List of substances used in rituals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of Entheogens)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This page lists substances used in ritualistic context.

Psychoactive use[edit]


This is a list of species and genera that are used as entheogens or are used in an entheogenic concoction (such as ayahuasca). For ritualistic use they may be classified as hallucinogens. The active principles and historical significance of each are also listed to illustrate the requirements necessary to be categorized as an entheogen. The psychoactive substances are usually classified as soft drugs in terms of drug harmfulness.


Vernacular name Species Phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Bufotoxins Bufo alvarius (and other Bufo spp.) Secretion: 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin (et al) Psychedelic Bufo alvarious secretion has gained popularity in spiritual retreats.[1] Controversial interpretation of Mesoamerican art.
Bullet ant venom Paraponera clavata Secretion: Poneratoxin Deliriant The Satere-Mawe people use bullet ants to get extremely painful stings in their initiation rites twenty times.[2]


Vernacular name Species Phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Dictyonema huaorani Dictyonema huaorani 5-MeO-DMT, DMT, psilocybin Psychedelic Confirmed used by shamans.[3]
Fly agaric Amanita muscaria Muscimol, ibotenic acid Depressant, and dissociative Siberian shamans.[4] Scandinavia. The Soma drink of India.
Panther cap Amanita pantherina Muscimol, ibotenic acid Depressant, and dissociative
Psilocybin mushroom Psilocybe spp. (etc) Psilocybin and psilocin;
baeocystin and norbaeocystin (some species)
Psychedelic Mazatec[5]


Vernacular name Species Phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
African dream herb Entada rheedii Seed Oneirogen The species is employed in African traditional medicine to induce vivid dreams, enabling communication with the spirit world. The inner meat of the seed would be either consumed directly, or the meat would be chopped, dried, mixed with other herbs like tobacco and smoked just before sleep to induce the desired dreams.[6]
African dream root Silene undulata Root: Possibly triterpenoid saponins Oneirogen Xhosa people of South Africa.[7]
Angel's trumpet Brugmansia spp. Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids Deliriant South America,[8] sometimes used as part of ayahuasca.
Ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi Bark: Harmine 0.31-0.84%,[9] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine,[10] 5-MeO-DMT[11] Psychedelic South America; people of the Amazon Rainforest. UDV of Brazil and United States.
Bitter-grass Calea ternifolia Leaf: Caleicines and caleochromenes Oneirogen The Chontal people of Oaxaca reportedly use the plant, known locally as thle-pela-kano, during divination.
Bolivian torch cactus Echinopsis lageniformis Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic South America
Cannabis (and cannabis concentrates) Cannabis spp. Flower: Cannabinoids (THC, and CBD) Psychedelic Hindu religion in India, Rastafari movements, Cannabis-based religions like First Church of Cannabis or International Church of Cannabis and other various groups (see entheogenic use of cannabis)
Chacruna Psychotria viridis Leaf: DMT Psychedelic UDV of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and the Brazilian church. Santo Daime have used it as part of ayahuasca.
Chaliponga Diplopterys cabrerana Leaf: 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenin, DMT Psychedelic Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru as part of ayahuasca.
Changa A DMT/MAOI-infused smoking blend DMT/MAOI Psychedelic Changa has gained popularity in spiritual retreats.[citation needed]
Christmasvine Turbina corymbosa Seed: LSA, lysergol, and turbicoryn; up to 0.03% lysergic acid alkaloids[12] Psychedelic Mazatec[13]
Harmal (espand) Peganum harmala Seed: Harmaline and other harmala alkaloids Psychedelic Iran and the Middle East.
Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa Seed: 0.325% ergoline derivatives of dry weight.[14] Psychedelic Huna shamans used them according to various oral histories.[15]
Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids Deliriant Ancient Greece and witches of the Middle Ages.
Iboga Tabernanthe iboga Root bark: Ibogaine[16] Psychedelic Bwiti] religion of West Central Africa. Used by Western nations to treat opioid addiction.
Jimson weed Datura stramonium Seed, flower, leaf: Tropane alkaloids[17] Deliriant Algonquin, Navajo, Cherokee, Luiseño and the indigenous peoples of Marie-Galante used this plant in sacred ceremonies for its hallucinogenic properties.[18][19][20] It has also been used by Sadhus of India, and the Táltos of the Magyar (Hungary).
Jurema Mimosa tenuiflora syn. Mimosa hostilis Root bark: 1-1.7% DMT[21] and yuremamine Psychedelic Used by the Jurema Cult (O Culto da Jurema) in the Northeastern Brazil.[22]
Labrador tea Rhododendron spp. Leaf: Ledol, some grayanotoxins Deliriant Caucasian peasants used Rhododendron plants for these effects in shamanistic rituals.[23]
Mad honey Rhododendron ponticum Nectar: Grayanotoxins Deliriant In Nepal, this type of honey is used by the Gurung people both for its supposed medicinal and hallucinogenic properties.[24][25]
Mexican morning glory Ipomoea tricolor Seed: Ergoline derivatives[26] (LSA disputed) Psychedelic Zapotecs[27]
Beach moonflower Ipomoea violacea Seed: Ergoline derivatives[26] (LSA disputed) Psychedelic Mazatec[13]
Nyakwána Virola elongata Bark, roots, leaves and flowers: DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT Psychedelic The Yanomami people use the powdered resin as an entheogen known as nyakwána which is inhaled or "snuffed" into the nasal cavity, it contains a high concentration of 5-MeO-DMT and DMT.[28]
Peruvian torch cactus Echinopsis peruviana Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic Pre-Incan Chavín rituals in Peru.
Peyote Lophophora williamsii Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic Native American Church is known as peyotism.[29][30] Alsu used in the Oshara Tradition.
Red ucuuba Virola sebifera Bark: DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT Psychedelic The smoke of the inner bark of the tree is used by shamans of the indigenous people of Venezuela in cases of fever conditions, or cooked for driving out evil ghosts.[31]
Salvia Salvia divinorum Leaf: Salvinorin A and other salvinorins Psychedelic Mazatec[32]
San Pedro cactus Echinopsis pachanoi Stem: Mescaline Psychedelic South America
Vilca Anadenanthera colubrina Beans: 5-MeO-DMT. Up to 12.4% bufotenin.[33] DMT Psychedelic There have been reports of active use of vilca by Wichi shamans, under the name hatáj.[34]
Yopo Anadenanthera peregrina Beans: 5-MeO-DMT. Up to 7.4% bufotenin.[35] DMT Psychedelic Archaeological evidence of insufflation use within the period 500-1000 AD, in northern Chile, has been reported.[36]


Many man-made chemicals with little human history have been recognized to catalyze intense spiritual experiences, and many synthetic entheogens are simply slight modifications of their naturally occurring counterparts. Some synthetic substances like 4-AcO-DMT are prodrugs that metabolize into psychoactive substances that have been used as entheogens. While synthetic DMT and mescaline are reported to have identical entheogenic qualities as extracted or plant-based sources, the experience may wildly vary due to the lack of numerous psychoactive alkaloids that constitute the material. This is similar to how isolated THC produces very different effects than an extract that retains the many cannabinoids of the plant such as cannabidiol and cannabinol. A pharmaceutical version of the entheogenic brew ayahuasca is called Pharmahuasca.

Substance IUPAC name Substance effect class Notes
2C-B 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylethanamine Psychedelic 2C-B is used as entheogen by the Sangoma, Nyanga, and Amagqirha people over their traditional plants. It is referred to as Ubulawu Nomathotholo, which roughly translates to "Medicine of the Singing Ancestors".[37][38][39]
5-MeO-DMT 2-(5-Methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethan-2-amine Psychedelic See species
Bufotenin 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-5-ol Psychedelic See species
DMT 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N,N-dimethylethanamine Psychedelic See species
DPT N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)]ethyl-N-propylpropan-1-amine Psychedelic DPT is used as a religious sacrament by the Temple of the True Inner Light who believes that DPT and other entheogens are physical manifestations of God.[40]
Harmaline 7-methoxy-1-methyl-4,9-dihydro-3H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole Psychedelic See Peganum harmala
Ibogaine 12-Methoxyibogamine Psychedelic See Tabernanthe iboga
LSA (8β)-9,10-didehydro-6-methyl-ergoline-8-carboxamide Psychedelic See species
LSD (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide Psychedelic Used by League for Spiritual Discovery (LSD), and the Neo-American Church.
MDMA (RS)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine Entactogen Small doses of MDMA are used as an entheogen to enhance prayer or meditation by some religious practitioners.[41]
Muscimol 5-(Aminomethyl)-isoxazol-3-ol Deliriant See Amanita spp.
Psilocybin [3-(2-Dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl] dihydrogen phosphate Psychedelic (See also Psilocybe spp) Prodrug for Psilocin. The Mazatec curandera María Sabina was celebrating a mushroom velada with pills of synthetic psilocybin named Indocybin synthesized by Albert Hofmann.[42]
Salvinorin A methyl (2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-9-(acetyloxy)-2-(furan-3-yl)-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-dodecahydro-1H-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylate Psychedelic See Salvia divinorum


Substance IUPAC name Substance effect class Notes
1A-LSD (6aR,9R)-4-acetyl-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide Psychedelic Prodrug (suspected) for LSD
1P-LSD (6aR,9R)-N,N-Diethyl-7-methyl-4-propanoyl-6,6a,8,9-tetrahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide Psychedelic Prodrug (suspected) for LSD
4-AcO-DMT 3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl acetate Psychedelic Prodrug for psilocin (found in psilocybin mushroom, see also psilocybin)

This page lists non-psychedelic psychoactive substances which are consumed in ritual contexts for their consciousness-altering effects. Non-psychoactive consumption like symbolic ingestion of psychoactive substances is not mentioned here.

Non-psychedelic substances used in rituals[edit]

This is a lists of psychoactive substances which are consumed in ritual contexts for their consciousness-altering effects. Some of these drugs are classified as hard drugs in terms of drug harmfulness.


Vernacular name Species Phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Kambo (or sapo) Phyllomedusa bicolor Secretion: Opioid peptides (deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin).[43][44][45] Depressant Increasing popularity in cleansing rituals and depression treatment.[46][47][48]


The plant parts are listed to prevent accidents. For example, kava roots should always be used because the leaves of the plant are known to cause hepatoxicity and death.[49]

Vernacular name Species Phytochemical(s) Substance effect class Regions/Cultures of use
Alcohol Yeast byproduct: Alcohol fermented species Alcohol Depressant During the Jewish holiday of Purim, Jews are obligated to drink until their judgmental abilities become impaired.[50][51]
Aztec tobacco Nicotiana rustica Leaf: up to 9% nicotine.[52] MAOI beta-carbolines. Stimulant Mapacho (South America)[53] and thuoc lao (thuốc lào) (Vietnam). Nicotiana rustica is used by Amazonian tobacco shamans known as tobaqueros.[54] Nicotiana rustica is a Vernacular ingredient of Ayahuasca in some parts of the Amazon.[55]
Blue water lily Nymphaea caerulea Flower: Aporphine, and nuciferine Depressant Mayans and the Ancient Egyptians.[56]
Chili pepper Capsicum spp. Fruit: Capsaicin Deliriant "While the Inca may have recognized chili’s potent spiritual medicine, they weren’t the only culture to do so. Chilies were mixed with tobacco and other plants by shamans and medicine people in pre-Columbian Central America to aid in journeys to the upper and lower worlds on behalf of mankind."[57]
Coca, coca tea Erythroxylaceae spp. Leaf: 0.3-1.5% cocaine[58] Stimulant Coca has been a vital part of the religious cosmology of the Andean peoples of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, northern Argentina, and Chile from the pre-Inca period through the present.[citation needed] In addition, coca use in shamanic rituals is well documented wherever local native populations have cultivated the plant. For example, the Tayronas of Colombia's Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta use to chew the plant before engaging in extended meditation and prayer.[59]
Cocoa Theobroma cacao Bean: Theobromine, small amount of MAOIs, etc (see full list) Stimulant Ritualistic practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec).[60]
Coffee Coffea spp. Seed: 0.06-3.2% caffeine[61] Stimulant The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in Yemen's Sufi monasteries.[62] The sufi monks drank coffee as an aid to concentration and even spiritual intoxication when they chanted the name of God.[63]
Corn beer Yeast byproduct: Corn (Zea mays), fermented Alcohol Depressant The corn beer Chicha de jora was once a sacred drink of the Incas, often reserved for the most cherished of ceremonies.[64]

Tesguino is a corn beer made by the Tarahumara people of the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. It is brewed for local celebrations related to Holy Week. For the Tarahumara, the beer is an elixir for healing, a barter item and is considered a sacred beverage.[65]

Ilex guayusa Ilex guayusa Leaves: 1.73–3.48 % caffeine.[66] Theanine Stimulant A ritual use by the Kichua people involves drinking guayusa infusion to have foretelling dreams for successful hunting expeditions.[67] Ilex guayusa is used in ayahuasca admixtures for its healing powers.[55]
Kava Piper methysticum Root: 3-20% kavalactones[68] Depressant Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava.
Khat Catha edulis Leaf: Up to 14% cathine[69] Stimulant For centuries, religious leaders have consumed the leaves to stay awake during long nights of prayer.[70]
Kratom Mitragyna speciosa Leaves: Opioids (1–6% mitragynine, 0.01–0.04% 7-hydroxymitragynine[71]) Depressant In Thailand, kratom was "used as a snack to receive guests and was part of the ritual worship of ancestors and gods." (Saingam et al.)[72]
Opium, Opium poppy Papaver somniferum Latex exudate: 0.3–25% morphine and codeine 0.5-4%[73] Depressant From the earliest finds, opium appears to have had ritual significance, and anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power.[74] In Egypt, the use of opium was generally restricted to priests, magicians, and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, and it was said to have been given by Isis to Ra as treatment for a headache.[75] A figure of the Minoan "goddess of the narcotics", wearing a crown of three opium poppies, BCE, was recovered from the Sanctuary of Gazi, Crete, together with a simple smoking apparatus.[76][77] The Greek gods Hypnos (Sleep), Nyx (Night), and Thanatos (Death) were depicted wreathed in poppies or holding them. Poppies also frequently adorned statues of Apollo, Asklepios, Pluto, Demeter, Aphrodite, Kybele and Isis, symbolizing nocturnal oblivion.[75] The opium poppy was a magical ritual plant among the Germanic tribes.[78]
Pituri Duboisia hopwoodii, Duboisia myoporoides, Nicotiana spp. Nicotine, tropane alkaloids A stimulant (or, after extended use, a depressant) chewed by Aboriginal Australians. Some authors use the term to refer only to the plant Duboisia hopwoodii and its leaves and any chewing mixture containing its leaves.[79]
Tea Camellia sinensis Leaf: 0.4-9.3% caffeine and theanine 0-5-1.4%[80] Stimulant Tea has been drunk by Buddhist monks since the Sui Dynasty (589–618 BC) to maintain a state of “mindful alertness” during long periods of meditation. Tea ceremonies have been ritualized for centuries.
Wine Yeast byproduct: Grape (Vitis spp.) (fermented) Alcohol Depressant Wine was used in rituals and worshipped by the Egyptians[81] and the Greeks, specifically in worship of Dionysus.
Beer Yeast byproduct: Barley ( Liquid Gold spp.) (fermented) Alcohol Depressant


Substance IUPAC name Substance effect class Notes
Alcohol Ethanol Depressant See Vitis spp.
Caffeine 1,3,7-Trimethylpurine-2,6-dione Stimulant See Coffea
Cathine (1S,2S)-2-amino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol Stimulant See Catha edulis
Cocaine Methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate Stimulant Coca addicts ingest between 60 and 80 milligrams of cocaine each time they chew the leaves according to United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).[82] However, other sources claims that the coca leaf, when consumed in its natural form or as coca tea, does not induce a physiological or psychological dependence, nor does abstinence after long-term use produce symptoms typical to substance addiction.[83][84][85][86] See also Erythroxylum coca, and Erythroxylum novogranatense spp.
Codeine (5α,6α)-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-ol Depressant Prodrug for morphine
Kavalactones Depressant See Piper methysticum
Morphine (4R,4aR,7S,7aR,12bS)-3-Methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol Depressant See Papaver somniferum

Sober use[edit]

Disclaimer: Salvia apiana and Bursera fagaroides do not contain any psychoactive substances at all, they are solely used for ritualistic purpose while Aztec tobacco, Morning glories, and Syrian rue (all listed in the #Psychoactive_use table), and Cacao Beans (mild) are psychoactive when consumed.


Vernacular name Species Use Regions/Cultures of use
Aztec tobacco Nicotiana rustica Incense [citation needed]
Cacao bean Theobroma cacao Ritual offering [citation needed]
Copal Bursera fagaroides Incense [citation needed]
Morning glory T. corymbosa, and I. violacea Numerology "indigenous ritual use indicates dose levels for T. corymbosa, and I. violacea which are far lower than that perceived as necessary to effect hallucinosis in members of modern Western cultures. In Mexico, the only place in the world where the ingestion of morning glory seeds has an established tradition of shamanic usage, a hallucinogenic dose is said to be only thirteen seeds, a ritual amount based on religious numerology rather than chemical analysis."[87][page needed]
Syrian rue Peganum harmala Incense "In the Himalayas, shamans use syrian rue seeds as a magical incense, inhaling it to enter a trance state in which they can engage in sexual intercourse with divining goddesses, who are said to give them information and great healing powers (Ratsch 1998, 426-427)."[88]
White Sage Salvia apiana Incense [citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "BUFO ALVARIUS, SONORAN DESERT TOAD (5MeoDMT): The experience of cosmic unity, which gives an enlightening vision of oneself and of existence". Alberto José Varela.
  2. ^ Backshall, Steve (6 January 2008). "Bitten by the Amazon". London: The Sunday Times. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  3. ^ Schmull, Michaela; Dal-Forno, Manuela; Lücking, Robert; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Lawrey, James D (2014). "Dictyonema huaorani (Agaricales: Hygrophoraceae), a new lichenized basidiomycete from Amazonian Ecuador with presumed hallucinogenic properties". The Bryologist. 117 (4): 386–394. doi:10.1639/0007-2745-117.4.386.
  4. ^ Nyberg, H. (1992). "Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: A comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican Cultures". Karstenia. 32 (71–80): 71–80. doi:10.29203/ka.1992.294.
  5. ^ Wasson RG. (1980). The Wondrous Mushroom: Mycolatry in Mesoamerica. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-068443-0.
  6. ^ "Entada rheedii - African Dream Herb",
  7. ^ J. F. Sobiecki (2008). "A review of plants used in divination in southern Africa and their psychoactive effects" (PDF). Southern African Humanities. 20: 333–351. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-11. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
  8. ^ Harner, Michael (1980). The Way of the Shaman. New York: Harper & Row.
  9. ^ Callaway, JC; Brito, GS; Neves, ES (2005). "Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 37 (2): 145–150. doi:10.1080/02791072.2005.10399795. PMID 16149327.
  10. ^ Glasby, J. S. (1991-07-02). Directory Of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites. ISBN 9780203489871. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Chemical Information". Archived from the original on 2004-11-21. Retrieved 2008-04-11.
  12. ^ "Ololiuqui (Rivea corymbosa) im GIFTPFLANZEN.COMpendium -". Retrieved 2008-04-18.
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^ Chao JM, Der Marderosian AH (1973). "Ergoline alkaloidal constituents of Hawaiian baby wood rose, Argyreia nervosa (Burmf) Bojer". J. Pharm. Sci. 62 (4): 588–91. doi:10.1002/jps.2600620409. PMID 4698977.
  15. ^ " - Preserving Ancient Knowledge".
  16. ^ "Erowid Online Books : "TIHKAL" - #25 IBOGAINE". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Show Plant".
  18. ^ Biaggioni, Italo et al. (2011). Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-12-386525-0.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Pennachio, Marcello et al. (2010). Uses and Abuses of Plant-Derived Smoke: Its Ethnobotany As Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. Oxford University Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-19-537001-0.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  20. ^ Davis, Wade (1997). The Serpent and the Rainbow: a Harvard scientist's astonishing journey into the secret societies of Haitian voodoo, zombis and magic. Simon & Schuster. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-0-684-83929-5.
  21. ^ Rätsch, Christian (1998). Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen. Aarau: AT-Verl. p. 15. ISBN 978-3-85502-570-1.
  22. ^ "Jurema Ritual in Northern Brazil".
  23. ^ Andrews, Steve; Rindsberg, Katrina (April 2001). Herbs of the Northern Shaman: A Guide to Mind-Altering Plants of the Northern Hemisphere. Loompanics Unlimited. ISBN 9781559502115. OCLC 780276732.
  24. ^ Treza, Raphael (2011). "Hallucinogen honey hunters". Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  25. ^ Jansen, S. A., Kleerekooper, I., Hofman, Z. L., Kappen, I. F., Stary-Weinzinger, A., & van der Heyden, M. A. (2012). Grayanotoxin Poisoning:‘Mad Honey Disease’ and Beyond. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 12(3), 208-215.
  26. ^ a b "Show Plant".
  27. ^ Carod-Artal, FJ (2015). "Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures". Neurologia. 30 (1): 42–9. doi:10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003. PMID 21893367.
  28. ^ Agurell, S; Holmstedt, B; Lindgren, JE; Schultes, RE (1969). "Alkaloids in certain species of Virola and other South American plants of ethnopharmacologic interest". Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 23 (3): 903–16. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.23-0903. PMID 5806312.
  29. ^ Catherine Beyer. "Peyote and the Native American Church". Religion & Spirituality. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  30. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2020-03-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ Rätsch, Christian (1998). Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen. Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen. Aarau: AT-Verl. p. 8. ISBN 978-3-85502-570-1.
  32. ^ Valdés, Díaz & Paul 1983, p. 287.
  33. ^ Ott J (2001). "Pharmañopo-psychonautics: human intranasal, sublingual, intrarectal, pulmonary and oral pharmacology of bufotenine". J Psychoactive Drugs. 33 (3): 273–81. doi:10.1080/02791072.2001.10400574. PMID 11718320.
  34. ^ Ott, Jonathan (2001). Shamanic Snuffs or Enthogenic Errhines. EthnoBotanica. p. 90. ISBN 1-888755-02-4.
  35. ^ Pharmanopo-Psychonautics: Human Intranasal, Sublingual, Intrarectal, Pulmonary and Oral Pharmacology of Bufotenine by Jonathan Ott, The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, September 2001
  36. ^ Juan P. Ogalde; Bernardo T. Arriaza; Elia C. Soto (2010). "Uso de plantas psicoactivas en el north de Chile: evidencia química del consumo de ayahuasca durante el periodo medio (500-1000 d.C.)". Latin American Antiquity. 21 (4): 441–450. doi:10.7183/1045-6635.21.4.441.
  37. ^ "2CB chosen over traditional entheogen's by South African healers". 2008-03-27. Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  38. ^ The Nexus Factor - An Introduction to 2C-B Erowid
  39. ^ Ubulawu Nomathotholo Pack Photo by Erowid. © 2002
  40. ^ "Temple of the true inner light". Retrieved 2013-03-31.
  41. ^ MDMA and Religion Archived 2013-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. CSP. Retrieved on 11 June 2011.
  42. ^ "Ethnopharmacognosy and Human Pharmacology of Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A". Retrieved 2013-01-13.
  43. ^ Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G, et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 86 (13): 5188–92. Bibcode:1989PNAS...86.5188E. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892.
  44. ^ Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054.
  45. ^ Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS. 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. ISBN 978-3-0348-9794-5. PMID 9949868.
  46. ^ Leban, V; Kozelk, G; Brvar, M (2016). "The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) venom exposure". Toxicon. 120: 107–109. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.07.007. PMID 27421671.
  47. ^ Daly, M (May 10, 2016). "How Amazonian Tree Frog Poison Became the Latest Treatment for Addiction". Vice.
  48. ^ "About Kambo". International Association of Kambo Practitioners.
  49. ^ "KavaKava".
  50. ^ Borras, Laurence; Khazaal, Yasser; Khan, Riaz; Mohr, Sylvia; Kaufmann, Yves-Alexandre; Zullino, Daniele; Huguelet, Philippe (1 December 2010). "The relationship between addiction and religion and its possible implication for care". Substance Use & Misuse. 45 (14): 2357–410. doi:10.3109/10826081003747611. PMC 4137975. PMID 21039108.
  51. ^ "Drinking on Purim". aishcom.
  52. ^ "Nicotiana sp". Archived from the original on 2008-09-06. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
  53. ^ "Shamanic Tobaccos". Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge - A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution. Bantam. 1992. p. 196. ISBN 0-553-37130-4.
  54. ^ "Meeting The Tobacco Spirit - Reality Sandwich". Reality Sandwich.
  55. ^ a b Rätsch, Christian (2005), pp. 704-708. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-89281-978-2
  56. ^ Bertol, Elisabetta; Fineschi, Vittorio; Karch, Steven B.; Mari, Francesco; Riezzo, Irene (2004). "Nymphaea cults in ancient Egypt and the New World: a lesson in empirical pharmacology". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 97 (2): 84–85. doi:10.1258/jrsm.97.2.84. PMC 1079300. PMID 14749409.
  57. ^ "Magical and Historical Uses for Chili Pepper and Cayenne". The Practical Herbalist. 3 November 2015.
  58. ^ "Illicit Production of Cocaine – []". Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  59. ^ Museo del Oro, Banco de la República. "Museo del Oro, Colombia" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  60. ^ Dillinger, T. L.; Barriga, P.; Escárcega, S.; Jimenez, M.; Salazar Lowe, D.; Grivetti, L. E. (2000). "Food of the gods: Cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (8S Suppl): 2057S–72S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.8.2057S. PMID 10917925.
  61. ^ "Show Plant".
  62. ^ Weinberg, Bennett Alan; Bealer, Bonnie K. (2001). The world of caffeine. Routledge. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-415-92723-9.
  63. ^ McHugo, John (18 April 2013). "How a drink downed by Arab mystics went global". BBC News.
  64. ^ "This Ancient Incan Corn Beer Might Bring You Closer to the Gods". Munchies. 25 April 2016.
  65. ^ "The Sacred Corn Beer of the Tarahumara".
  66. ^ Lewis, WH; Kennelly, EJ; Bass, GN; Wedner, HJ; Elvin, L (1991). "Ritualistic use of the holly Ilex guayusa by Amazonian Jivaro Indians". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 33 (1–2): 25–30. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90156-8. PMID 1682531.
  67. ^ Spruce, R. (1996). Notas de un botánico en el Amazonas y los Andes. Quito, Ecuador: Colección Tierra Incógnita.
  68. ^ "Show Plant".
  69. ^ "Show Plant".
  70. ^
  71. ^ Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Kawamura, Maiko; Maruyama, Takuro; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Goda, Yukihiro (July 2009). "Simultaneous analysis of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and other alkaloids in the psychotropic plant "kratom" (Mitragyna speciosa) by LC-ESI-MS". Forensic Toxicology. 27 (2): 67–74. doi:10.1007/s11419-009-0070-5. ISSN 1860-8973.
  72. ^ Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam (September 2016). "Traditional and non-traditional uses of Mitragynine (Kratom): A survey of the literature". Brain Research Bulletin. 126 (Pt 1): 41–46. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.05.004. PMID 27178014.
  73. ^ "Show Plant".
  74. ^ M J Brownstein (June 15, 1993). "A brief history of opiates, opioid peptides, and opioid receptors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 90 (12): 5391–5393. Bibcode:1993PNAS...90.5391B. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5391. PMC 46725. PMID 8390660.
  75. ^ a b Paul L. Schiff, Jr. (2002). "Opium and its alkaloids". American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  76. ^ P. G. Kritikos & S. P. Papadaki (January 1, 1967). "The early history of the poppy and opium". Journal of the Archaeological Society of Athens. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
  77. ^ E. Guerra Doce (January 1, 2006). "Evidencias del consumo de drogas en Europa durante la Prehistoria". Trastornos Adictivos (in Spanish). 8 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1016/S1575-0973(06)75106-6. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2007. (includes image)
  78. ^[full citation needed]
  79. ^ Silcock JL, Tischler M, Smith MA. "Quantifying the Mulligan River Pituri, Duboisia hopwoodii ((F.Muell.) F.Muell.) (Solanaceae), Trade of Central Australia." Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2012; 10:037-044. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  80. ^ "Show Plant".
  81. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  82. ^ "UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1952 Issue 2 - 008".
  83. ^ Hanna JM, Hornick CA., "Use of coca leaf in southern Peru: adaptation or addiction," Bull Narc. 1977 Jan–Mar;29(1):63–74.
  84. ^ "Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the Coca Leaf" (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Council: 31. May 1950. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  85. ^ Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan; Cone, Edward J. (9 February 1996). "Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea". Forensic Science International. 77 (3): 179–189. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(95)01860-3. ISSN 0379-0738. PMC 2705900. PMID 8819993.
  86. ^ Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy David (2016). "Coca: The History and Medical Significance of an Ancient Andean Tradition". Emergency Medicine International. 2016: 4048764. doi:10.1155/2016/4048764. ISSN 2090-2840. PMC 4838786. PMID 27144028.
  87. ^ DeKorne, Jim (2011). Psychedelic shamanism : the cultivation, preparation, and shamanic use of psychotropic plants (Rev. ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1556439995.
  88. ^