List of Ericaceae genera

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Bell heather, Erica cinerea, is the type species of the family.

This is a list of genera in the plant family Ericaceae, which includes the heaths, heathers, epacrids, and blueberries. As currently circumscribed, the family contains about 4000 species into more than 120 genera classified into 9 subfamilies.[1]

Current understanding[edit]

The list shown here follows the phylogenetic classification of Kron et al. (2002),[2] with modifications as per Stevens et al. (2004),[3] Quinn et al. (2005),[4] Albrecht et al. (2010),[5] Gillespie & Kron (2010),[6] and Craven (2011).[7]

Nonetheless, much of the taxonomy within the Vaccinioideae is in flux. Multiple studies of the Gaultherieae have now shown Pernettya, Diplycosia (already including Pernettyopsis), and Tepuia to be nested within Gaultheria,[8][9] although publication formalizing the transfers are yet to be published. Similarly, most of Vaccinieae has not been investigated using molecular techniques, and many genera are likely paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Neotropical and Old World Vaccinioideae are particularly poorly known.[10] Within the Epacrideae preliminary evidence supports the lumping of Budawangia and Rupicola with Epacris,[2] but these genera still stand for the time being.

Relevant recent synonymy include Bruckenthalia with Erica,[11] Leiophyllum and Loiseleuria with Kalmia,[12] and Diplarche and Menziesia with Rhododendron.[7]

Genera[edit]

Genus Authority Year Subfamily / Tribe Type species # of species Distribution
Enkianthus Lour.[13] 1791 Enkianthoideae Enkianthus quinqueflorus Lour. 16 Southeast Asia
Chimaphila Pursh[14] 1813 ("1814") Pyroloideae Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh 5 North and Central America, Eurasia
Moneses Salisb. ex S.F.Gray[15] 1821 Pyroloideae Moneses grandiflora[N 1] Salisb. ex S.F.Gray 1 Circumboreal
Orthilia Raf.[16] 1840 Pyroloideae Orthilia parvifolia[N 1] Raf. 1 Canada to Guatemala, Eurasia
Pyrola L.[17] 1753 Pyroloideae Pyrola rotundifolia L. ca. 30 North and Central America, Eurasia
Allotropa Torr. & A.Gray[18] 1858 ("1857") MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Allotropa virgata Torr. & A.Gray 1 Pacific Northwest
Cheilotheca Hook.f.[19] 1876 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Cheilotheca khasiana Hook.f. 3
Hemitomes A.Gray[18] 1858 ("1857") MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Hemitomes congestum A.Gray 1 West Coast
Monotropa L.[17] 1753 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Monotropa uniflora L. 2 America, Europe, Asia
Monotropastrum H.Andres[20] 1936 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Monotropastrum macrocarpum H.Andres 2 or 3 Himalaya to Sumatra and Japan
Monotropsis Schwein.[21] 1817 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Monotropsis odorata Schwein. 1 Southeastern United States
Pityopus Small[22] 1914 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Pityopus oregonus[N 2] Small 1 West Coast of the United States
Pleuricospora A.Gray[23] 1868 MonotropoideaeMonotropeae Pleuricospora fimbriolata A.Gray 1 California to British Columbia
Pterospora Nutt.[24] 1919 MonotropoideaePterosporeae Pterospora andromedea Nutt. 1 United States and Mexico
Sarcodes Torr.[25] 1851 MonotropoideaePterosporeae Sarcodes sanguinea Torr. 1 West Coast of United States and Mexico
Arbutus L.[17] 1753 Arbutoideae Arbutus unedo L. 10 United States to Central America, Mediterranean area
Arctostaphylos Adans.[26] 1763 Arbutoideae Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. 66 North and Central America, Eurasia
Comarostaphylis Zucc.[27] 1837 Arbutoideae Comarostaphylis arguta[N 3] Zucc. 10 California to Central America
Ornithostaphylos Small[22] 1914 Arbutoideae Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia (Parry) Small 1 California, Mexico
Xylococcus Nutt.[28] 1842 ("1843") Arbutoideae Xylococcus bicolor Nutt. 1 California
Cassiope D.Don[29] 1834 Cassiopeoideae Cassiope tetragona (L.) D.Don 18 Circumboreal
Bryanthus J.G.Gmel.[30][N 4] 1769 EricoideaeBryantheae Bryanthus gmelinii[N 5] D.Don
Ledothamnus Meisn.[31] 1863 EricoideaeBryantheae Ledothamnus guyanensis Meisn.
Ceratiola Michx.[32] 1803 EricoideaeEmpetreae Ceratiola ericoides Michx. 1 United States
Corema D.Don[33] 1826 EricoideaeEmpetreae Corema album (L.) D.Don ex Steud. 2 North America, Iberian Peninsula
Empetrum L.[17] 1753 EricoideaeEmpetreae Empetrum nigrum L. 3–18[N 6] Circumboreal and southern South America
Calluna Salisb.[36] 1802 EricoideaeEriceae Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull 1 European
Daboecia D.Don[29] 1834 EricoideaeEriceae Daboecia polifolia[N 7] D.Don 2 Europe
Erica L.[17] 1753 EricoideaeEriceae Erica cinerea L. 850+ Afro-Eurasia
Bejaria[N 8] Mutis[37] 1771 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Bejaria aestuans Mutis ex L. 15 South America to United States
Elliottia Muhl. ex Elliott[21] 1817 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Elliottia racemosa Muhl. ex Elliott 4 North America, Japan
Epigaea L.[17] 1753 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Epigaea repens L. 3 North America, Asia
Kalmia L.[17] 1753 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Kalmia latifolia L. 10 Northern hemisphere
Kalmiopsis Rehder[38] 1932 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Kalmiopsis leachiana (L.F.Hend.) Rehder 2 Oregon
Phyllodoce Salisb.[39] 1806 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Phyllodoce taxifolia[N 1] (Pall.) Salisb. 8 North America, Eurasia
Rhodothamnus Rchb.[40] 1827 EricoideaePhyllodoceae Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Rchb.
Rhododendron L.[17] 1753 EricoideaeRhodoreae Rhododendron ferrugineum L. 1000+ North America, Eurasia, Australia
Therorhodion[N 9] (Maxim.) Small[43] 1914 EricoideaeRhodoreae Therorhodion camtschaticum (Pall. Small) 3 Alaska, Northeast Asia
Harrimanella Coville[44] 1901 Harrimanelloideae Harrimanella stelleriana (Pall.) Coville 2 Circumboreal
Archeria Hook.f.[45] 1857 Styphelioideae / Archerieae None designated 6 Tasmania, New Zealand
Andersonia R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeCosmelieae None designated ca. 50 Western Australia
Cosmelia R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeCosmelieae Cosmelia rubra R.Br. 2 Western Australia
Sprengelia Sm.[47] 1794 StyphelioideaeCosmelieae Sprengelia incarnata 4 Australia
Budawangia Telford[48] 1992 StyphelioideaeEpacrideae Budawangia gnidioides (Summerh.) Telford 1 Australia
Epacris Cav.[49] 1797 StyphelioideaeEpacrideae Epacris longiflora Cav. 30+ Oceania
Lysinema R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeEpacrideae None designated 6 Australia
Rupicola Maiden & Betche[50] 1899 ("1898") StyphelioideaeEpacrideae Rupicola sprengelioides Maiden & Betche 4 Australia
Woollsia F.Muell.[51] 1873 StyphelioideaeEpacrideae Woollsia pungens (Cav.) F.Muell. 1 Australia
Dielsiodoxa Albr.[5] 2010 StyphelioideaeOligarrheneae Dielsiodoxa tamariscina (F.Muell.) Albr. 5 Australia
Needhamiella[N 10] L.Watson[53] 1965 StyphelioideaeOligarrheneae Needhamiella pumilio (R.Br.) L.Watson 1 Western Australia
Oligarrhena R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeOligarrheneae Oligarrhena micrantha R.Br. 1 Australia
Lebetanthus[N 11] Endl.[54] 1841 StyphelioideaePrionoteae Lebetanthus americana[N 12] (Hook.f.) Hook.f. 1 South America
Prionotes R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaePrionoteae Prionotes cerinthoides (Labill. R.Br.) 1 Tasmania
Dracophyllum Labill.[56] 1800 StyphelioideaeRicheeae Dracophyllum verticillatum Labill. ca. 100 Oceania
Richea[N 13] R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeRicheeae Richea dracophylla R.Br. 11 Australia, Tasmania
Sphenotoma (R.Br.) Sweet[N 14][57] 1828 StyphelioideaeRicheeae Sphenotoma gracilis (R.Br.) Sweet 6
Acrothamnus Quinn[4] 2005 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Acrothamnus maccraei (F.Muell.) Quinn 5+ Oceania
Acrotriche R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Acrotriche divaricata[N 15] R.Br. 16 Australia
Agiortia Quinn[4] 2005 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Agiortia cicatricata (J.M.Powell) Quinn 3 Australia
Androstoma Hook.f.[45] 1844 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Androstoma empetrifolia Hook.f. 2 Australia, New Zealand
Astroloma R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae none designated ca. 10 Australia
Brachyloma Sond.[59] 1845 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Brachyloma preissii Sond. 7 Australia
Coleanthera Stschegl.[60] 1859 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae None designated
Conostephium Benth.[61] 1837 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Conostephium pendulum Benth. ca. 10 Australia
Croninia J.M.Powell[62] 1993 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Croninia kingiana (F.Muell.) J.M.Powell 1 Australia
Cyathodes Labill.[63] 1805 (1804) StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Cyathodes glauca[N 16] Labill. 5(?) Australia
Cyathopsis Brongn. & Gris[65][66][N 17] 1864 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Cyathopsis floribunda Brongn. & Gris 3 New Caledonia
Decatoca F.Muell.[68] 1889 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Decatoca spencerii 1 New Guinea
Leptecophylla C.M.Weiller[69] 1999 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Leptecophylla juniperina (J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) C.M.Weiller 12 Oceania
Leucopogon R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Leucopogon lanceolatus[N 18] 150+ Oceania
Lissanthe R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Lissanthe strigosa[N 19] (Sm.) R.Br. 7 Australia
Melichrus R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Melichrus procumbens (Cav.) Druce ca. 10 Australia
Monotoca R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Monotoca scoparia (Sm.) R.Br. 17 Australia
Montitega C.M.Weiller[5] 1993 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Montitega dealbata (R.Br.) C.M.Weiller 1 Australia
Pentachondra R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae None designated[N 20] 4–5 Australia, New Zealand
Planocarpa C.M.Weiller[71] 1996 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Planocarpa petiolaris (DC.) C.M.Weiller 3 Tasmania
Styphelia Sm.[72] 1795 ("1793") StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Styphelia tubuliflora Sm. Oceania
Trochocarpa R.Br.[46] 1810 StyphelioideaeStyphelieae Trochocarpa laurina (Rudge R.Br.) 10? Australia, Malesia
Andromeda L.[17] 1753 VaccinioideaeAndromedeae Andromeda polifolia L. 1 or 2 Circumboreal
Zenobia D.Don[29] 1834 VaccinioideaeAndromedeae Zenobia speciosa[N 21] (Michx.) D.Don 1 Southeastern United States
Chamaedaphne Moench[73] 1794 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench 1 Circumboreal
Diplycosia Blume[74] 1826 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae None designated[N 22] ca. 110 Southeast Asia
Eubotrys Nutt.[28] 1842 ("1843") VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Eubotrys racemosa (L.) Nutt. 2 Eastern United States
Gaultheria L.[17] 1753 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Gaultheria procumbens L. ca. 115 Circumpacific, Americas
Leucothoe D.Don[29] 1834 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Leucothoe axillaria (Lam.) D.Don 5 United States, East Asia
Pernettya[N 23] Gaudich.[75] 1825 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Pernettya empetrifolia[N 24] (Lam.) Gaudich. Southern America, Oceania
Tepuia Camp[76] 1939 VaccinioideaeGaultherieae Tepuia tatei[N 25] Camp 7 South America
Agarista D.Don ex G.Don[78] 1834 VaccinioideaeLyonieae Agarista nummularia (Cham. & Schltdl.) G.Don ca. 30 Americas, Africa, Madagascar
Craibiodendron W.W.Sm.[79] 1911 VaccinioideaeLyonieae Craibiodendron shanicum[N 26] W.W.Sm. 5 India, China, Indochina
Lyonia Nutt.[24] 1919 VaccinioideaeLyonieae Lyonia ferruginea (Walter) Nutt. 35 United States to Mexico and Caribbeans, East Asia
Pieris D.Don[29] 1834 VaccinioideaeLyonieae Pieris formosa (Wall.) D.Don 7 United States, Cuba, East Asia
Oxydendrum DC.[80] 1839 Vaccinioideae / Oxydandreae Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. 1 United States
Agapetes D.Don ex G.Don[78] 1834 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Agapetes setigera (Wall.) D.Don ex G.Don 80+ Himalaya
Anthopteropsis A.C.Sm.[81] 1941 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Anthopteropsis insignis A.C.Sm. 1 Panama
Anthopterus Hook.[82] 1839 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Anthopterus racemosus Hook. ca. 20 Neotropical
Cavendishia Lindl.[83] 1835 ("1836") VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Cavendishia nobilis Lindl. ca. 100 Neotropical
Ceratostema Juss.[84] 1789 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Ceratostema peruvianum J.F.Gmel. 35 Andes
Costera J.J.Sm.[85] 1910 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Costera ovalifolia J.J.Sm. 10
Demosthenesia A.C.Sm.[86] 1936 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Demosthenesia mandonii (Britton) A.C.Sm. 12 Neotropical
Didonica Luteyn & Wilbur[87] 1977 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Didonica pendula Luteyn & Wilbur 4 Neotropical
Dimorphanthera[N 27] N/A VaccinioideaeVaccinieae None designated 80+ Malesia to Australia
Diogenesia Sleumer[88] 1934 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Diogenesia octandra Sleumer 13 Eastern Venezuela, Northern Andes
Disterigma (Klotzsch) Nied.[89] 1889 ("1890") VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Disterigma empetrifolium (Kunth) Drude ca. 40 Mexico to Northern South America
Gaylussacia Kunth[90] 1819 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Gaylussacia buxifolia Kunth 50 Americas
Gonocalyx Planch. & Linden[91] 1856 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Gonocalyx pulcher Planch. & Linden 11 Southern America
Lateropora A.C.Sm.[92] 1932[N 28] VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Lateropora ovata A.C.Sm. 3
Macleania Hook.[82] 1837 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Macleania floribunda Hook. ca. 50 Southern Mexico to Peru
Mycerinus A.C.Sm.[93] 1931 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Mycerinus sclerophyllus A.C.Sm. 3 Southern America
Notopora Hook.f.[94] 1873 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Notopora schomburgkii[N 29] Hook.f. 5
Oreanthes Benth.[95] 1844 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Oreanthes buxifolius Benth. 7 Neotropical
Orthaea Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Orthaea secundiflora (Poepp. & Endl.) Klotzsch 34 Neotropical
Paphia Seem.[97] 1864 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Paphia vitiensis Seem. 20+ Australasia
Pellegrinia Sleumer[98] 1935 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Pellegrinia grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) Sleumer 6
Plutarchia A.C.Sm.[86] 1936 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Plutarchia rigida (Benth.) A.C.Sm. 11 Ecuador, Colombia
Polyclita A.C.Sm.[86] 1936 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Polyclita turbinata (Kuntze) A.C.Sm. 1
Psammisia Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Psammisia falcata Klotzsch 70 Neotropical
Rusbya Britton[99] 1893 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae None designated[N 30] 1 Bolivia
Satyria Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Satyria warszewiczii Klotzsch
Semiramisia Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Semiramisia speciosa (Benth.) Klotzsch 4 Ecuador, Venezuela to Peru
Siphonandra[N 31] Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Siphonandra elliptica (Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don) Klotzsch 3 Neotropical
Sphyrospermum Poepp. & Endl.[102] 1835 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl. 22 Neotropical
Symphysia C.Presl[103] 1827 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Symphysia martinicensis[N 32] C.Presl
Themistoclesia Klotzsch[96] 1851 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Themistoclesia pendula[N 33] 22 Costa Rica to Peru
Thibaudia Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil.[104][N 34] 1805 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Thibaudia mellifera[N 35] Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil. 60 Neotropical
Utleya Wilbur & Luteyn[87] 1977 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Utleya costaricensis Wilbur & Luteyn 1
Vaccinium L.[17] 1753 VaccinioideaeVaccinieae Vaccinium uliginosum L. 500+ Near cosmopolitan

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c As unnecessary renamings of species described earlier by Linnaeus, these names are illegitimate and treated respectively as Moneses uniflora (L.) A.Gray, Orthilia secunda (L.) House, and Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab.
  2. ^ Small's species, which he originally named Pityopus oregona, was later found to be the same as Alice Eastwood's Monotropa californica. It is now treated as Pityopus californius (Eastw.) H.F.Copel.
  3. ^ Currently treated as a synonym of Comarostaphylis discolor (Hook.) Diggs.
  4. ^ The name is often attributed to David Don.[29] Although no valid species name were published in the two last volumes of Gmelin's work (which did not use the Linnean binomial system), his genera are considered valid.
  5. ^ This species' correct name is Bryanthus musciformis (Poir.) Nakai
  6. ^ Murray et al. (2009)[34] note that there are no recent comprehensive reviews of this genus "where different authors rarely, if ever, arrive at the same conclusion." (Hultén, 1971)[35]
  7. ^ The correct name of the species is Daboecia cantabrica (Huds.) K.Koch
  8. ^ As Befaria. The corrected spelling was later conserved.
  9. ^ John Lindley and Joseph Paxton had originally moved Pallas' Rhododendron camtschaticum to a new genus Rhodothamnus,[41] a name that Reichenbach had already coined for another Ericacea genus.[40] Small elevated Carl Maximowicz' Rhododendron sect. Therorhodion[42] to generic level to replace that name.
  10. ^ Robert Brown's original Needhamia[46] could not be used because Needhamia Scop.,[52] a rejected synonym of Tephrosia (Fabaceae) antedates it.
  11. ^ Endlicher substituted this name (as "Lebethanthus") for his own Allodape,[54] which he considered preoccupied by Allodape Lepeletier & Serville 1825,[55] a genus of bees. Since homonymy with zoological name is irrelevant under the ICN (Art. 54.1), preserving the usage of the later name (with corrected spelling) required its conservation.
  12. ^ Now included within Lebetanthus myrsinites (Lam.) Dusén.
  13. ^ Sometimes misattributed to Labillardière,[56] but that name is a rejected name against Brown's, and a synonym of Craspedia (Asteraceae:Gnaphalieae).
  14. ^ Not "R.Br. ex Sweet" or just "Sweet". Brown's Dracophyllum [unranked] Sphenotoma[46] had no rank attached. Although such names cannot affect priority, they can still serve as basionyms so long as they are validly published (ICBN, art. 35).
  15. ^ Not recorded in ING (Index Nominum Genericorum), but see Paterson (1960)[58]
  16. ^ Not recorded in ING, but see Weiller (1996)[64]
  17. ^ ING and IPNI cite both journals but the issue of the Bulletin was not published before late January 1865.[67]
  18. ^ An illegitimate renaming of Henry Charles Andrews Styphelia parviflora. The correct name is Leucopogon parviflorus (Andrews) Lindl.
  19. ^ Not recorded in APNI or ING, but see Crayn et al. (2003)[70]
  20. ^ This would have to be either Pentachondra involucrata or Pentachondra pumilla.
  21. ^ The genus' sole species is now known as Zenobia pulverulanta (W.Bartram ex Willd.) Pollard
  22. ^ This would be either Diplycosia pilosa, D. heterophylla or D. latifolia (≡D. heterophylla var. latifolia).
  23. ^ Gaudichaud originally spelled the name, which honors Antoine-Joseph Pernety, as "Pernettia". The spelling was later conserved with "y".
  24. ^ The correct name in Pernettya is Pernettya pumila (L.f.) Hook.. Although the species is known to belong in Gaultheria, it currently lacks a name in that genus (Gaultheria pumila Hook. already exists).
  25. ^ Although Tepuia species now belong to Gaultheria, this species currently lacks a valid name in the latter genus because of the existence of Gaultheria tatei A.C.Sm..[77]
  26. ^ Currently treated as a synonym of Craibiodendron stellatum (Pierre) W.W.Sm.
  27. ^ Authorship, date and proper place of publication of this genus are listed in a number of different, contradictory ways.
  28. ^ A printing error misstates the year as "1942".
  29. ^ Hooker also listed the species with the epithet "schomburgkiana".
  30. ^ This would have to be Rusbya taxifolia, as the other of Britton's original species is currently treated as Demosthenesia pearcei (Britton) A.C.Sm. and its designation as lectotype would replace Demosthenesia with Rusbya.
  31. ^ Because the name is preceded by Siphonandra Turcz.,[100] it has been proposed for conservation.[101]
  32. ^ A synonym of Symphysia racemosa (Vahl) Stearn
  33. ^ A synonym for Themistoclesia dependens (Benth.) A.C.Sm.
  34. ^ The fourth and fifth volumes of Ruiz and Pavón's Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis were not published during their time, but the plates that were to illustrate volume 4 were circulated and lead to the publication of some names.[105]
  35. ^ It is not clear whether the correct spelling is "mellifera" or "melliflora".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, P.F. (June 2008). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Version 9". Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Kron, K.A.; et al. (2002). "Phylogenetic Classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and Morphological Evidence". Botanical Review. 68 (3): 335–423. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0335:PCOEMA]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 4354425. 
  3. ^ Stevens, P.F.; et al. (2004). "Ericaceae". In Klaus Kubitzki. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 6. Berlin: Springer. pp. 145–194. ISBN 3-540-06512-1. 
  4. ^ a b c Quinn, Christopher J.; et al. (2005). "Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): the Cyathodes group". Australian Systematic Botany. 18 (5): 439–454. doi:10.1071/SB05005. 
  5. ^ a b c Albrecht, D.E.; et al. (2010). "Generic concepts in Ericaceae: Styphelioideae: the Monotoca group". Australian Systematic Botany. 23 (5): 320–332. doi:10.1071/SB10009. 
  6. ^ Gillespie, Emily; Kron, Kathleen (2010). "Molecular phylogenetic relationships and a revised classification of the subfamily Ericoideae (Ericaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (2): 343–354. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.028. PMID 20193767. 
  7. ^ a b Craven, L.A. (2011). "Diplarche and Menziesia transferred to Rhododendron (Ericaceae)". Blumea. 56 (1): 33–35. doi:10.3767/000651911X568594. 
  8. ^ Powell, E. Ann; Kron, Kathleen A. (2001). "An Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships in the Wintergreen Group (Diplycosia, Gaultheria, Pernettya, Tepuia; Ericaceae)". Systematic Botany. 26 (4): 808–817. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.4.808 (inactive 2018-04-04). JSTOR 3093862. 
  9. ^ Bush, Catherine M.; et al. (2009). "Phylogeny of Gaultherieae (Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae) based on DNA sequence data from matK, ndhF, and nrITS" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 170 (3): 355–364. doi:10.1086/596330. 
  10. ^ Kron, Kathleen A.; Powell, E. Ann; Luteyn, J.L. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationship within the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria". American Journal of Botany. 89 (2): 327–336. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.2.327. JSTOR 4131305. PMID 21669741. 
  11. ^ Oliver, E.G.H. (1996). Nelson, E.C., ed. "The position of Bruckenthalia versus Erica". Yearbook of the Heather Society. 1996: 6. ISSN 0440-5757. 
  12. ^ Kron, Kathleen A.; King, Jennifer M. (1996). "Cladistic Relationships of Kalmia, Leiophyllum, and Loiseleuria (Phyllodoceae, Ericaceae) Based on rbcL and nrITS Data". Systematic Botany. 21 (1): 17–29. doi:10.2307/2419560. JSTOR 2419560. 
  13. ^ de Loureiro, João (1790). Flora Cochinchinensis (in Latin). Lisbon: Typis, et expensis academicis. p. 258. 
  14. ^ Pursh, Frederick (1814). Flora Americae Septentrionalis. 1. London: White, Cochrance, and Co. p. 279. 
  15. ^ Gray, Samuel Frederick (1821). A Natural Arrangement of British Plants. 2. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. p. 396. 
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