List of European tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

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Parent article: List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

These are some notable tornadoes, tornado outbreaks, and tornado outbreak sequences that have occurred in Europe.

Pre-20th century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Freising tornado of 788 31 December 788 Freising, Holy Roman Empire - - Earliest known European tornado.[1][2]
Rosdalla, Ireland tornado 30 April 1054 Kilbeggan, Ireland - - [3]
London tornado of 1091 23 October 1091 London, Middlesex, Kingdom of England 1 2 Earliest known and perhaps strongest tornado in the British Isles.[3]
Vyšehrad tornado of 1119 30 July 1119 Vyšehrad, Bohemia - - Earliest known and perhaps strongest Czech tornado which destroyed the palace of the Czech duke at Vyšehrad which is now in Prague[4]
Czech tornado of 1144 14 May 1144 Bohemia 2 - Two tornadoes near military camp of duke Oto.[4]
Prague tornado of 1255 8 April 1255 Prague, Bohemia - - Tornado at Prague Castle.[4]
Valletta, Malta tornado 23 September 1551 (or 1556) Malta - ≈600 fatalities Perhaps deadliest European tornado.[3]
Neznašov, Czech tornado 6 July 1585 Bohemia - - [4]
Augsburg, Germany tornado 2 July 1587 Augsburg, Holy Roman Empire - -
Roma, Italy tornado 4 December 1645 Rome, Papal States - Many fatalities Probably F4.[citation needed]
La Rochelle - Paris, France tornadoes September 1669 France - - Longest track tornado family in Europe.[3]
Cádiz, Spain tornado March 1671 Cadiz, Andalucia, Spain - Many fatalities Apparent violent Spanish tornado.[5]
Utrecht, Netherlands tornado 1 August 1674 Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands - - Destroyed part of the Dom Tower of Utrecht.[6]
Rome, Italy tornado 12 June 1749 Rome, Papal States - 3 fatalities Destroyed many houses in Rome and Ostia, probably F3 multivortex tornado.[citation needed]
Padua, Italy tornado 17 August 1756 Veneto, Italy - - A likely F3 tornado hit the city of Padua, heavily damaging masonry buildings, with leaded roofs thrown several kilometers away.[citation needed]
Great Malvern tornado of 1761 14 October 1761 Malvern, Worcestershire, Great Britain - -
Woldegk, Germany tornado 29 June 1764 Germany 3 1 Small tornado outbreak over Poland and Germany with 1 F5, 1 F3 and 1 F1. The F5 tornado travelled for 35 km with a width of 400-800m and had windspeeds of 279 mph, killing 1 person and injuring 3 people. This is one of the most powerful events to have hit Europe.
Hainichen, Germany tornado 23 April 1800 Germany 1 0 A violent tornado (F5/T10) caused heavy damage (houses destroyed completely and trees debarked) on a path of 9.5 km in a 50m wide area injuring 5 people.[citation needed]
Fernhill Heath tornadoes 22 September 1810 Farnborough, Hampshire, England, UK - - Widest known and perhaps strongest British tornado.[3]
Southsea, England tornado 14 December 1810 Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, UK - - Perhaps strongest British tornado.[3]
Seine-Maritime, France tornado 19–20 August 1845 France 3 70-200 A small outbreak produced 3 tornadoes in France, the Netherlands and Germany. An F5 (T11) tornado struck Montiville in France killing 70-200 people and injuring 130 on a 15–30 km path. This tornado had winds close to 311 mph.
Sicilian tornadoes December 1851 Sicily, Kingdom of Sicily 2 ≈500 fatalities Among deadliest European tornadoes.[3]
Middle Poland 31 May 1866 Jarluty Duże, Humięcino 2 ≥7 fatalities, 18 injuries One of them was the deadliest tornado in Poland.[7]
Brno, Czech tornado 13 October 1870 Brno, Moravia - - Detailed scientific description by Gregor Mendel.[4]
Vienna, Austria tornado 29 June 1873 Vienna, Austria - Many fatalities [citation needed]
Madrid, Spain tornado 12 May 1886 Madrid, Spain 1 47 A powerful F3 tornado struck Madrid. It caused extensive damage to buildings; some of them collapsed killing the occupants, on a 12 km path from Carabanchel to Ciudad Lineal with a width of 1 km. It is the deadliest Spanish tornado of the last two centuries. (Carabanchel)[8]
Rhineland tornado 1 July 1891 North Rhineland, Germany 5 3 Tornado outbreak over central Germany. 3 tornadoes are unclassified. 1 was an F0 that travelled 12 km from Beeskow to Müllrose (Brandenburg ), and 1 was a powerful F4 (T9) that brought the total destruction of Anrath, a small village killing 3 people and injuring 100 on a 20 km path. 8 cm hail fell near Anrath before the arrival of the tornado.[citation needed]
Novska Tornado 31 May 1892 Croatia, Austria-Hungary 2 1 Strongest known tornado in Croatia. Large multivortex F4 twin-tornado struck the southern part of Novska village and nearby woods. 1 death occurred, 3 people were heavily injured, and many had minor injuries. At least 150 000 trees were destroyed in its path. A train was derailed, one train wagon (14 t) was lifted at least 6 m in the air and thrown 30 meters onto a field. Average width of the tornado was 800 m, with the maximum width exceeding 1.2 km. Hail size from this tornadic supercell was 8 cm.
Badalona tornado 15 June 1892 Badalona, Catalonia, Spain 1 3 fatalities "La Vanguardia" - newspaper[9]
Paris Tornado 10 September 1896 Paris, France 1 5 The Paris tornado of 10 September 1896 is the only documented case of a tornado forming and dissipating within an urban area in France.[10]
Central Germany 18 March 1897 Germany 5 4 A tornado outbreak produced 5 tornadoes over central Germany. The first tornado hit Gelsenkirchen in contemporary with a strong tornado that destroyed a factory and some houses killing 3 people and injuring 4. An F3 (T6) tornado struck Kirberg and other villages on a 40 km path killing 1 person. Two other tornadoes struck Stelzen (Thüringen) and Fürth am Berg (Bayern).
Oria tornado 21 September 1897 Oria, Apulia, Italy 1 55 A strong F4 tornado struck the villages of Sava and Oria killing 55 people on a 37 km path and a width of 400-800m. Some houses were destroyed and other buildings were severely damaged.
Koln tornado 7 August 1898 Cologne , Germany 1 3 A violent tornado struck the city of Cologne. The storm began 3 km from the city center, in Zollstock accompanied by hail of 5 cm. The tornado caused heavy damage and was classified as F4 (T8). The storm ended just northwest of Wipperfürth after it had travelled for 38 km and after killing 3 people and wounding about 100.

20th century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties+ Notes
Javaugues, France tornado 2 June 1902 France 1 1 fatality An F3 tornado struck Javaugues and other villages along its 7 km path. With a width of 3 km this is the widest documented tornado that has hit the continent.[3]
1904 Moscow tornado 29 June 1904 Moscow, Russia 1 9 fatalities An F4 (T9) tornado struck the eastern part of Moscow causing severe damages along its 42 km path in a densely populated area and with a width of 400-700m. It killed 9 people and wounded 93.[citation needed]
1906 Opladen tornado 14 August 1906 Opladen, Germany 1 1 fatality An F3 (T7) tornado struck several villages along its 15 km path killing 1 person and injuring 25 others.
1910 Tornado Outbreak 11 May 1910 Germany, Czech Republic and Austria 10 1 injured Tornado outbreak over Central Europe. 1 F3 tornado in Czech Republic struck Klatovy and other villages over a 13 km path with a base of 1 km.
1910 Lower Saxony tornadoes 4 June 1910 Lower Saxony, Germany 2 / 1 F3 tornado and 1 F4 tornado struck Bad Zwischenahn and Ostrhauderfehn.
1910 Germany Tornadoes 22 July 1910 Germany 12 / Tornado outbreaks over Germany, with 12 tornadoes, causing severe damage. 1 F3 (T7) tornado struck Platten (Rhineland-Palatinate). Several other tornadoes produced F2-F3 damage with paths of 10–30 km.
1910 Lombardy tornado 23 July 1910 Lombardy, Italy 1 36 fatalities A violent long-track tornado caused severe damage along a 62 km path N of Milan, in Lombardy, North Italy. The tornado completely destroyed many homes in Busto Arsizio, Solaro and Saronno killing 36 people and injuring another 50, becoming one of the most destructive Italian tornadoes.
1912 Breţcu tornado 13 May 1912 Breţcu, Romania 1 17 fatalities A violent F3 tornado struck the town of Breţcu destroying 1,548 houses and killing 17 people and injuring another 150.
1913 Plochingen tornado 1 June 1913 Plochingen, Germany 3 40 injuries A violent F3 tornado struck Echterdingen and Plochingen travelling for 20 km injuring 40 people. On the same day 2 other tornadoes touched down in Germany, 1 F1 in Nürtingen and 1 in the Taunus region.
Barry - Chester, Wales - England tornado 27 October 1913 United Kingdom - Several fatalities Perhaps deadliest British tornadic supercell.[citation needed]
Itzgrund,Germany tornado 3 January 1916 Itzgrund, Bavaria-Germany 2 1 A long-track F3 tornado struck the cities of Itzgrund and Grafenwöhr traveling for 85 km killing 1 person and injuring another one. On the same day an F2 tornado struck Greiz.
Wiener Neustadt, Austria tornado 10 July 1916 Wiener Neustadt, Vienna, Austria 3 35 fatalities, 328 injured This F4 tornado was the deadliest and strongest tornado in Austria. More than 150 homes were destroyed on a 20 km path. 2 other tornadoes were confirmed on this day: 1 F2 in Theresienfeld (Austria) and 1 F3 (T6) tornado in Saxony (Germany)
Germany tornado outbreak 28–30 June 1920 Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt 9 3 injured Small outbreak over the northern part of Germany with 1 F3 tornado that struck Bargteheide, 5 F2 tornadoes that caused 3 injuries and 3 F1 tornadoes.
Southern Netherlands tornado outbreak 26 April 1924 Netherlands ≥3 - [citation needed]
Pilisvörösvár, Hungary tornado 13 June 1924 Hungary 1 6 fatalities and 33 injured A strong F4 long-track tornado killed 6 people near Budapest. The storm travelled for 65 km with a large base, up to 1/2 km. Several villages were razed to the ground and an F5 intensity was suspected but according to windspeed it should be an F4.
Nice, France tornado 1 December 1924 France 1 30 injured An F3 tornado struck the city of Nice damaging the city for 4.5 km in a 100m wide area. 30 people were injured by the storm.
Netherlands tornado outbreak 10–12 August 1925 Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic 5 4 fatalities A powerful tornado struck the town of Borculo with several houses destroyed nearly to its foundation walls (F4 or T9) and also the church was seriously damaged. Another tornado (F3 or T6) killed 1 in Germany in Uetersen injuring another 13.
Lichtenvoorde - Neede - Tubbergen, Netherlands tornado 1–2 June 1927 Netherlands/Germany 7 8 fatalities Strong tornadoes over Netherlands and Germany, with 1 tornado near the F5 category in Neede that killed 7 people and another one near Vrees in Germany were 10 people were injured by an F4 (T9) tornado. A strong F3 tornado struck Schepsdorf and Lingen causing severe damage along a 6 km path, killing 1 person and injuring 17.
Austria tornado outbreak 29 September 1927 Austria 3 1 fatality 2 F3 tornadoes caused extensive damage in Sankt Ruprecht an der Raab and Unterrohr. The first tornado destroyed several homes, some also with ground floor walls having collapsed, injuring 10 people over a 20 km path with a width of 1 km. An F1 tornado struck Hirnsdorf damaging some trees and roofs. The third tornado struck Unterrohr and other towns over a 15 km path killing a 14-year-old boy lifted and thrown down and hit by roof tiles.
Montello, Italy tornado 24 July 1930 Montello, Veneto, and Friuli in Italy - 23 fatalities This is the strongest tornado[3] in Europe together with the 1845 Montville tornado in France which was very similar in power. The storm possibly crossed almost the entire province of Treviso even going so far in the province of Pordenone with a total path of about 80 km. The event lasted a total of 84 minutes, but perhaps this was not the only event of the day. The storm arrived to unleash winds near 500 km/h (F5 tornado) and killed 23 people. [6]
Birmingham Tornado 14 June 1931 United Kingdom 1 1 fatality A strong F3 tornado struck the suburbs of Birmingham killing 1 woman and injuring many other people.
Plettenberg, Germany Tornado 17 June 1931 Germany 2 4 fatalities A tornado damaged the town of Willertshagen and Plettenberg in North Rhine-Westphalia. 4 people were killed and 80 others were injured.
Lublin tornado 20 July 1931 Poland 3 fatalities A strong F4 (maybe a low F5) struck Lublin and Zemborzyce killing 3 people and injuring many others along a 20 km path.
Nurmijärvi - Konginkangas 4 August 1932 Finland 6 1 fatality 6 tornadoes (one F3) tracked 20 km.[11]
Kiuruvesi 11–15 July 1934 Finland 8 1 fatality F4 tornado, strongest one in Finland.[11]
Kyrenia Tornado 17 October 1934 Cyprus 1 3 fatalities A strong tornado (maybe an F2-F3) struck the city of Kyrenia causing the collapse of the church tower and the roof of a school killing 3 children.
Düsseldorf,Germany Tornado 10 January 1936 Germany 2 2 fatalities An F4 (T8) tornado damaged Düsseldorf causing extensive damage, 2 fatalities and 37 injuries along a 10 km path. I

On the same day an F3 (T6) tornado struck Hamm (Sieg).

Wiepkenhagen, Germany Tornado 15 July 1936 Germany 2 - A violent tornado struck Wiepkenhagen (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) causing severe damage like an F4 tornado.
Mottola, Italy Tornado 13 September 1937 Apulia - Italy 1 10 injured A long-track F3 tornado caused severe damage to the town of Mottola, Martina Franca and in the Monopoli area traveling for 43 km with severe damage to homes and trees. 10 people were injured.
Nienhagen, Germany Tornado 8 July 1938 Germany 1 - A long-track F2 tornado caused damage to Nienhagen, Lower Saxony up to Uelzen traveling for 75 km.
Bavaria, Germany Tornadoes 22 July 1948 Germany 3 5 fatalities 3 tornadoes were confirmed. A strong tornado hit Nürnberg city area destroying 40 homes, killing 4 people and injuring 11 others. Another strong tornado caused damage from Auerbach up to Grafenwöhr killing a 12-year-old boy by falling debris.
Buckinghamshire - Cambridgeshire, England tornadoes 21 May 1950 United Kingdom 4 - An F2 (T5) tornado crossed Britain for 107 km (one of the longest-lived tornadoes in Europe) from Little London (Buckinghamshire) to Coveney (Cambridgeshire). Three other F1 tornadoes were documented on the same day.
Veluwe, Gelderland - Haulerwijk, Friesland, Netherlands tornadoes 23 August 1950 Gelderland - Friesland, Netherlands 4 - Strongest recorded tornado in Netherlands, T10 (F5) damage[citation needed] in 50 kilometre long path in Veluwe forest.[citation needed]
Osterholz-Scharmbeck, Germany tornado 11 July 1951 Lower Saxony, Germany 2 - A strong tornado (F3 or T7) caused severe damage for 52 km path from Hude to Gnarrenburg in Lower Saxony.
Turin, Piemonte tornado 29 May 1953 Turin , Italy 1 5 fatalities A strong F1 tornado struck the centre of Turin, causing considerable damage and the collapse of part of the roof of the Mole. 5 people died in the storm.
Castelo Branco, Portugal tornado 6 November 1954 Portugal 1 5 fatalities, 220 injuries A Strong F3 (T7) tornado struck the town of Castel Branco causing extreme damage to the city and killing 5 people and injuring 220 others.
United Kingdom tornado Outbreak 8 December 1954 United Kingdom 7 - 6 tornadoes were confirmed that day over England and in particular over the western parts of the Greater London area where 3 tornadoes (1 of them caused F3 (T7) damage from Gunnersbury to Southgate) were confirmed. In total there was 1 F3 tornado, 4 F1 tornadoes and 2 F0 tornadoes.
Naro-Fominsk, Russia Tornado 25 August 1956 Naro-Fominsk-Russia 1 - A long-track F2 tornado caused severe damage on an 80 km path in a 200-350m wide area.
Robecco Pavese tornado 16 June 1957 Robecco Pavese , Italy 1 7 fatalities, 80 injuries A violent tornado struck the villages of Argine, Robecco Pavese and Vallescuropasso causing severe damage. The tornado was an F4 (T9) tornado, but at some point it made T10 damage. 7 people died and about 80 were injured on a 10 km path. This is the second most violent tornado ever to hit the country.
Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto tornado 15–16 May 1958 Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto in Poland 2 3 fatalities, >100 injuries [7]
Rzeszów, Poland tornado 20 May 1960 Poland and Ukraine 8 5 fatalities Tornado outbreak over south Poland and north Ukraine with 8 tornadoes. 1 was an F4/F5 tornado that struck the town of Niechobrz causing the total destruction of some houses and killing 3 people. Another 2 victims were recorded in Dynów and Gorliczyna. [8]
United Kingdom tornado Outbreak 26–27 August 1960 United Kingdom 13 - A light tornado outbreak over the south part of England with 13 tornadoes over a 2-day period. Most of them were at F0/F1 strength. The strongest tornadoes (F1 or T3) struck Hornchurch, (Greater London) and Poulton, Gloucestershire
Évreux,France Tornadoes 4 May 1961 France 2 1 fatality and 100 injured Two powerful F3 tornadoes struck Évreux and Cormeilles. In the city of Évreux 1 person died and 100 others were injured.
Bavaria,Germany Tornadoes 14 May 1961 Germany 2 5 injured A strong F3 tornado struck Gangkofen and Wurmannsquick traveling for 22 km and injuring 5 people. A second tornado struck Mitterskirchen and Hirschhorn traveling for 30 km and producing F2 (T5) damage. Both tornadoes caused extensive damage.
Central Europe Tornado Outbreak 8 August 1961 Germany and Austria 7 1 fatality All the tornadoes were classified as F1 (T2/T3). They caused severe damage near Hamburg, while an F1 tornado struck Innsbruck producing large hail and killing 1 person.
Holstebro,Denmark tornado 11 February 1962 Denmark 1 - A powerful F3/T7 tornado struck Holstebro in Denmark causing devastating damage. More than 100 houses badly damaged or destroyed making this event the most devastating tornado in Denmark's history. Maybe the tornado was a low F4.
Kirovo-Chepetsk,Russia tornado 20 May 1964 Russia 1 - A long-track tornado struck the Kirov Oblast and Udmurtia travelling for 175 km from Kirovo-Chepetsk to Glazov. It was classified as an F2 tornado.
Lower Saxony, Germany tornadoes 15–16 September 1964 Germany 3 - 3 EF3 tornadoes struck several villages in Lower Saxony. The first, an F3 (T7) tornado, struck on the 15th killing 1 person and injuring 20 others on a 20 km path from the town of Minden to Stadthagen. The other 2 tornadoes struck Mellendorf and Schessinghausen.
Parma, Italy tornado 4 July 1965 Italy ≥1 9 fatalities A strong tornado struck the province of Parma causing severe damage and 9 fatalities over a 22 km path. Maybe this tornado was a strong F3. On this day several more tornadoes were produced over the Po Valley.[9]
Western Europe tornado outbreaks of 1967 24–25 June 1967 France - Netherlands - Belgium 8 15 fatalities, 112 injured Violent tornado outbreak with 8 tornadoes that swept over France (5) Belgium (1) and the Netherlands (2). In France a category F5 tornado destroyed the town of Palluel killing 6 people. Shortly after an F4 destroyed Pommereuil killing 2 other people. Both tornadoes travelled for 23 km. In the Netherlands 2 F3 tornadoes caused the deaths of seven people, one of these reached F3 (T7) strength. In total there were 2 F2, 4 F3, 1 F4 and 1 F5 tornadoes.
German Black Forest tornado 10 July 1968 Germany 2 2 fatalities A long-track F3 tornado struck Uberach and other villages in France, in Alsace region, causing 3 injuries. The same supercell produced the powerful F4 (T8) tornado that struck Ittersbach and Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg) killing 2 people and injuring 300 others.
Catania, Italy tornado 31 October 1968 Sicily-Italy 1 2 fatalities A powerful tornado hit the Piana di Catania along a path of 16 km killing 2 people and injuring 100 others.
Belarus Tornado Outbreak 31 May 1969 Belarus 4 - A powerful tornado outbreak produced 3 F2 and 1 F1 tornadoes across Belarus. The strongest one struck Svetlahorsk (Gomel Region).
Nicosia, Cyprus tornadoes 22 December 1969 Cyprus Several 4 fatalities Waterspouts (probably tornadic) came ashore.[citation needed]
Russia Tornado Outbreak 6 July 1970 Russia 6 - 6 F1 long-track tornadoes struck the area 400 km S of Moscow. 1 of them had a path length of 100 km.
Venice and Padua, Italy tornado outbreak 11 September 1970 Veneto, Italy 1 36 fatalities A violent tornado invests the outskirts of Padua and Venice causing heavy damage and killing 36 people. 21 of the victims were on a ferry on the island of St. Helena when the tornado hit. 12 people died in a campsite in Ca'Savio, where some cars were found more than 200 meters away. The category F4 tornado traveled 70 km.
La Rochelle, France tornado 25 January 1971 France 1 1 fatality An F4 tornado struck La Rochelle traveling for 2.9 km causing severe damage in a 50m wide area. 1 person died and another 12 were injured.
L'Abbaye, Switzerland tornado 18 October 1971 Switzerland 1 - A powerful F4 tornado struck Bois d'Amont and L'Abbaye causing severe damage to houses, cars and completely destroying sections of forests. The path of the storm is similar to the path of the 1890 F4 tornado.
Kiel, Germany tornado 18 October 1971 Germany 1 1 fatality An F3/T7 tornado struck Kiel killing 1 person and injuring 13 others.
Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado 11 August 1972 Friesland, Netherlands - 7 fatalities, 90 injuries [citation needed]
Northern France tornado Outbreak 20 September 1973 France 3 2 fatalities 3 F3 tornadoes struck Fleury-les-Aubray, Sancy-les-Provins and Grainville-Langannerie killing 2 people and injuring 14 others.
Christ's Ascension Day outbreak 24 May 1979 Germany 6 3 injured A major outbreak struck parts of Eastern Germany with one violent F4 tornado near Bad Liebenwerda (Brandenburg) where harvesters were sent flying.
Ukraine tornado outbreak 2 June 1980 Ukraine 4 - 4 tornadoes were confirmed. 3 of them were of F2 strength, while the first tornado was an F1.
Mid June outbreak 14–15 June 1980 Central Germany 7 8 fatalities, at least 11 injuries (serious) Some tornadoes struck the Central German states of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. A camp site was severely damaged with some fatalities. The tornadoes were classified as F1-F2 strength.
1981 Lithuania tornado 29 May 1981 Eastern Lithuania - - An F2 tornado travelled for 6 km with a path 100-300m wide. This was the strongest known tornado that hit the country.
Moerdijk, Netherlands tornado 6 October 1981 North Brabant, Netherlands - 17 fatalities NLM CityHopper Flight 431 encountered tornado shortly after takeoff and crashed.
Gwynedd - Humberside - Essex tornado outbreak, Wales and England tornadoes 23 November 1981 United Kingdom 105 0 fatalities Largest known European outbreak[3] though predominately weak tornadoes
Levier, France tornado 2 June 1982 France 1 - A powerful F4 tornado struck Levier causing severe damage along a 3 km path.
France and Belgium tornadoes 20 September 1982 France and Belgium 3 7 injured 3 tornadoes were confirmed, 1 F2 and the others 2 were classified as F3 strength. A strong F3 (T7) tornado struck Belgium injuring 3 people on a 31 km path. Possibly the strongest tornado event in Belgium.
1984 Ivanovo-Yaroslavl tornado outbreak 9 June 1984 Western Russia 22 >400 fatalities, 213 injured [3] At least one F5, one F4, and one F3 were in the outbreak that damaged 36 cities and villages, including Tver and Kostroma, in a wide area north of Moscow.[citation needed]
Shel'vov 20 July 1987 Ukraine 1 - F4 tornado that destroyed the town of Shel'vov.[citation needed]
Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado 17 August 1992 Friesland, Netherlands - 1 fatality [citation needed]
Sigüenza, Spain tornado 24 May 1993 Sigüenza, Spain - - F2 damage in a path across the town.[citation needed]
Spijkenisse, South-Holland 7 June 1997 Netherlands - F1 damage on houses, and trees ripped out of the ground.[citation needed]
Mikkeli, Rantakylä 12 June 1998 Finland - F3 (track 10 km) destroyed some airport facilities.[citation needed]
San Leonardo de Yagüe, Spain tornado 1 June 1999 Spain - - F3 damage and thousands of trees uprooted in a forest near Soria, Spain.[citation needed]
Gudar Range, Spain tornado 28 August 1999 Sistema Ibérico, Spain 1+ - F3 tornado in mountainous terrain.[12]

21st century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Rakvere, Estonia tornado 15 July 2000 Rakvere, Estonia 1 1 Destroyed 110 homes, 1 was killed.
Concorezzo tornado 7 July 2001 Concorezzo , Italy 3 92 injuries A strong F3 tornado struck Concorezzo and Arcore causing severe damage and 92 injuries. 2 other tornadoes (F1 and F2) were recorded on the same day in northern Italy.
Tornado outbreak in the north-east of Catalonia and Southern France 20 October 2001 Catalonia and Languedoc-Roussillon 6 - 3 EF1 tornadoes and 1 EF0 in Spain; 1 EF3, 1 EF2 and 1 EF0/EF1 in France.
Athens, Greece tornado 27 July 2002 Athens, Greece - - Struck near airport.[13]
Romania tornado 12 August 2002 Southeastern Romania 2 3 fatalities A strong EF3+ tornado struck several villages in southern Romania. 33 houses were destroyed on a 74 km path. The storm killed 3 people and injured 15 others. Another tornado struck near Floreasca.
Cyprus tornadoes 27 January 2003 Southern Cyprus 4 1 fatality Tornadoes and waterspouts; Limassol worst hit with a T4-T5 tornado.[14]
Tornado outbreak in Catalonia 17 August 2003 Catalonia, Spain 3 - 1 EF2 tornado (180 km/h in la Culla - Manresa), 1 EF1 tornado and 1 EF0 tornado. Some downbursts were detected in Osona and Baix Camp.
Cyprus tornado outbreak 22 January 2004 Cyprus 7+ Multiple injuries Severe weather outbreak with several T3-T4 tornadoes and waterspouts.[14]
Late June outbreak 23 June 2004 Northern and Eastern Germany 4 8 injuries At least one F1, an F2 and an F3 tornado caused massive destruction. The villages of Micheln and Trebbichau in Saxony-Anhalt were heavily impacted by one of the most powerful tornadoes in modern German history.
Kontiolahti, Viinijärvi tornadoes[15] 20 August 2004 Finland 3 - An F2 (track 10 km) and 2 F1 tornadoes were reported.
Romania tornado outbreak 7 May 2005 Romania 9 - 9 tornadoes over Romania. One of them struck Movilita causing damage like an F1 tornado on a path of 1 km.
Garderen tornado 27 July 2005 Garderen, Netherlands 1 - T4 tornado damaging mainly woods, also some damage to property.[citation needed]
2005 Birmingham tornado 28 July 2005 Birmingham, United Kingdom 3 39 injured An F2 tornado struck the centre of Birmingham causing 39 injuries and severe damage. On the same day 2 F0 tornadoes struck Peterborough and Moulton causing little damage to trees and roofs.
Central Europe tornado outbreak 29 July 2005 Germany , Czech Republic 8 2 injuries 8 tornadoes were spotted on the border between Germany and the Czech Republic. 6 were classified as F2 (the strongest as F2 or T5) and 2 as F1 (T3). A T5 tornado struck Johanngeorgenstadt and other villages on a 10 km path causing 2 injuries. Another F2 (T5) tornado struck the Czech Republic, traveling for 21 km with a width of 1 km. Strong downbursts were also recorded causing serious damage and more injuries.
Tornado outbreak in Catalonia 7 and 8 September 2005 Catalonia 5 - 1 EF2 tornado, 3 EF1 tornadoes, 1 EF0 tornado and more than 10 waterspouts in 24 hours.
Hamburg, Germany tornado outbreak 27 March 2006 Germany 8 2 fatalities, 2 injuries 8 tornadoes were spotted, two of which were category F2. One of them struck Hamburg causing 2 deaths and 2 injuries on a 7 km path. The other tornadoes were F1.
Central Europe tornado outbreak 20–21 May 2006 Germany , Poland , Czech Republic and Netherlands 16 0 The outbreak struck the central part of Europe, in particular the central region of Germany, with 16 tornadoes across the region. 5 were F2, 10 F1 and 1 F0. The most powerful hit Westerwiehe (F2 T5); however, the longest path was of an F1 that lasted for 23 km.
Noordwijkerhout tornado 21 May 2006 Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands 1 - T3-T4 tornado causing damage to crops and buildings.[citation needed]
August 2006 UK tornado outbreaks 16–18 August 2006 United Kingdom - 8 injuries At least 4 tornadoes.[citation needed]
August 2006 Mainland Europe outbreak 21 August 2006 Western Europe - 38 injuries At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, a further 4 unconfirmed.[citation needed]
Tornado outbreak in Tarragona and Barcelona coast 13 September 2006 Catalonia 4 - 3 EF1 tornadoes, 1 EF0 tornado and more than 5 waterspouts in 24 hours.
2006 London tornado 7 December 2006 London, England, UK 1 6 injuries[16]
Cyclone Kyrill tornado outbreak 17/18 January 2007 Eastern Germany 10 5 The first tornado was an F0 (T1) in the Netherlands on the 17th. On the 18th 9 tornadoes were reported, one in Sweden, 4 in Germany, 1 in the Czech Republic and 3 in Poland. The 4 tornadoes in Germany were 1 F2 (T5), 2 F3 (T6) and 1 F3 (T7) (the F3 tornadoes caused the 5 injuries), the last one with a path of 34 km. The other tornadoes were 3 F2 and 1 F1 tornadoes.
Guidizzolo tornado 9 July 2007 North Italy - 3 12 injuries 3 tornadoes formed over Veneto, Lombardia and Piemonte. In Piemonte a landspout tornado occurred near Vercelli. In Lombardia, a strong F2 (T5) struck the village of Guidizzolo causing severe damages on a 12 km path. In Veneto an F1 (T3) struck Farra D'Alpago causing some damage to roofs.
Central England tornado outbreak 23 September 2007 Central England 6 - At least 6 tornadoes reported in Warwickshire, Northamptonshire and West Midlands. 4 of them were F1 tornadoes. [10]
Salboro (Padua) tornado 6 July 2008 Padua, Veneto, Italy 1 F0 - A small tornado that hit an urban area.[17]
2008 Hautmont tornado 3 August 2008 Hautmont, France - 4 fatalities, 13 injuries Same outbreak as below; F4 damaged several villages.[18][19]
Northern Netherlands tornado outbreak 3 August 2008 Friesland, Groningen, Netherlands 2 confirmed, 4 reported - Same outbreak as above; T3-T4 tornadoes caused damage to property.[citation needed]
2008 Poland tornado outbreak 15–16 August 2008 Mykanów, Poland 12 4 fatalities 12 were reported. One of them struck Balcarzowice causing F3 (T7) damage and 15 injuries. One person was killed in Kalina by an F3 tornado. Another one was killed in Garzkowice and two other people were killed in Slovakia because of a severe downburst. In total 4 people were killed and about 100 were injured in the outbreak.
Málaga Tornado 1 February 2009 Málaga, Spain 2 30 injuries An F2 (T4) tornado travelled in the city center of Málaga for 2 km injuring 25 people. Another tornado injured 5 people in Estepona.
North Italy outbreak 6 June 2009 Piemonte and Veneto, Italy 3 28 injuries An F0 tornado was reported near Vercelli, Piemonte in the afternoon. At the same time, a supercell produced a strong F3 tornado in Riese Pio X, in the village of Vallà causing heavy damage, in some parts like an F3/F4 (T7/T8) tornado. It travelled for 10.6 km and injured 28 people. The last tornado hit Valvasone, in Friuli damaging some buildings, cars, trucks and woods causing damage like an F2 (T5) tornado on a 10.5 km path.
Nicosia tornado 19 September 2009 Nicosia, Cyprus - 17+ injuries 10 homes with serious damage.[20]
Chalkidiki, Greece tornado 12 February 2010 Northern Greece - - F2/T3-T4 tornado.[21]
Whit Monday outbreak 24 May 2010 Eastern Germany 4 confirmed 1 fatality, 38 injuries An F1, an F2 and an F2+ (possibly F3) caused massive destruction in the States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg which caused at least €250 million in damages and one fatality.
Lichtenvoorde - Vragender - Winterswijk, Netherlands 12 July 2010 Netherlands 1 6 injuries Tornado destroyed church tower in Vragender and Zwarte Cross Festival area in Lichtenvoorde. Damage was T5-T7, uncertainty about nature of winds, some sources cite a strong derecho as cause of damage.[citation needed]
Veneto tornado outbreak 23 July 2010 Veneto, Italy 3 1 fatality, some injuries 3 tornadoes hit near the cities of Venice, Padua and Vicenza; strong thunderstorms, with downbursts, in other places (a man killed near Verona).[22][23]
Hungary tornado outbreak 16 August 2010 Hungary 3 confirmed - 3 tornadoes, 2 of them likely F2; villages where tornadoes were reported: Diósjenő, Mezőkövesd, Felsőtárkány
Lumda - Neppermin, Germany 23 August 2010 Germany 5 confirmed - F3 tornado in Lumda & F2 tornado in Neppermin caused damages of about €5 million.[citation needed]
Northern Sweden tornado outbreak 4 June 2011 Northern Sweden - At least 3 injuries Several tornadoes reported in the provinces of Ångermanland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten in northern Sweden. [11][12]
2011 Lithuania tornado 27 July 2011 Northern Lithuania 1 confirmed - F2 tornado formed near Radviliškis town. Strongest since 1981 [13]
Sachsen - Anhalt, Germany 11 September 2011 Germany 2 - 2 F1 tornadoes confirmed.[citation needed]
England and Wales tornadoes 29 November 2011 England and Wales, UK 1 F0, 2 F1 tornadoes 1 injured One tornado in Greater Manchester, England and another in Anglesey, Wales. Later that day, a F1 tornado struck north of Breighton.[citation needed]
Vierlingsbeek/Overloon Tornado 10 May 2012 Netherlands F0 T1 No casualties reported Tornado (partly rainwrapped, probably multi-vortex) damage to property and crops.
Venice tornado 12 June 2012 Veneto, Italy Likely an F2 tornado No casualties reported A tornado hit the eastern isles of Venice, notably Lido, Sant'Elena and Sant'Erasmo, and the nearby town of Treporti, with damage to houses, boats, cars/lorries and trees.[24][25][26]
French tornado 7 July 2012 France 4 - Tornadoes reported in France, 2 of which were F0 and 2 of which were F1.[27][28][29][30]
Northern Poland tornado outbreak 14 July 2012 Poland - 1 fatality, 10 injuries Tornadoes hit northern Poland.[31] Severe damages to houses and infrastructure. 400 ha of forests was destroyed. Two F3/T6 tornadoes are confirmed.[32]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 0 2 0 0
Gandia tornado 28 September 2012 Spain 1 35 injuries An F1 (T3) tornado hit a fairground and flattened a Ferris wheel.[33]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 0 0 0 0
Algarve tornadoes 16 November 2012 Algarve in Portugal F2/T5 tornado plus an F0 1 fatality, 13 injuries[34] Two tornadoes hit the coast of the Algarve about 10 km from one another. The strongest of the two hit Silves[35] and Lagoa and was classified by the Portuguese national weather service as F2/T5.[36][37] The weakest, almost certainly an F0, hit Alvor.[38]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 1 0 0 0
Taranto tornado 27–29 November 2012 Italy Greece 6 1 fatality, 42 injuries A tornado struck on the 27th at Rosignano Marittimo causing damage like an F1 (T3). On the 28th a huge wedge F3 tornado struck Taranto, Statte and Crispiano with a path of 23 km causing 1 fatality and 42 injuries, and serious damage to ILVA of Taranto.[39] On the 29th 4 tornadoes struck Greece, one of these causing F2 damage and the other like an F1 (T2/T3).
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 4 1 1 0 0
Emilia tornado outbreak 3 May 2013 Italy 3 13 injuries 3 tornadoes were reported. The first touched down near Modena and hit Castelfranco Emilia causing F2-F3 damage. It travelled for 18.8 km. The second tornado hit the village of San Martino Spino, near Mirandola (the same region hit by the Emilia earthquakes of 2012) causing damages like an F2 and 1 injury. The last tornado hit Argelato, San Giorgio in Piano and Bentivoglio near Bologna causing F3 (T6/T7) damage on a 25 km path and injuring 12 people.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 2 1 0 0
South Europe outbreak 28-29 July 2013 France, Germany and Italy 6 15 injuries On 28th 2 tornadoes struck France and Germany, the first one injured 1 person and was classified as an F2. On 29th 4 tornadoes struck North Italy one of which cause strong F2 damage in Grezzago and Trezzo sull'Adda, causing 15.000.000€ in damage and 12 injuries.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 3 2 0 0 0
Pommertsweiler tornado 18-19 Aug 2013 Germany, Belgium , Netherlands and Norway 5 27 injuries Some F0 tornadoes over Belgium, 1 F1 (T2) in Norway and an F2 (T4) tornado in Germany on the 19th, which injured 27 people in a campsite.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 1 1 0 0 0
North France outbreak 25 January 2014 United Kingdom, France and Belgium 12 3 injuries 10 F1 tornadoes and 1 F2 tornado were confirmed on that day across the United Kingdom (7), France (3) and Belgium (2). A strong F1 struck the city of Nuneaton seriously damaging 5 houses, then an F2 (T4) tornado struck the cities of Reke, Halluin and Rekkem, with a path of 12.8 km, injuring 3 people and damaging several buildings.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 10 1 0 0 0
Roscommon tornado 12 Feb 2014 Athleague, Ireland 1 - F0 tornado.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 0 0 0 0 0
Nonantola tornado 30 Apr 2014 Italy 1 5 injuries 1 tornado was confirmed near Modena and two funnel clouds were reported, one of which probably touched the ground near Minerbio, the same region hit by the tornadoes of 2013. The tornado that hit Nonantola was a likely an F2, maybe a category T5 that travelled for 14 km and injured 5 people in the industrial area.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 1 0 0 0
North France tornado outbreak 10 August 2014 United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany 16 5 injuries 16 tornadoes strucks France,United Kingdom,Belgium,Netherlands and Germany. A lonh track tornadoes struck Achicourt in France, travelling 43 km while 2 F2 tornadoes struck Netherlands and Germany, causing serious damage. There were 5 injuries in total, 4 in Belgium and one in United Kingdom.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
6 8 2 0 0 0
Kariyevo tornado 29 August 2014 Russia , Republic of Bashkortostan 1 2 A wedge F3 tornado struck Kariyevo and Janaul with a total path of 45 km. The storm killed 2 people and injured about 50.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 0 1 0 0
Catania tornado 5 November 2014 Italy , Sicily 2 0 A strong F1 tornado struck Ognina (northern area of Catania) causing severe damage. Another strong F1 tornado struck the centre of Acireale approximately one hour later.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 0 0 0 0
Apulia tornado Outbreak 12 November 2014 Italy , Apulia 4 - A small tornado outbreak struck the Apulia region. One F2 tornado damaged Monacizzo causing major damage. 2 other F1 tornadoes struck Carosino and Ginosa Marina, while an F0 waterspout struck Gallipoli.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 2 1 0 0 0
North Germany tornado outbreak 5 May 2015 Germany , Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 7 - Several tornadoes struck northern Germany, 1 of them was an F3 T7 tornado that struck Bützow causing severe damage. Severe wind gusts were recorded across the Netherlands and northern Germany, killing 1 person in Hamburg.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 3 1 1 0 0
Central Germany tornado outbreak 12 May 2015 Germany, Hesse, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt at least 4 - Several tornadoes were confirmed (EF1) which caused minor damage in the municipality of Nohra. [40]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 2 1 0 0 0
South Germany tornado outbreak 13 May 2015 Germany , Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg at least 4 - 4 tornadoes were confirmed, 1 of which caused F3 damage in Affing. A strong F3 damaged Bonndorf im Schwarzwald and forest areas on a 16 km path. Another F2 tornado was confirmed in France.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 1 2 0 0
Ohausen bei Freystadt tornado 29 May 2015 Germany , Bavaria, Oberfranken 1 - One F1 tornado which caused severe damage to buildings.[41] and[42]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 1 0 0 0 0
Riviera del Brenta tornado 8 July 2015 Veneto, Italy 1 1 dead, 72 injured One F4 (EF3 with the new scale)[43] tornado struck a small area among the towns of Pianiga, Dolo and Mira, with heavy damage and several casualties; the area is inside the well-known Riviera del Brenta, famous for its villas and channels. About 500 buildings were badly damaged or destroyed,[44] among them the Villa Fini from the 17th century, which was razed to the ground.[45][46][47][48]
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 0 0 0 1 0
Sonnac Tornado 16 September 2015 Sonnac, France 5 / A long track F2 tornado struck many villages in France on 70,2 km path. In Sonnac some houses were badly damaged. On the same day 4 other tornadoes struck in Belgium and Luxembourg where a person was injured.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
0 3 2 0 0 0
Russia Tornado Outbreak 14 May 2016 Luhansk Oblast- Ukraine, Rostov Oblast,Stavropol Oblast and Volgograd Oblast - Russia 15 5 injuries A long track F3 tornado struck many villages in Rostov Oblast on 56 km path injuring 5 people.Other tornadoes were reported but most of them remain on open field.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
4 2 1 1 0 0
Eastern Europe Outbreak 11-14 July 2016 Belarus , Russia and Poland 10 2 4 Tornadoes over Belarus, Russia and Poland on 11th July, 2 of which F2 tornadoes. One F1 tornado in Belarus on 12th and the next day there were 3 tornadoes, two in Belarus and one in Russia, the last one was an F3 tornado that travelled for 44 km and killed 2 people. On 14th an F0 tornado touched ground in Poland.
F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5
1 2 3 1 0 0

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dr. R. Hennig, Katalog bemerkenswerter Witterungsereignisse. Berlin 1904; Originalquellen: Aventinus (Turmair), Johannes (gest. 1534): Annales Boiorum. Mit Nachtrag. Leipzig 1710; Annales Fuldenses, Chronik des Klosters Fulda. Bei Marquard Freher: Germanicarum rerum scriptores etc. Frankfurt a.M. 1600-1611)
  2. ^ http://www.tornadoliste.de/
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "British & European Tornado Extremes". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Atmospheric Research 67–68 (2003): Tornadoes within the Czech Republic from early medieval chronicles to the ‘‘internet society’’ Linked 2013-05-21
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  7. ^ http://curioza.blogspot.com/2013/06/1866-najbardziej-smiercionosne-tornado.html
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  9. ^ "EL CICLÓN DE BADALONA". 16 June 1892. 
  10. ^ Mahieu, Pierre; Wesolek, Emmanuel (26 August 2011). "CONSEQUENCES OF TORNADIC STORMS IN URBAN AREAS:CASE STUDY OF THE PARIS TORNADO (FRANCE) IN SEPTEMBER 10,1896" (PDF). 6th European Conference on Severe Storms. 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2015. 
  11. ^ a b https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:142460&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-NON-PUBLISHERS.PDF
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  13. ^ Matsangouras, J.T.; P.T. Nastos (2010). "The 27 July 2002 tornado event in Athens, Greece" (PDF). Adv. Sci. Res. 4: 9–13. 
  14. ^ a b Sioutas, Michalis; R. Doe; S. Michaelides; M. Christodoulou1; R. Robins (Jan 2006). "Meteorological conditions contributing to the development of severe tornadoes in southern Cyprus". Weather 61 (1): 10–6. Bibcode:2006Wthr...61...10S. doi:10.1256/wea.268.04. 
  15. ^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7774288817480826661&pr=goog-sl
  16. ^ "Six hurt as tornado hits London". BBC. 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2011-12-08. 
  17. ^ Tornado at Salboro (Padua)
  18. ^ Mahieu, Pierre; E. Wesolek (Oct 2009). "The Deadly EF-4 Tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France" (PDF). 5th European Conference on Severe Storms. Landshut, Germany: European Severe Storms Laboratory. 
  19. ^ Wesolek, Emmanuel; P. Mahieu (Jun 2011). "The F4 tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France: Case study of a tornadic storm in a low CAPE environment". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 649–56. Bibcode:2011AtmRe.100..649W. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.09.003. 
  20. ^ http://www.desastres.org/noticias.php?id=21092009-12
  21. ^ Matsangouras, I.T.; P.T. Nastos; I. Pytharoulis (2011). "Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece". Adv. Sci. Res. 6: 187–94. Bibcode:2011AdSR....6..187M. doi:10.5194/asr-6-187-2011. 
  22. ^ Tornadoes in Venice, Vicenza and Padua, a man killed in Verona
  23. ^ Tornado in the Padua area, damages and injuries
  24. ^ Tornado at Lido and Sant'Elena
  25. ^ Tornado in Venice
  26. ^ Tornado in Venice and on the Venetian Coast: report
  27. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Montviette (14) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 21/05/2013
  28. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Verderel-lès-Sauqueuse (60) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  29. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Saint-Pierre-de-Manneville (76) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  30. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Fervaques (14) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  31. ^ "Poland shocked by tornadoes, one dead". Reuters. 15 July 2012. 
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ "35 injured as tornado knocks over Ferris wheel at fairground in Spain", Independent.ie
  34. ^ [2]
  35. ^ Tornado in Silves LIVE (video footage)
  36. ^ [3],
  37. ^ [4],
  38. ^ [5],
  39. ^ Miglietta M.M. and Rotunno R., An EF3 multi-vortex tornado over the Ionian region: Is it time for a dedicated warning system over Italy?, http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00227.1
  40. ^ http://www.tornadoliste.de
  41. ^ http://www.nordbayern.de/region/neumarkt/windhose-von-ohausen-war-ein-f1-tornado-1.4422150
  42. ^ http://www.bild.de/news/inland/sturm/zerstoerungen-41156458.bild.html
  43. ^ ARPAV: storms of 08/07/2015 on Veneto
  44. ^ Tornado riviera: the map
  45. ^ Villa Fini razed to the ground
  46. ^ Tornado in Riviera del Brenta - Il Mattino di Padova
  47. ^ Pics 1 Pics 2 Video 1 Video 2 Video 3
  48. ^ The 8 July 2015, tornado between Mira and Dolo

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]