List of European tornadoes and tornado outbreaks
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Parent article: List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks
|Freising tornado of 788||31 December 788||Freising, Holy Roman Empire||–||–||Earliest known European tornado.|
|Rosdalla tornado||30 April 1054||Kilbeggan, Ireland||–||–||Recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters, which described a "round tower of fire" (Irish: cloictheach tenedh) that sucked in birds, a greyhound and clothing, and dropped them again.|
|London tornado of 1091||23 October 1091||London , Middlesex, Kingdom of England||1||2||Earliest known and perhaps strongest tornado in the British Isles.|
|Vyšehrad tornado of 1119||30 July 1119||Vyšehrad, Bohemia||–||–||Earliest known and perhaps strongest Czech tornado which destroyed the palace of the Czech duke at Vyšehrad which is now in Prague|
|Czech tornado of 1144||14 May 1144||Bohemia||2||–||Two tornadoes near military camp of duke Oto.|
|Prague tornado of 1255||8 April 1255||Prague, Bohemia||–||–||Tornado at Prague Castle.|
|Russian tornado of 1406||1406||Novgorod, Russia||–||1 fatality known||The first known tornado outbreak in Russia. On damage description, perhaps it was F3 tornado. One fatality documented.|
|Venice tornado||1406||Venice, Italy||–||many fatalities||A strong tornado hit Venice destroying many houses and killing many people|
|Rodenberg tornado||1453||Rodenberg, Germany||–||18||A strong tornado moved through the village killing 18 people|
|Oleśnica tornado||11 September 1535||Oleśnica, Poland||–||5||An F4 tornado destroyed part of the town killing 5 people.|
|Lequile tornado||22 June 1546||Lequile, Italy||–||24||A strong tornado travelled for 3 km (maybe F3/F4) destroying the town, killing many people.|
|Valletta, Malta tornado||23 September 1551 (or 1556)||Malta||–||≈600 fatalities||Perhaps deadliest European tornado.|
|Nottingham tornado||7 July 1558||Nottingham, United Kingdom||–||6||A tornado tracked through the city center|
|Rockhausen tornado||15 July 1582||Rockhausen, Germany||–||–||An F4 tornado destroyed a village completely with nearly all houses and barns; only two houses remained untouched|
|Neznašov, Czech tornado||6 July 1585||Bohemia||–||–|||
|Augsburg, Germany tornado||2 July 1587||Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire||–||–|||
|Roma, Italy tornado||4 December 1645||Rome, Papal States||–||Many fatalities||Probably F4.|
|La Rochelle – Paris, France tornadoes||September 1669||France||–||–||Longest track tornado family in Europe.|
|Cádiz, Spain tornado||March 1671||Cadiz, Andalucia, Spain||–||Many fatalities||Apparent violent Spanish tornado.|
|Utrecht, Netherlands tornado||1 August 1674||Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands||–||–||Destroyed part of the Dom Tower of Utrecht.|
|Veneto tornado||29 July 1686||Terrazzo, Dolo, Italy||–||–||A strong and long track tornado caused extensive damage from Terrazzo to Dolo travelling for 40 miles in 1 hour killing many people and injuring many others.|
|Rome, Italy tornado||12 June 1749||Rome, Papal States||–||2||Destroyed many houses in Rome and Ostia, probably F3 multivortex tornado.|
|Padua, Italy tornado||17 August 1756||Veneto, Italy||–||–||A likely F3 tornado hit the city of Padua, heavily damaging masonry buildings, with leaded roofs thrown several kilometers away.|
|Great Malvern tornado of 1761||14 October 1761||Malvern, Worcestershire, Great Britain||–||–|
|Woldegk, Germany tornado||29 June 1764||Germany||3||1||Small tornado outbreak over Poland and Germany with 1 F5, 1 F3 and 1 F1. The F5 tornado traveled for 35 km with a width of 400-800m and had windspeeds of 279 mph, killing 1 person and injuring 3 people. This is one of the most powerful events to have hit Europe.
Belfast and Carrickfergus, 2 September 1775 (Northern Ireland). A small tornado which damaged structures and lifted people into the air. It also lifted the waters in Larne Lough, hit land on Islandmagee and then disappeared into the North Channel (McSkimin's History of Carrickfergus, 1811)
|Gräfenberg tornado||8 June 1778||Germany||1||7||Powerful tornado struck the town killing 7 people and injuring 10 others.|
|Hainichen, Germany tornado||23 April 1800||Germany||1||0||A violent tornado (F5/T10) caused heavy damage (houses destroyed completely and trees debarked) on a path of 9.5 km in a 50m wide area injuring 5 people.|
|Fernhill Heath tornadoes||22 September 1810||Farnborough, Hampshire, England, UK||–||–||Widest known and perhaps strongest British tornado.|
|Southsea, England tornado||14 December 1810||Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, UK||–||–||Perhaps strongest British tornado.|
|Seine-Maritime, France tornado||19–20 August 1845||France||3||70–200||A small outbreak produced 3 tornadoes in France, the Netherlands and Germany. An F5 (T11) tornado struck Montiville in France killing 70–200 people and injuring 130 on a 15–30 km path. This tornado had winds close to 311 mph.|
|Sicilian tornadoes||December 1851||Sicily, Kingdom of Sicily||2||≈500 fatalities||Among deadliest European tornadoes.|
|Middle Poland||31 May 1866||Jarluty Duże, Humięcino||2||≥7 fatalities, 18 injuries||One of them was the deadliest tornado in Poland.|
|Palazzolo dello Stella tornado||28 July 1867||Palazzolo dello Stella, Italy||1||15||A strong tornado (F3/F4) destroyed the town killing 15 people and injuring about 50 others.|
|Brno, Czech tornado||13 October 1870||Brno, Moravia||–||–||Detailed scientific description by Gregor Mendel.|
|Vienna, Austria tornado||29 June 1873||Vienna, Austria||–||Many fatalities|||
|Catania tornado||7 October 1884||Catania, Italy||–||30||A strong tornado (F3/F4) destroyed many town around Catania, and part of the city. Many building are completely destroyed on 25 km path. 30 people died and about 500 others were injured.|
|Madrid, Spain tornado||12 May 1886||Madrid, Spain||1||47||A powerful F3 tornado struck Madrid. It caused extensive damage to buildings; some of them collapsed killing the occupants, on a 12 km path from Carabanchel to Ciudad Lineal with a width of 1 km. It is the deadliest Spanish tornado of the last two centuries. (Carabanchel)|
|Rhineland tornado||1 July 1891||North Rhineland, Germany||5||3||Tornado outbreak over central Germany. 3 tornadoes are unclassified. 1 was an F0 that travelled 12 km from Beeskow to Müllrose (Brandenburg ), and 1 was a powerful F4 (T9) that brought the total destruction of Anrath, a small village killing 3 people and injuring 100 on a 20 km path. 8 cm hail fell near Anrath before the arrival of the tornado.|
|Novska Tornado||31 May 1892||Croatia, Austria-Hungary||2||1||Strongest known tornado in Croatia. Large multivortex F4 twin-tornado struck the southern part of Novska village and nearby woods. 1 death occurred, 3 people were heavily injured, and many had minor injuries. At least 150 000 trees were destroyed in its path. A train was derailed, one train wagon (14 t) was lifted at least 6 m in the air and thrown 30 meters onto a field. Average width of the tornado was 800 m, with the maximum width exceeding 1.2 km. Hail size from this tornadic supercell was 8 cm.|
|Badalona tornado||15 June 1892||Badalona, Catalonia, Spain||1||3 fatalities||"La Vanguardia" – newspaper|
|Paris Tornado||10 September 1896||Paris, France||1||5||The Paris tornado of 10 September 1896 is the only documented case of a tornado forming and dissipating within an urban area in France.|
|Central Germany||18 March 1897||Germany||5||4||A tornado outbreak produced 5 tornadoes over central Germany. The first tornado hit Gelsenkirchen in contemporary with a strong tornado that destroyed a factory and some houses killing 3 people and injuring 4. An F3 (T6) tornado struck Kirberg and other villages on a 40 km path killing 1 person. Two other tornadoes struck Stelzen (Thüringen) and Fürth am Berg (Bayern).|
|Oria tornado||21 September 1897||Oria, Apulia, Italy||1||55||A strong F4 tornado struck the villages of Sava and Oria killing 55 people on a 37 km path and a width of 400-800m. Some houses were destroyed and other buildings were severely damaged.|
|Koln tornado||7 August 1898||Cologne, Germany||1||3||A violent tornado struck the city of Cologne. The storm began 3 km from the city center, in Zollstock accompanied by hail of 5 cm. The tornado caused heavy damage and was classified as F4 (T8). The storm ended just northwest of Wipperfürth after it had traveled for 38 km and after killing 3 people and wounding about 100.|
|Javaugues, France tornado||2 June 1902||France||1||1 fatality||An F3 tornado struck Javaugues and other villages along its 7 km path. With a width of 3 km this is the widest documented tornado that has hit the continent.|
|1904 Moscow tornado||29 June 1904||Moscow, Russia||1||9 fatalities||An F4 (T9) tornado struck the eastern part of Moscow causing severe damages along its 42 km path in a densely populated area and with a width of 400-700m. It killed 9 people and wounded 93.|
|1906 Opladen tornado||14 August 1906||Opladen, Germany||1||1 fatality||An F3 (T7) tornado struck several villages along its 15 km path killing 1 person and injuring 25 others.|
|1910 Tornado Outbreak||11 May 1910||Germany, Czech Republic and Austria||10||1 injured||Tornado outbreak over Central Europe. 1 F3 tornado in Czech Republic struck Klatovy and other villages over a 13 km path with a base of 1 km.|
|1910 Lower Saxony tornadoes||4 June 1910||Lower Saxony, Germany||2||/||1 F3 tornado and 1 F4 tornado struck Bad Zwischenahn and Ostrhauderfehn.|
|1910 Germany Tornadoes||22 July 1910||Germany||12||/||Tornado outbreaks over Germany, with 12 tornadoes, causing severe damage. 1 F3 (T7) tornado struck Platten (Rhineland-Palatinate). Several other tornadoes produced F2-F3 damage with paths of 10–30 km.|
|1910 Lombardy tornado||23 July 1910||Lombardy, Italy||1||36 fatalities||A violent long-track tornado caused severe damage along a 62 km path N of Milan, in Lombardy, North Italy. The tornado completely destroyed many homes in Busto Arsizio, Solaro, and Saronno killing 36 people and injuring another 50, becoming one of the most destructive Italian tornadoes.|
|1912 Breţcu tornado||13 May 1912||Breţcu, Romania||1||17 fatalities||A violent F3 tornado struck the town of Breţcu destroying 1,548 houses and killing 17 people and injuring another 150.|
|1913 Plochingen tornado||1 June 1913||Plochingen, Germany||3||40 injuries||A violent F3 tornado struck Echterdingen and Plochingen traveling for 20 km injuring 40 people. On the same day 2 other tornadoes touched down in Germany, 1 F1 in Nürtingen and 1 in the Taunus region.|
|Barry – Chester, Wales – England tornado||27 October 1913||United Kingdom||–||Several fatalities||Possibly deadliest British tornadic supercell.|
|Itzgrund, Germany tornado||3 January 1916||Itzgrund, Bavaria-Germany||2||1||A long-track F3 tornado struck the cities of Itzgrund and Grafenwöhr traveling for 85 km killing 1 person and injuring another one. On the same day an F2 tornado struck Greiz.|
|Wiener Neustadt, Austria tornado||10 July 1916||Wiener Neustadt, Vienna, Austria||3||35 fatalities, 328 injured||This F4 tornado was the deadliest and strongest tornado in Austria. More than 150 homes were destroyed on a 20 km path. 2 other tornadoes were confirmed on this day: 1 F2 in Theresienfeld (Austria) and 1 F3 (T6) tornado in Saxony (Germany)|
|Germany tornado outbreak||28–30 June 1920||Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt||9||3 injured||Small outbreak over the northern part of Germany with 1 F3 tornado that struck Bargteheide, 5 F2 tornadoes that caused 3 injuries and 3 F1 tornadoes.|
|Southern Netherlands tornado outbreak||26 April 1924||Netherlands||≥3||–|||
|Pilisvörösvár, Hungary tornado||13 June 1924||Hungary||1||6 fatalities and 33 injured||A strong F4 long-track tornado killed 6 people near Budapest. The storm traveled for 65 km with a large base, up to 1/2 km. Several villages were razed to the ground and an F5 intensity was suspected but according to windspeed it should be an F4.|
|Nice, France tornado||1 December 1924||France||1||30 injured||An F3 tornado struck the city of Nice damaging the city for 4.5 km in a 100m wide area. 30 people were injured by the storm.|
|Netherlands tornado outbreak||10–12 August 1925||Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic||5||4 fatalities||A powerful tornado struck the town of Borculo with several houses destroyed nearly to its foundation walls (F4 or T9) and also the church was seriously damaged. Another tornado (F3 or T6) killed 1 in Germany in Uetersen injuring another 13.|
|Lichtenvoorde – Neede – Tubbergen, Netherlands tornado||1–2 June 1927||Netherlands/Germany||7||8 fatalities||Strong tornadoes over Netherlands and Germany, with 1 tornado near the F5 category in Neede that killed 7 people and another one near Vrees in Germany were 10 people were injured by an F4 (T9) tornado. A strong F3 tornado struck Schepsdorf and Lingen causing severe damage along a 6 km path, killing 1 person and injuring 17.|
|Asipovichy tornado||12 June 1927||Belarus||1||1 fatality||At 17.30 local time an F3 tornado crossed the territory of the Staryya Darohi and Asipovichy districts. The tornado destroyed some residential and outbuildings, crops and left a 250–300 m wide сlearing in the forest. One farmer, who was driving a dray, was picked up into the air along with his horse and load of logs and chips and thrown away to a distance. He died two hours later. The tornado threw off a loaded train from the trackbed embankment on the construction site of the Asipovichy-Mahilyow railway line. The observers noted the rotation of the parent cloud. The phenomenon was accompanied by a thunderstorm and torrential rain. The tornado travelled the path of 37 km with a capture width between 100 and 200 m.|
|Austria tornado outbreak||29 September 1927||Austria||3||1 fatality||2 F3 tornadoes caused extensive damage in Sankt Ruprecht an der Raab and Unterrohr. The first tornado destroyed several homes, some also with ground floor walls having collapsed, injuring 10 people over a 20 km path with a width of 1 km. An F1 tornado struck Hirnsdorf damaging some trees and roofs. The third tornado struck Unterrohr and other towns over a 15 km path killing a 14-year-old boy lifted and thrown down and hit by roof tiles.|
|Monza tornado||29 August 1928||Monza, Italy||1||8||Strong tornado struck the city of Monza killing 8 people and injuring about 60 others.|
|Montello, Italy tornado||24 July 1930||Montello, Veneto, and Friuli in Italy||–||23 fatalities||This is the strongest tornado in Europe together with the 1845 Montville tornado in France which was very similar in power. The storm possibly crossed almost the entire province of Treviso even going so far in the province of Pordenone with a total path of about 80 km. The event lasted a total of 84 minutes, but perhaps this was not the only event of the day. The storm arrived to unleash winds near 500 km/h (F5 tornado) and killed 23 people.|
|Naples tornado||16 August 1930||Naples, Italy||–||4||Strong tornado struck Naples causing severe damage, 4 death and injuring 70 people on 4 km path.|
|Birmingham Tornado||14 June 1931||United Kingdom||1||1 fatality||A strong F3 tornado struck the suburbs of Birmingham killing 1 woman and injuring many other people.|
|Plettenberg, Germany Tornado||17 June 1931||Germany||2||4 fatalities||A tornado damaged the town of Willertshagen and Plettenberg in North Rhine-Westphalia. 4 people were killed and 80 others were injured.|
|Lublin tornado||20 July 1931||Poland||–||3 fatalities||A strong F4 (maybe a low F5) struck Lublin and Zemborzyce killing 3 people and injuring many others along a 20 km path.|
|Nurmijärvi – Konginkangas||4 August 1932||Finland||6||1 fatality||6 tornadoes (one F3) tracked 20 km.|
|Kiuruvesi||11–15 July 1934||Finland||8||1 fatality||F4 tornado, strongest one in Finland.|
|Kyrenia Tornado||17 October 1934||Cyprus||1||3 fatalities||A strong tornado (maybe an F2-F3) struck the city of Kyrenia causing the collapse of the church tower and the roof of a school killing 3 children.|
|Düsseldorf,Germany Tornado||10 January 1936||Germany||2||2 fatalities||An F4 (T8) tornado damaged Düsseldorf causing extensive damage, 2 fatalities and 37 injuries along a 10 km path. On the same day an F3 (T6) tornado struck Hamm (Sieg).|
|Wiepkenhagen, Germany Tornado||15 July 1936||Germany||2||–||A violent tornado struck Wiepkenhagen (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) causing severe damage like an F4 tornado.|
|Mottola, Italy Tornado||13 September 1937||Apulia – Italy||1||10 injured||A long-track F3 tornado caused severe damage to the town of Mottola, Martina Franca and in the Monopoli area traveling for 43 km with severe damage to homes and trees. 10 people were injured.|
|Nienhagen, Germany Tornado||8 July 1938||Germany||1||–||A long-track F2 tornado caused damage to Nienhagen, Lower Saxony up to Uelzen traveling for 75 km.|
|Bavaria, Germany Tornadoes||22 July 1948||Germany||3||5 fatalities||3 tornadoes were confirmed. A strong tornado hit Nürnberg city area destroying 40 homes, killing 4 people and injuring 11 others. Another strong tornado caused damage from Auerbach up to Grafenwöhr killing a 12-year-old boy by falling debris.|
|Buckinghamshire – Cambridgeshire, England tornadoes||21 May 1950||United Kingdom||4||–||An F2 (T5) tornado crossed Britain for 107 km (one of the longest-lived tornadoes in Europe) from Little London (Buckinghamshire) to Coveney (Cambridgeshire). Three other F1 tornadoes were documented on the same day.|
|Veluwe, Gelderland – Haulerwijk, Friesland, Netherlands tornadoes||23 August 1950||Gelderland – Friesland, Netherlands||4||–||Strongest recorded tornado in Netherlands, T10 (F5) damage in 50 kilometre long path in Veluwe forest.|
|Osterholz-Scharmbeck, Germany tornado||11 July 1951||Lower Saxony, Germany||2||–||A strong tornado (F3 or T7) caused severe damage for 52 km path from Hude to Gnarrenburg in Lower Saxony.|
|Turin, Piemonte tornado||29 May 1953||Turin, Italy||1||5 fatalities||A strong F1 tornado struck the centre of Turin, causing considerable damage and the collapse of part of the roof of the Mole. 5 people died in the storm.|
|Castelo Branco, Portugal tornado||6 November 1954||Portugal||1||5 fatalities, 220 injuries||A Strong F3 (T7) tornado struck the town of Castelo Branco causing extreme damage to the city, killing 5 people and injuring 220 others.|
|United Kingdom tornado Outbreak||8 December 1954||United Kingdom||7||–||6 tornadoes were confirmed that day over England and in particular over the western parts of the Greater London area where 3 tornadoes (1 of them caused F3 (T7) damage from Gunnersbury to Southgate) were confirmed. In total there was 1 F3 tornado, 4 F1 tornadoes and 2 F0 tornadoes.|
|Naro-Fominsk, Russia Tornado||25 August 1956||Naro-Fominsk-Russia||1||–||A long-track F2 tornado caused severe damage on an 80 km path in a 200-350m wide area.|
|Robecco Pavese tornado||16 June 1957||Robecco Pavese, Italy||1||7 fatalities, 80 injuries||A violent tornado struck the villages of Argine, Robecco Pavese and Vallescuropasso causing severe damage. The tornado was an F4 (T9) tornado, but at some point it made T10 damage. 7 people died and about 80 were injured on a 10 km path. This is the second most violent tornado ever to hit the country.|
|Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto tornado||15–16 May 1958||Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto in Poland||2||3 fatalities, >100 injuries|||
|Rzeszów, Poland tornado||20 May 1960||Poland and Ukraine||8||5 fatalities||Tornado outbreak over south Poland and north Ukraine with 8 tornadoes. 1 was an F4/F5 tornado that struck the town of Niechobrz causing the total destruction of some houses and killing 3 people. Another 2 victims were recorded in Dynów and Gorliczyna.|
|United Kingdom tornado Outbreak||26–27 August 1960||United Kingdom||13||–||A light tornado outbreak over the south part of England with 13 tornadoes over a 2-day period. Most of them were at F0/F1 strength. The strongest tornadoes (F1 or T3) struck Hornchurch, (Greater London) and Poulton, Gloucestershire|
|Évreux,France Tornadoes||4 May 1961||France||2||1 fatality and 100 injured||Two powerful F3 tornadoes struck Évreux and Cormeilles. In the city of Évreux 1 person died and 100 others were injured.|
|Bavaria,Germany Tornadoes||14 May 1961||Germany||2||5 injured||A strong F3 tornado struck Gangkofen and Wurmannsquick traveling for 22 km and injuring 5 people. A second tornado struck Mitterskirchen and Hirschhorn traveling for 30 km and producing F2 (T5) damage. Both tornadoes caused extensive damage.|
|Central Europe Tornado Outbreak||8 August 1961||Germany and Austria||7||1 fatality||All the tornadoes were classified as F1 (T2/T3). They caused severe damage near Hamburg, while an F1 tornado struck Innsbruck producing large hail and killing 1 person.|
|Pomezia tornado||30 October 1961||Pomezia , Italy||1||3||AN F3 tornado travelled 20 km on land near Rome. 25 houses in wood and bricks completely destroyed; six factories strongly damaged; some concrete houses completely destroyed. 3 people died and 60 were injured.|
|Holstebro,Denmark tornado||11 February 1962||Denmark||1||–||A powerful F3/T7 tornado struck Holstebro in Denmark causing devastating damage. More than 100 houses badly damaged or destroyed making this event the most devastating tornado in Denmark's history. Maybe the tornado was a low F4.|
|Kirovo-Chepetsk,Russia tornado||20 May 1964||Russia||1||–||A long-track tornado struck the Kirov Oblast and Udmurtia travelling for 175 km from Kirovo-Chepetsk to Glazov. It was classified as an F2 tornado.|
|Lower Saxony, Germany tornadoes||15–16 September 1964||Germany||3||–||3 EF3 tornadoes struck several villages in Lower Saxony. The first, an F3 (T7) tornado, struck on the 15th killing 1 person and injuring 20 others on a 20 km path from the town of Minden to Stadthagen. The other 2 tornadoes struck Mellendorf and Schessinghausen.}|
|Parma, Italy tornado||4 July 1965||Italy||≥1||9 fatalities||A strong tornado struck the province of Parma causing severe damage and 9 fatalities over a 22 km path. Maybe this tornado was a strong F3. On this day several more tornadoes were produced over the Po Valley.|
|Western Europe tornado outbreaks of 1967||24–25 June 1967||France – Netherlands – Belgium||8||15 fatalities, 112 injured||Violent tornado outbreak with 8 tornadoes that swept over France (5) Belgium (1) and the Netherlands (2). In France a category F5 tornado destroyed the town of Palluel killing 6 people. Shortly after an F4 destroyed Pommereuil killing 2 other people. Both tornadoes traveled for 23 km. In the Netherlands 2 F3 tornadoes caused the deaths of seven people, one of these reached F3 (T7) strength. In total there were 2 F2, 4 F3, 1 F4 and 1 F5 tornadoes.|
|German Black Forest tornado||10 July 1968||Germany||2||2 fatalities||A long-track F3 tornado struck Uberach and other villages in France, in Alsace region, causing 3 injuries. The same supercell produced the powerful F4 (T8) tornado that struck Ittersbach and Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg) killing 2 people and injuring 300 others.|
|Catania, Italy tornado||31 October 1968||Sicily-Italy||1||2 fatalities||A powerful tornado hit the Piana di Catania along a path of 16 km killing 2 people and injuring 100 others.|
|Belarus Tornado Outbreak||31 May 1969||Belarus||4||–||A powerful tornado outbreak produced 3 F2 and 1 F1 tornadoes across Belarus. The strongest one struck Svetlahorsk (Gomel Region).|
|Nicosia, Cyprus tornadoes||22 December 1969||Cyprus||Several||4 fatalities||Waterspouts (probably tornadic) came ashore.|
|Russia Tornado Outbreak||6 July 1970||Russia||6||–||6 F1 long-track tornadoes struck the area 400 km S of Moscow. 1 of them had a path length of 100 km.|
|Venice and Padua, Italy tornado outbreak||11 September 1970||Veneto, Italy||1||36 fatalities||A violent tornado invests the outskirts of Padua and Venice causing heavy damage and killing 36 people. 21 of the victims were on a ferry on the island of St. Helena when the tornado hit. 12 people died in a campsite in Ca'Savio, where some cars were found more than 200 meters away. The category F4 tornado traveled 70 km.|
|La Rochelle, France tornado||25 January 1971||France||1||1 fatality||An F4 tornado struck La Rochelle traveling for 2.9 km causing severe damage in a 50m wide area. 1 person died and another 12 were injured.|
|L'Abbaye, Switzerland tornado||18 October 1971||Switzerland||1||–||A powerful F4 tornado struck Bois d'Amont and L'Abbaye causing severe damage to houses, cars and completely destroying sections of forests. The path of the storm is similar to the path of the 1890 F4 tornado.|
|Kiel, Germany tornado||18 October 1971||Germany||1||1 fatality||An F3/T7 tornado struck Kiel killing 1 person and injuring 13 others.|
|Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado||11 August 1972||Friesland, Netherlands||–||7 fatalities, 90 injuries|||
|Northern France tornado Outbreak||20 September 1973||France||3||2 fatalities||3 F3 tornadoes struck Fleury-les-Aubray, Sancy-les-Provins and Grainville-Langannerie killing 2 people and injuring 14 others.|
|Christ's Ascension Day outbreak||24 May 1979||Germany||6||3 injured||A major outbreak struck parts of Eastern Germany with one violent F4 tornado near Bad Liebenwerda (Brandenburg) where harvesters were sent flying.|
|Ukraine tornado outbreak||2 June 1980||Ukraine||4||–||4 tornadoes were confirmed. 3 of them were of F2 strength, while the first tornado was an F1.|
|Mid June outbreak||14–15 June 1980||Central Germany||7||8 fatalities, at least 11 injuries (serious)||Some tornadoes struck the Central German states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. A camp site was severely damaged with some fatalities. The tornadoes were classified as F1-F2 strength.|
|1981 Lithuania tornado||29 May 1981||Eastern Lithuania||–||–||An F2 tornado travelled for 6 km with a path 100-300m wide. This was the strongest known tornado that hit the country.|
|Moerdijk, Netherlands tornado||6 October 1981||North Brabant, Netherlands||–||17 fatalities||NLM CityHopper Flight 431 encountered tornado shortly after takeoff and crashed.|
|1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak||23 November 1981||United Kingdom||104||0 fatalities||Largest known European outbreak though predominately weak tornadoes.
|Levier, France tornado||2 June 1982||France||1||–||A powerful F4 tornado struck Levier causing severe damage along a 3 km path.|
|France and Belgium tornadoes||20 September 1982||France and Belgium||3||7 injured||3 tornadoes were confirmed, 1 F2 and the others 2 were classified as F3 strength. A strong F3 (T7) tornado struck Belgium injuring 3 people on a 31 km path. Possibly the strongest tornado event in Belgium.|
|1984 Ivanovo-Yaroslavl tornado outbreak||9 June 1984||Western Russia||22||>400 fatalities, 213 injured|| The most deadly tornado outbreak in Russia(USSR). At least one F5, one F4, and one F3 were in the outbreak that damaged 36 cities and villages, including Tver and Kostroma, in a wide area north of Moscow. Almost three F2 tornadoes was fixed over no-population areas.
|Shel'vov||20 July 1987||Ukraine||1||–||F4 tornado that destroyed the town of Shel'vov.|
|Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado||17 August 1992||Friesland, Netherlands||–||1 fatality|||
|Sigüenza, Spain tornado||24 May 1993||Sigüenza, Spain||–||–||F2 damage in a path across the town.|
|Spijkenisse, South-Holland||7 June 1997||Netherlands||–||F1 damage on houses, and trees ripped out of the ground.|
|Mikkeli, Rantakylä||12 June 1998||Finland||–||F3 (track 10 km) destroyed some airport facilities.|
|San Leonardo de Yagüe, Spain tornado||1 June 1999||Spain||–||–||F3 damage and thousands of trees uprooted in a forest near Soria, Spain.|
|Gudar Range, Spain tornado||28 August 1999||Sistema Ibérico, Spain||1+||–||F3 tornado in mountainous terrain.|
|Rakvere, Estonia tornado||15 July 2000||Rakvere, Estonia||1||1||Destroyed 110 homes, 1 was killed.|
|Concorezzo tornado||7 July 2001||Concorezzo, Italy||3||92 injuries||A strong F3 tornado struck Concorezzo and Arcore causing severe damage and 92 injuries. 2 other tornadoes (F1 and F2) were recorded on the same day in northern Italy.|
|Tornado outbreak in the north-east of Catalonia and Southern France||20 October 2001||Catalonia and Languedoc-Roussillon||6||–||3 EF1 tornadoes and 1 EF0 in Spain; 1 EF3, 1 EF2 and 1 EF0/EF1 in France.|
|Athens, Greece tornado||27 July 2002||Athens, Greece||–||–||Struck near airport.|
|Romania tornado||12 August 2002||Southeastern Romania||2||3 fatalities||A strong EF3+ tornado struck several villages in southern Romania. 33 houses were destroyed on a 74 km path. The storm killed 3 people and injured 15 others. Another tornado struck near Floreasca.|
|Cyprus tornadoes||27 January 2003||Southern Cyprus||4||1 fatality||Tornadoes and waterspouts; Limassol worst hit with a T4-T5 tornado.|
|Tornado outbreak in Catalonia, Spain||17 August 2003||Catalonia, Spain||3||–||1 EF2 tornado (180 km/h in la Culla – Manresa), 1 EF1 tornado and 1 EF0 tornado. Some downbursts were detected in Osona and Baix Camp.|
|Cyprus tornado outbreak||22 January 2004||Cyprus||7+||Multiple injuries||Severe weather outbreak with several T3-T4 tornadoes and waterspouts.|
|Late June outbreak||23 June 2004||Northern and Eastern Germany||4||8 injuries||At least one F1, an F2, and an F3 tornado caused significant damage. The villages of Micheln and Trebbichau in Saxony-Anhalt were heavily impacted by one of the most damaging tornadoes in modern German history.|
|Kontiolahti, Viinijärvi tornadoes||20 August 2004||Finland||3||–||An F2 (track 10 km) and 2 F1 tornadoes were reported.|
|Romania tornado outbreak||7 May 2005||Romania||9||–||9 tornadoes over Romania. One of them struck Movilita causing damage like an F1 tornado on a path of 1 km.|
|Hajdúbagos-Hosszúpályi tornado||18 May 2005||Hungary||1||–||A registered F2 tornado hit two villages near Debrecen. The tornado touched down in the eastern part of Hajdúbagos and followed an approx. 10 km path through Hosszúpályi. 80% of forests in the Hajdúság Landscape-protection Area between the two villages were completely destroyed and several houses got damaged.|
|Garderen tornado||27 July 2005||Garderen, Netherlands||1||–||T4 tornado damaging mainly woods, also some damage to property.|
|2005 Birmingham tornado||28 July 2005||Birmingham, United Kingdom||3||39 injured||An F2 tornado struck the centre of Birmingham causing 39 injuries and severe damage. On the same day 2 F0 tornadoes struck Peterborough and Moulton causing little damage to trees and roofs.|
|Central Europe tornado outbreak||29 July 2005||Germany, Czech Republic||8||2 injuries||8 tornadoes were spotted on the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. 6 were classified as F2 (the strongest as F2 or T5) and 2 as F1 (T3). A T5 tornado struck Johanngeorgenstadt and other villages on a 10 km path causing 2 injuries. Another F2 (T5) tornado struck the Czech Republic, traveling for 21 km with a width of 1 km. Strong downbursts were also recorded causing serious damage and more injuries.|
|Tornado outbreak in Catalonia, Spain||7 and 8 September 2005||Catalonia, Spain||5||–||1 EF2 tornado, 3 EF1 tornadoes, 1 EF0 tornado and more than 10 waterspouts in 24 hours|
|Hamburg, Germany tornado outbreak||27 March 2006||Germany||8||2 fatalities, 2 injuries||8 tornadoes were spotted, two of which were category F2. One of them struck Hamburg causing 2 deaths and 2 injuries on a 7 km path. The other tornadoes were F1.|
|Central Europe tornado outbreak||20–21 May 2006||Germany, Poland, Czech Republic and Netherlands||16||0||The outbreak struck the central part of Europe, in particular the central region of Germany, with 16 tornadoes across the region. 5 were F2, 10 F1 and 1 F0. The most powerful hit Westerwiehe (F2 T5); however, the longest path was of an F1 that lasted for 23 km.|
|Noordwijkerhout tornado||21 May 2006||Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands||1||–||T3-T4 tornado causing damage to crops and buildings.|
|August 2006 UK tornado outbreaks||16–18 August 2006||United Kingdom||–||8 injuries||At least 4 tornadoes.|
|August 2006 Mainland Europe outbreak||21 August 2006||Western Europe||–||38 injuries||At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, a further 4 unconfirmed.|
|Tornado outbreak in Tarragona and Barcelona coast||13 September 2006||Catalonia, Spain||4||–||3 EF1 tornadoes, 1 EF0 tornado and more than 5 waterspouts in 24 hours.|
|2006 London tornado||7 December 2006||London, England, UK||1||6 injuries|
|Cyclone Kyrill tornado outbreak||17/18 January 2007||Eastern Germany||10||5||The first tornado was an F0 (T1) in the Netherlands on the 17th. On the 18th 9 tornadoes were reported, one in Sweden, 4 in Germany, 1 in the Czech Republic and 3 in Poland. The 4 tornadoes in Germany were 1 F2 (T5), 2 F3 (T6) and 1 F3 (T7) (the F3 tornadoes caused the 5 injuries), the last one with a path of 34 km. The other tornadoes were 3 F2 and 1 F1 tornadoes.|
|Guidizzolo tornado||9 July 2007||North Italy –||3||12 injuries||3 tornadoes formed over Veneto, Lombardia and Piemonte. In Piemonte a landspout tornado occurred near Vercelli. In Lombardia, a strong F2 (T5) struck the village of Guidizzolo causing severe damages on a 12 km path. In Veneto an F1 (T3) struck Farra D'Alpago causing some damage to roofs.|
|Central England tornado outbreak||23 September 2007||Central England||6||–||At least 6 tornadoes reported in Warwickshire, Northamptonshire and West Midlands. 4 of them were F1 tornadoes.|
|Salboro (Padua) tornado||6 July 2008||Padua, Veneto, Italy||1 F0||–||A small tornado that hit an urban area.|
|2008 Hautmont tornado||3 August 2008||Hautmont, France||–||4 fatalities, 13 injuries||Same outbreak as below; F4 damaged several villages.|
|Northern Netherlands tornado outbreak||3 August 2008||Friesland, Groningen, Netherlands||2 confirmed, 4 reported||–||Same outbreak as above; T3-T4 tornadoes caused damage to property.|
|2008 Poland tornado outbreak||15–16 August 2008||Mykanów, Poland||12||4 fatalities||12 were reported. One of them struck Balcarzowice causing F3 (T7) damage and 15 injuries. One person was killed in Kalina by an F3 tornado. Another one was killed in Garzkowice and two other people were killed in Slovakia because of a severe downburst. In total 4 people were killed and about 100 were injured in the outbreak.|
|Málaga Tornado||1 February 2009||Málaga, Spain||2||30 injuries||An F2 (T4) tornado travelled in the city center of Málaga for 2 km injuring 25 people. Another tornado injured 5 people in Estepona.|
|North Italy outbreak||6 June 2009||Piemonte and Veneto, Italy||3||28 injuries||An F0 tornado was reported near Vercelli, Piemonte in the afternoon. At the same time, a supercell produced a strong F3 tornado in Riese Pio X, in the village of Vallà causing heavy damage, in some parts like an F3/F4 (T7/T8) tornado. It travelled for 10.6 km and injured 28 people. The last tornado hit Valvasone, in Friuli damaging some buildings, cars, trucks and woods causing damage like an F2 (T5) tornado on a 10.5 km path.|
|Nicosia tornado||19 September 2009||Nicosia, Cyprus||–||17+ injuries||10 homes with serious damage.|
|Chalkidiki, Greece tornado||12 February 2010||Northern Greece||–||–||F2/T3-T4 tornado.|
|Whit Monday outbreak||24 May 2010||Eastern Germany||4 confirmed||1 fatality, 38 injuries||An F1, an F2 and an F2+ (possibly F3) caused massive destruction in the States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg which caused at least €250 million in damages and one fatality.|
|Lichtenvoorde – Vragender – Winterswijk, Netherlands||12 July 2010||Netherlands||1||6 injuries||Tornado destroyed church tower in Vragender and Zwarte Cross Festival area in Lichtenvoorde. Damage was T5-T7, uncertainty about nature of winds, some sources cite a strong derecho as cause of damage.|
|Veneto tornado outbreak||23 July 2010||Veneto, Italy||3||1 fatality, some injuries||3 tornadoes hit near the cities of Venice, Padua and Vicenza; strong thunderstorms, with downbursts, in other places (a man killed near Verona).|
|Hungary tornado outbreak||16 August 2010||Hungary||3 confirmed||–||3 tornadoes, 2 of them likely F2; villages where tornadoes were reported: Diósjenő, Mezőkövesd, Felsőtárkány|
|Lumda – Neppermin, Germany||23 August 2010||Germany||5 confirmed||–||F3 tornado in Lumda & F2 tornado in Neppermin caused damages of about €5 million.|
|Portugal||7 December 2010||Portugal||–||0 fatalities, >40 injuries||Long track, long-lived F3 tornado caused significant damage northeast of Lisbon.|
|Northern Sweden tornado outbreak||4 June 2011||Northern Sweden||–||At least 3 injuries||Several tornadoes reported in the provinces of Ångermanland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten in northern Sweden.|
|2011 Lithuania tornado||27 July 2011||Northern Lithuania||1 confirmed||–||F2 tornado formed near Radviliškis town. Strongest since 1981|
|Sachsen – Anhalt, Germany||11 September 2011||Germany||2||–||2 F1 tornadoes confirmed.|
|England and Wales tornadoes||29 November 2011||England and Wales, UK||1 F0, 2 F1 tornadoes||1 injured||One tornado in Greater Manchester, England and another in Anglesey, Wales. Later that day, a F1 tornado struck north of Breighton.|
|Vierlingsbeek/Overloon Tornado||10 May 2012||Netherlands||F0 T1||No casualties reported||Tornado (partly rainwrapped, probably multi-vortex) damage to property and crops.|
|Venice tornado||12 June 2012||Veneto, Italy||Likely an F2 tornado||No casualties reported||A tornado hit the eastern isles of Venice, notably Lido, Sant'Elena and Sant'Erasmo, and the nearby town of Treporti, with damage to houses, boats, cars/lorries and trees.|
|French tornado||7 July 2012||France||4||–||Tornadoes reported in France, 2 of which were F0 and 2 of which were F1.|
|Northern Poland tornado outbreak||14 July 2012||Poland||–||1 fatality, 10 injuries||Tornadoes hit northern Poland. Severe damages to houses and infrastructure. 400 ha of forests was destroyed. Two F3/T6 tornadoes are confirmed.
|Gandia tornado||28 September 2012||Spain||1||35 injuries||An F1 (T3) tornado hit a fairground and flattened a Ferris wheel.
|Algarve tornadoes||16 November 2012||Algarve in Portugal||F2/T5 tornado plus an F0||1 fatality, 13 injuries||Two tornadoes hit the coast of the Algarve about 10 km from one another. The strongest of the two hit Silves and Lagoa and was classified by the Portuguese national weather service as F2/T5. The weakest, almost certainly an F0, hit Alvor.
|Taranto tornado||27–29 November 2012||Italy Greece||6||1 fatality, 42 injuries||A tornado struck on the 27th at Rosignano Marittimo causing damage like an F1 (T3). On the 28th a huge wedge F3 tornado struck Taranto, Statte and Crispiano with a path of 23 km causing 1 fatality and 42 injuries, and serious damage to ILVA of Taranto. On the 29th 4 tornadoes struck Greece, one of these causing F2 damage and the other like an F1 (T2/T3).
|Emilia tornado outbreak||3 May 2013||Italy||3||13 injuries||3 tornadoes were reported. The first touched down near Modena and hit Castelfranco Emilia causing F2-F3 damage. It travelled for 18.8 km. The second tornado hit the village of San Martino Spino, near Mirandola (the same region hit by the Emilia earthquakes of 2012) causing damages like an F2 and 1 injury. The last tornado hit Argelato, San Giorgio in Piano and Bentivoglio near Bologna causing F3 (T6/T7) damage on a 25 km path and injuring 12 people.
|South Europe outbreak||28–29 July 2013||France, Germany and Italy||6||15 injuries||On 28th 2 tornadoes struck France and Germany, the first one injured 1 person and was classified as an F2. On 29th 4 tornadoes struck North Italy one of which cause strong F2 damage in Grezzago and Trezzo sull'Adda, causing €15.000.000 in damage and 12 injuries.
|Pommertsweiler tornado||18–19 Aug 2013||Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and Norway||5||27 injuries||Some F0 tornadoes over Belgium, 1 F1 (T2) in Norway and an F2 (T4) tornado in Germany on the 19th, which injured 27 people in a campsite.
|North France outbreak||25 January 2014||United Kingdom, France and Belgium||12||3 injuries||10 F1 tornadoes and 1 F2 tornado were confirmed on that day across the United Kingdom (7), France (3) and Belgium (2). A strong F1 struck the city of Nuneaton seriously damaging 5 houses, then an F2 (T4) tornado struck the cities of Reke, Halluin and Rekkem, with a path of 12.8 km, injuring 3 people and damaging several buildings.
|Nonantola tornado||30 Apr 2014||Italy||1||5 injuries||1 tornado was confirmed near Modena and two funnel clouds were reported, one of which probably touched the ground near Minerbio, the same region hit by the tornadoes of 2013. The tornado that hit Nonantola was a likely an F2, maybe a category T5 that travelled for 14 km and injured 5 people in the industrial area.
|North France tornado outbreak||10 August 2014||United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany||16||5 injuries||16 tornadoes struck France, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, and Germany. A long track tornado struck Achicourt in France, travelling 43 km while 2 F2 tornadoes struck Netherlands and Germany, causing serious damage. There were 5 injuries in total, 4 in Belgium and one in United Kingdom.
|Kariyevo tornado||29 August 2014||Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan||1||2||A wedge F3 tornado struck Kariyevo and Janaul with a total path of 45 km. The storm killed 2 people and injured about 50.
|Catania tornado||5 November 2014||Italy, Sicily||2||0||A strong F1 tornado struck Ognina (northern area of Catania) causing severe damage. Another strong F1 tornado struck the centre of Acireale approximately one hour later.
|Apulia tornado Outbreak||12 November 2014||Italy, Apulia||4||–||A small tornado outbreak struck the Apulia region. One F2 tornado damaged Monacizzo causing major damage. 2 other F1 tornadoes struck Carosino and Ginosa Marina, while an F0 waterspout struck Gallipoli.
|North Germany tornado outbreak||5 May 2015||Germany, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern||7||–||Several tornadoes struck northern Germany, 1 of them was an F3 T7 tornado that struck Bützow causing severe damage. Severe wind gusts were recorded across the Netherlands and northern Germany, killing 1 person in Hamburg.
|Central Germany tornado outbreak||12 May 2015||Germany, Hesse, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt||at least 4||–||Several tornadoes were confirmed (EF1) which caused minor damage in the municipality of Nohra.
|South Germany tornado outbreak||13 May 2015||Germany, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg||at least 4||–||4 tornadoes were confirmed, 1 of which caused F3 damage in Affing. A strong F3 damaged Bonndorf im Schwarzwald and forest areas on a 16 km path. Another F2 tornado was confirmed in France.
|Ohausen bei Freystadt tornado||29 May 2015||Germany, Bavaria, Oberfranken||1||–||One F1 tornado which caused severe damage to buildings.
|Riviera del Brenta tornado||8 July 2015||Veneto, Italy||1||1 dead, 72 injured||One EF4 tornado struck a small area among the towns of Pianiga, Dolo and Mira, with heavy damage and several casualties; the area is inside the well-known Riviera del Brenta, famous for its villas and channels. About 500 buildings were badly damaged or destroyed, among them the Villa Fini from the 17th century, which was razed to the ground.
|Noord-Holland tornado outbreak||24 August 2015||The Netherlands||2||0||A supercell formed above Belgium going north passing Amsterdam where 1 EF-0 crossed streets where people where shopping, later on around Hoorn 3 funnel clouds where reported. After another 25 km a Tornado formed above farmland destroying a farm with EF-4 Damage, no animal or human got injured. .
|Sonnac Tornado||16 September 2015||Sonnac, France||5||/||A long track F2 tornado struck many villages in France on 70,2 km path. In Sonnac some houses were badly damaged. On the same day 4 other tornadoes struck in Belgium and Luxembourg where a person was injured.
|Russia Tornado Outbreak||14 May 2016||Luhansk Oblast- Ukraine, Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Oblast and Volgograd Oblast – Russia||15||5 injuries||A long track F3 tornado struck many villages in Rostov Oblast on 56 km path injuring 5 people.Other tornadoes were reported but most of them remain on open field.
|Eastern Europe Outbreak||11–14 July 2016||Belarus, Russia and Poland||10||2||4 Tornadoes over Belarus, Russia and Poland on 11 July, 2 of which F2 tornadoes. One F1 tornado in Belarus on 12th and the next day there were 3 tornadoes, two in Belarus and one in Russia, the last one was an F3 tornado that travelled for 44 km and killed 2 people. On 14th an F0 tornado touched ground in Poland.
|Russia Tornado Outbreak||24 August 2016||Russia||1||0||One F1 tornado over Syctyvcar. Some industrials zones was damaged. No fatalities or injured.
|The Netherlands tornado outbreak||18 October 2016||The Netherlands||4||0||A cold front came from England passing the Netherlands in the morning. First tornado reports (EF-2) came from Oostzaan where an old windmill got destroyed, The tornado did some damage in Zaandam and at an Avia gas station. Second tornado destroyed multiple houses and greenhouses in Winkel (EF-1) Also Barneveld was hit by an EF-1 tornado crossing mostly farmland and some tree's. A EF-0 was on the ground for 600 meters 2 km west of the Oostzaan tornado on farm land but quickly disappeared before hitting a farm.
|Rome tornado||6 November 2016||Italy||1||2||One F2 wedge tornado over Ladispoli and Cesano travelled for 41 km north of Rome. There were many damages in the 2 cities and in the countryside. 2 people were killed by the storm and 20 others were injured. Maybe in some point the storm reached the F3 scale.
|Austria Tornado||10 July 2017||Vienna, Austria||1||0||One F1 stovepipe tornado formed on a severe isolated supercell near Vienna, Austria. The storm was accompanied by fist-sized hailstones that damaged huge swaths of agricultural land, causing a total damage of 15 million euros. This is the second highest damage in a storm in Austria. No injuries or fatalities.
|France tornado outbreak||1 January 2018||France||4||0||4 tornadoes were reported in western regions of France. The first tornado touched down and causing F2 damage near Bouin, region Pays de la Loire . Second weak and brief F0 tornado hit Saint-Paul-Mont-Penit, region Pays de la Loire. Third F1 tornado with path damage more than 5 km hit Macau area, region Nouvelle-Aquitaine. And The last F2 tornado hit Aize, region Centre-Val de Loire 
|Czech Republic tornado||10 May 2018||Klatovy, Czech Republic||1||0||Small F0 tornado near town Klatovy, Czech Republic. Only small damages on one farm. No injuries or fatalities.
|Germany tornado||16 May 2018||Viersen. Germany||1||2 injuries||Small F1 Tornado in Viersen-Boisheim, Germany. Damaging the roofs of several houses and felling trees on his way through a forest.
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- UK Weather Forecast
- European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL)
- European Storm Forecast Experiment (ESTOFEX)
- Tornado Map *in German
- Swiss Severe Weather Database (SSWD) / Sturmarchiv Schweiz *in German
- Tornadoes at the Czech Republic and Slovakia (Czech version) (Czech Hydrometeorological Institute)
- Tornadoliste Deutschland *in German
- Tornadoes of Europe
- "Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950–2009)" (PDF). Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1875–1883. 2011. Bibcode:2011NHESS..11.1875G. doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1875-2011. "doi: 10.5194/nhess-11-1875-2011".