सम्बार sambhārei.[100]
Sambar 
through Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit संभारह् śambarah, a kind of Asian deer.[101]
Sandal 
via Middle English sandell, Old French sandale, Medieval Latin sandalum, Medieval Greek σανδάλιον sandalion (diminutive of σάνδαλον sandalon) and Arabic and Persian صندل; perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit चन्दनम् candanam meaning "wood for burning incense;" this is the word sandalwood, not related to sandals which is a type of footwear.[102]
Sapphire 
via Old French saphir, Latin sapphirus and Greek σάπφειρος sappheiros from a Semitic tongue (c.f. Hebrew: ספיר sapir); possible ultimate origin in Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya which literally means "sacred to Saturn (Shani)".[103]
Sari 
through Hindi साड़ी sari and Prakrit सदि sadi, finally from Sanskrit षाटी sati "garment".[104]
Shampoo 
via Anglo-Indian shampoo and Hindi चाँपो champo probably from Sanskrit चपयति capayati, which means "kneads".[105]
Shawl 
from Persian شال shal, finally from Sanskrit सत्ल् satI, which means "a strip of cloth".[106]
Singapore 
via Malay Singapura ultimately from Sanskrit सिंहपुरं Simhapuram, literally "the lion city".[107]
Sri Lanka
from Sanskrit: श्री लंका which means "venerable island." It is said that Shree or Lakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, resides there.
Sugar 
through Old French sucre, Italian zucchero, Medieval Latin succarum, Arabic: سكر sukkar and Persian: شکر shakar ultimately from Sanskrit शर्करा sharkara which means "ground or candied sugar" (originally "grit" or "gravel"). [108]
Sunn 
via Hindi: सुन्न ultimately from Sanskrit: सन sāna, a kind of Asian plant.[109]
Swami 
through Hindi स्वामी swami ultimately from Sanskrit स्वामी svami, which means "a master".[110]
Swastika 
from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means "one associated with well-being, a lucky charm" or Good, god fearing being. It is said to be the form of the Sun.[111]

T[edit]

Taka 
via Maithili and Bengali: টাকা from Sanskrit तन्कह् tankah.[112]
Talipot 
through Hindi, Indonesian and Malay talipat from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tālapatram, a kind of tree.[113]
Tank 
a word originally brought by the Portuguese from India, from a Hindi source, such as Gujarati tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water," Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank." Perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit tadaga-m "pond, lake pool," and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid"[114]
Tendu 
via French "stretched" and Hindi ultimately from Sanskrit तालपत्रम् tainduka.[115]
Teapoy
via Hindi तिपाई tipāi and Urdu تپائي tipāʼī,which originated as a Sanskrit compound: त्रि (trí, "three") and पाद (pā́da, "foot").[116]
Thug 
through Marathi ठग and Hindi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means "a scoundrel".[117]
Til 
from Sanskrit तिल tilah, a kind of plant.[118]
Toddy 
through Hindi तरी tari ultimately from Sanskrit तल tala-s, a Dravidian origin is also probable.[119]
Toon 
through Hindi तुन tūn ultimately from Sanskrit तुन्नह् tunnah, a kind of tree.[120]
Tope 
through Hindi टॉप ṭop probably from Prakrit थुपो thūpo, finally from Sanskrit स्तूप stūpah.[121]
Tutty 
through Middle English tutie, Old French, Medieval Latin tūtia, Arabic توتي tūtiyā, and Persian توتیا ultimately from Sanskrit तुत्थं tuttham meaning "blue vitriol", a Dravidian origin is also probable.[122]

V[edit]

Vina 
ultimately from Sanskrit वीणा vīṇā through Hindi वीणा vīṇā, a kind of musical instrument.[123]

W[edit]

Wanderoo 
through Sinhalese: වන්ඩෙරූ vanḍerū finally from Sanskrit वानर vānarah, a kind of monkey.[124]

Y[edit]

Yoga 
through Hindi योग ultimately from Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means "yoke, union".[125]
Yogi 
through Hindi योगी yogi from Sanskrit योगिन् yogin, one who practices yoga or ascetic.[126]

Z[edit]

Zen 
through Japanese 禅 and ChineseChán ultimately from Pali झन jhāna and Sanskrit ध्यान dhyana, which means "a meditation".[127]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ambarella
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Aniline
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Aryan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  4. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Atoll
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "aubergine". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Avatar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "banyan". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  8. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Basmati rice
  9. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bahuvrihi
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "beryl". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  11. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Bidi
  12. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Brinjal
  13. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  14. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Buddha
  15. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Candy
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cashmere". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  17. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chit". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  18. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chuddar
  19. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chintz". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  20. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Chukar
  21. ^ Harper, Douglas. "chukker". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  22. ^ Dinosauria.com – Citipati Archived 2007-02-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  24. ^ Harper, Douglas. "copra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  25. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cowrie". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  26. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crimson". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  27. ^ Babiniotis, Leksiko tis neoellinikis glossas.
  28. ^ Harper, Douglas. "crocus". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  29. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Dahl
  30. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged – Das
  31. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Datura
  32. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Deodar
  33. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Deva". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  34. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Devi
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ [2]
  37. ^ Harper, Douglas. "dinghy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  38. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ganja
  39. ^ [3]
  40. ^ Harper, Douglas. "ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  41. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Guar
  42. ^ Harper, Douglas. "gunny". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  43. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Gurkha
  44. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Guru". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  45. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jackal". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  46. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Jaggery
  47. ^ Harper, Douglas. "java". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  48. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Juggernaut". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  49. ^ Harper, Douglas. "jungle". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  50. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jute". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  51. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Karma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  52. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kedgeree
  53. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Kermes
  54. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Krait
  55. ^ Harper, Douglas. "lac". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  56. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Lacquer
  57. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Langur
  58. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Lilac
  59. ^ Harper, Douglas. "loot". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  60. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Maharajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  61. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maharani
  62. ^ Harper, Douglas. "maharishi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  63. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mahatma". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  64. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mahayana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  65. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mahout
  66. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandala". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  67. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mandarin (bureaucrat)". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  68. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Mantra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  69. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Maya
  70. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mitra
  71. ^ Dictionary.com – Moksha
  72. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Mugger
  73. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Mung bean
  74. ^ Harper, Douglas. "musk". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  75. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: musk". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  76. ^ Chantraine, Pierre (1990). Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. Klincksieck. p. 715. ISBN 2-252-03277-4. 
  77. ^ Harper, Douglas. "mynah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  78. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nainsook
  79. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nard
  80. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Narghile
  81. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nark". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  82. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Neem
  83. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Nilgai
  84. ^ Harper, Douglas. "nirvana". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  85. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Opal
  86. ^ Harper, Douglas. "orange". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  87. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pal". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  88. ^ Harper, Douglas. "parcheesi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  89. ^ Harper, Douglas. "pepper". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  90. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary – Punch
  91. ^ Oxford Dictionary – Pundit
  92. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raita
  93. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Raj
  94. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Rajah". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  95. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Ramtil
  96. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rani
  97. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=rice
  98. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Rupee
  99. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Saccharo-
  100. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambal
  101. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sambar
  102. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sandal
  103. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sapphire". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  104. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Sari
  105. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shampoo". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  106. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Shawl
  107. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Singapore". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  108. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sugar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  109. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Sunn
  110. ^ Harper, Douglas. "swami". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  111. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Swastika". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  112. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Taka
  113. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Talipot
  114. ^ Harper, Douglas. "tank". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  115. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tendu
  116. ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/teapoy
  117. ^ Harper, Douglas. "thug". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  118. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Til
  119. ^ Harper, Douglas. "toddy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  120. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Toon
  121. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tussah
  122. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Tutty
  123. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Vina
  124. ^ American Heritage Dictionary – Wanderoo
  125. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yoga". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  126. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Yogi". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  127. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Zen". Online Etymology Dictionary. 

External links[edit]