List of Falconidae

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Falcons and caracaras
Brown-Falcon,-Vic,-3.1.2008.jpg
Brown falcon
Falco berigora
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Falconiformes
Family: Falconidae
Vigors, 1824

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey and includes caracaras, laughing falcon, forest falcons, falconets, pygmy falcons, falcons and kestrels. They are small to medium-sized birds of prey, ranging in size from the black-thighed falconet, which can weight as little as 35 grams (1.2 oz), to the gyrfalcon, which can weigh as much as 1,735 grams (61.2 oz). They have strongly hooked bills, sharply curved talons and excellent eyesight. The plumage is usually composed of browns, whites, chestnut, black and grey, often with barring of patterning. There is little difference in the plumage of males and females, although a few species have some sexual dimorphism in boldness of plumage. They differ from other Falconiformes in killing with their beaks instead of their talons. They have a "tooth" on the side of their beak for the purpose.

They are classified in eleven genera and 67 species of which two are extinct.

Caracaras[edit]

Caracaras are principally birds of South and Central America. They are classified in five genera and 11 species of which one is extinct since 1906. Unlike the Falco falcons in the same family, the birds in the five relevant genera are not fast-flying aerial hunters, but are comparatively slow and are often scavengers (a notable exception being the red-throated caracara).


Genus Daptrius Vieillot, 1816 - 1 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Black caracara Daptrius ater
Vieillot, 1816
LC[2] South America : Amazon biome Black Caracara (5320732936).jpg
Genus Ibycter Vieillot, 1816 - 1 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Red-throated caracara Ibycter americanus
Boddaert, 1783
LC[3] Central & South America : Southern Mexico to southern Brazil Ibycter americanus 2.jpg
Genus Phalcoboenus d'Orbigny, 1834 - 4 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Carunculated caracara Phalcoboenus carunculatus
Des Murs, 1853
LC[4] South America : Ecuador, southwest Colombia Ecuador 0698b Carunculated Caracara.jpg
Mountain caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus
Meyen, 1834
LC[5] South America : Peru to central Chile Phalcoboenus megalopterus near Macchu Picchu.jpg
White-throated caracara Phalcoboenus albogularis
Gould, 1837
LC[6] South America : Southern Chile, southern Argentina MilvagoAlbogularisGould.jpg
Striated caracara Phalcoboenus australis
Gmelin, 1788
NT[7] South America : Southern islands Johnny Rook.jpg
Genus Caracara Merrem, 1826 - 3 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Northern crested caracara Caracara cheriway
Jacquin, 1784
LC[8] Southern US to northern South America 49-58[9] 107-130[9] 800-1,300[9] Caracara cheriway Roma TX.jpg
Guadalupe caracara Caracara lutosa
Ridgway, 1876
EX[10] Guadalupe Island, Mexico
Extinct probably since 1906[11]
Caracara cheriway by Audubon.jpg
Southern crested caracara Caracara plancus
Miller, 1777
LC[12] Central and southern South America 49-59[13] 120-132[13] 900-1,600[13] Caracara Plancus (Carancho) 2.jpg
Genus Milvago Spix, 1824 - 2 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Yellow-headed caracara Milvago chimachima
Vieillot, 1816
LC[14] Central & South America : Costa Rica to northern Argentina 38-46[15] 325 (avg)
♀:310-360
♂:280-330
Yellow-headed Caracara.jpg
Chimango caracara Milvago chimango
Ridgway, 1876
LC[16] South America : Southern Cone 37-40 Milvago chimango -Rio Grande, Rio Gande do Sul, Brazil-8.jpg

Laughing falcon[edit]

Genus Herpetotheres Vieillot, 1817 - 1 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Laughing falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[17] Central & South America : Mexico to northern Argentina 46-56[18] 79-94[19] ♀:600-800[18]
♂:410-680[18]
Lachfalke.jpg

Forest falcons[edit]

Forest falcons are endemic to the Americas. They are classified as 7 species in one genus. They are adapted for agility in thick cover rather than outright speed in the open air. They have short wings, long tails, and extraordinarily acute hearing. While generally visually inconspicuous, their songs are commonly heard.


Genus Micrastur G.R. Gray, 1841 - 7 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Barred forest falcon Micrastur ruficollis
Vieillot, 1817
LC[20] Central & South America : Southern Mexico to northern Argentina Micrastur ruficollis -Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brazil-8.jpg
Plumbeous forest falcon Micrastur plumbeus
Sclater, WL, 1918
VU[21] Central & South America : Southwestern Colombia, northwestern Ecuador 30-36[22]
Lined forest falcon Micrastur gilvicollis
Vieillot, 1817
LC[23] South America : Amazon rainforest
Cryptic forest falcon Micrastur mintoni
Whittaker, 2003
LC[24] South America : From eastern Amazon rainforest south to Bolivia
Slaty-backed forest falcon Micrastur mirandollei
Schlegel, 1862
LC[25] Central & South America : Costa Rica to eastern Brazil Micrastur mirandollei 1902.jpg
Collared forest falcon Micrastur semitorquatus
Vieillot, 1817
LC[26] Central & South America : Central Mexico to northern Argentina Micrastur semitorquatus.jpg
Buckley's forest falcon Micrastur buckleyi
Swann, 1919
LC[27] South America : Western Amazon rainforest

Falconets and pygmy falcons[edit]

Genus Spiziapteryx Kaup, 1852 - 1 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Spot-winged falconet Spiziapteryx circumcincta
Kaup, 1852
LC[28] Southern central South America Spiziapteryx circumcincta 1862.jpg
Genus Polihierax Kaup, 1847 - 2 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Pygmy falcon Polihierax semitorquatus
Smith, 1836
LC[29] Eastern and southern Africa Polihierax semitorquatus -Buffalo Springs National Park, Kenya-8.jpg
White-rumped falcon Polihierax insignis
Walden, 1872
NT[30] Southeast Asia PoliohieraxInsignisKeulemans.jpg
Genus Microhierax Sharpe, 1874 - 5 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Collared falconet Microhierax caerulescens
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[31] Northeast India through Southeast Asia Microhierax caerulescens Museum de Genève.JPG
Black-thighed falconet Microhierax fringillarius
Drapiez, 1824
LC[32] Malay Peninsula, Greater Sundas 14-16 Microhierax fringillarius Museum de Genève.JPG
White-fronted falconet Microhierax latifrons
Sharpe, 1879
NT[33] Borneo Microhieraxlatifrons.JPG
Philippine falconet Microhierax erythrogenys
Vigors, 1831
LC[34] Philippines Philippine Falconet - Microhierax erythrogenys.jpg
Pied falconet Microhierax melanoleucos
Blyth, 1843
LC[35] northeast India to southern China and central Vietnam

Falcons and kestrels[edit]

Falcons are roughly divisible into three or four groups. The first contains the kestrels (probably excepting the American kestrel); the second group contains slightly larger (on average) and more elegant species, the hobbies and relatives. Third are the peregrine falcon and its relatives: variably sized powerful birds which also have a black malar area (except some very light color morphs), and often a black cap also. Very similar to these and sometimes included therein are the 4 or so species of hierofalcons (literally, "hawk-falcons").


Genus Falco Linnaeus, 1758 - 40 species
Common name Scientific name Conservation
status
Range[1] Length (cm) Wing span (cm) Weight (g) Picture
Lesser kestrel Falco naumanni
Fleischer, 1818
LC[36] Southwestern, central and eastern Europe and Africa 27-33 63-72 Male and female Lesser Kestrels.jpg
Common kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Fleischer, 1818
LC[37] Widespread in Europe, Africa and Asia 32-39 65-82 ♀:154-314
♂:136-252
Common kestrel falco tinnunculus.jpg
Rock kestrel Falco rupicolus
Daudin, 1800
not assessed Southern Africa Rock Kestrel.jpg
Malagasy kestrel Falco newtoni
Gurney, 1863
LC[38] Madagascar, Aldabra Island up to 30 ♀:18.8-20.3
♂:18.0-19.5
♀:up to 128
♂:112-118
Crecerelle.malgache1.jpg
Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus
Temminck, 1821
VU[39] Mauritius 26-30.5 approx 45 up to 250 Falco punctatus.jpg
Reunion kestrel Falco duboisi
Cowles, 1994
EX[40] Réunion, extinct since c.1700
Seychelles kestrel Falco araea
Oberholser, 1917
VU[41] Seychelles Islands 18-23 40-45 Falco araea Seychelles Kestrel side views.jpg
Spotted kestrel Falco moluccensis
Bonaparte, 1850
LC[42] Moluccas, Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, Java and Bali
Nankeen kestrel Falco cenchroides
Vigors and Horsfield, 1827
LC[43] Widespread in Australia 31-35 Falco cenchroides Flickr.jpg
American kestrel Falco sparverius
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[44] Widespread in North, Central and South America 19-31 50-61 ♀:118-166
♂:80-120
AmericanKestrel02.jpg
Greater kestrel Falco rupicoloides
Smith, 1829
LC[45] Eastern and southern Africa 29-37 68-84 165-334 Greater Kestrel Namibia.jpg
Fox kestrel Falco alopex
Heuglin, 1861
LC[46] Central and western Africa 32-38 76-88 250-300 Falco alcopex.jpg
Grey kestrel Falco ardosiaceus
Vieillot, 1823
LC[47] Central, western and southwestern Africa 28-33 58-72 up to 300 Falco ardosiaceus.jpg
Dickinson's kestrel Falco dickinsoni
Sclater, 1864
LC[48] Central, western and southwestern Africa 27-30 61-68 167-246 FalcoDickinsoniWolf.jpg
Banded kestrel Falco zoniventris
Peters, 1854
LC[49] Madagascar 27-30 60-68 Cerchneis zoniventris.jpg
Red-necked falcon Falco chicquera
Daudin, 1800
LC[50] Central, western and southern Africa, India 30-36 85 Red-Necked Falcon.JPG
Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus
Linnaeus, 1766
NT[51] Central Europe, southern Africa 28-34 65-75 Rotfußfalke Falco vespertinus.jpg
Amur falcon Falco amurensis
Radde, 1863
LC[52] Eastern Asia, southeastern Africa Falco amurensis -Mongolia-8.jpg
Eleonora's falcon Falco eleonorae
Gene, 1839
LC[53] Southern Europe and also northern Africa, eastern Africa, Madagascar 36-42 87-104 Falco eleonorae NAUMANN.jpg
Sooty falcon Falco concolor
Temminck, 1825
NT[54] Eastern Libya to southwestern Pakistan, southeast Africa, Madagascar 32-37 78-90 Sooty Falcon, Allée des Baobabs near Morondava, Madagascar.jpg
Aplomado falcon Falco femoralis
Temminck, 1822
LC[55] Widespread in Central & South America 30-40 avg.90 ♀:271-460
♂:208-305
Aplomado Falcon portrait.jpg
Merlin Falco columbarius
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[56] Widespread in Northern Hemisphere 24-33 50-73 ♀:190-300
♂:125-210
Falco columbarius Male.jpg
Bat falcon Falco rufigularis
Daudin, 1800
LC[57] Northern Mexico to northeastern Argentina ♀:30.5
♂:23
Falco rufigularis -Manizales, Caldas, Colombia-8.jpg
Orange-breasted falcon Falco deiroleucus
Temminck, 1825
LC[58] Southern Mexico to northeastern Argentina 35-40 325-700 Falco deiroleucus - Orange-breasted Falcon.JPG
Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[59] Widespread in Europe, southern Africa, northern Asia
African hobby Falco cuvierii
Smith, 1830
LC[60] Eastern, central, western and southeastern Africa 20 70 African Hobby bwindi jan06.jpg
Oriental hobby Falco severus
Horsfield, 1821
LC[61] Northwestern India to Solomon Islands Oriental Hobby - Falco severus - Falco (2526569907).jpg
Australian hobby Falco longipennis
Swainson, 18371
LC[62] Widespread in Australia Australian Hobby Pikedale Jul02.JPG
New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae
Gmelin, 1788
NT[63] Widespread in New Zealand about 45 up to 450 NZ Falcon - Karearea 02.JPG
Brown falcon Falco berigora
Gmelin, 1788
LC[64] Widespread in Australia 40-50 Falco berigora Alice Springs.jpg
Grey falcon Falco hypoleucos
Gould, 1841
NT[65] Australia 30-45 85-95 350-600 Grey Falcon (1) - Christopher Watson.jpg
Black falcon Falco subniger
Gray, 1843
LC[66] Australia ♀:around 55
♂:around 45
Falco subniger.jpg
Lanner falcon Falco biarmicus
Temminck, 1825
LC[67] Southern Europe, Arabian Peninsula, and widespread in Africa 43-50 95-105 Lanner Falcon 800.jpg
Laggar falcon Falco jugger
J.E. Gray, 1834
NT[68] Pakistan to Burma, India Luggerfalke.jpg
Saker falcon Falco cherrug
Gray, 1834
VU[69] Central and southern Europe, northeastern Africa and northern Asia 47-55 105-129 Falco cherrug (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC[70] Arctic coasts of Northern America, Europe and Asia ♀:51-65
♂:48-61
♀:124-160
♂:110-130
♀:1,180-2,100
♂:805-1350
Falco rusticolus white cropped.jpg
Prairie falcon Falco mexicanus
Schlegel, 1850
LC[71] North America avg 40 avg 100 avg 720 USGS Prairie Falcon.jpg
Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus
Tunstall, 1771
LC[72] Widespread worldwide 34-58 74-120 ♀:910-1,500
♂:424-750
Falco peregrinus -Nova Scotia, Canada -eating-8.jpg
Barbary falcon Falco pelegrinoides
Temminck, 1829
LC[73] Southwestern Europe and northern Africa 33-39 76-98 Wüstenfalke.jpg
Taita falcon Falco fasciinucha
Reichenow & Neumann, 1895
NT[74] Eastern and southeastern Africa ♀:22.9-24.0
♂:20.2-20.8
♀:297-346
♂:212-233
Taita Falcon at the World Center for Birds of Prey, Boise, Idaho, USA.jpg

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Master List: Raptors". IOC World Birld List. International Ornithological Congress. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  2. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Daptrius ater". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  3. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Ibycter americanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  4. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Phalcoboenus carunculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  5. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Phalcoboenus megalopterus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  6. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Phalcoboenus albogularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  7. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Phalcoboenus australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  8. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Caracara cheriway". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c "Crested Caracara Life History". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  10. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Caracara lutosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Thayer, John E. & Bangs, Outram (1908): The Present State of the Ornis of Guadaloupe Island. Condor 10(3): 101-106. doi:10.2307/1360977 PDF fulltext
  12. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Caracara plancus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c "Info about the Southern Caracara". Zootierliste.de. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  14. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Milvago chimachima". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  15. ^ "Info about the Yellow-headed Caracara". Zootierliste.de. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  16. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Milvago chimango". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  17. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Herpetotheres cachinnans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  18. ^ a b c Jiménez, Mariano II & Jiménez, Mariano G. (2003). "El Halcón Guaicurú Herpetotheres cachinnans". El Zoológico Electrónico. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  19. ^ Howell, Steven N.G. & Webb, Sophie (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854012-4. 
  20. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur ruficollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  21. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur plumbeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  22. ^ "Species factsheet: Micrastur plumbeus". BirdLife International. 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  23. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur gilvicollis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  24. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur mintoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  25. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur mirandollei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  26. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur semitorquatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  27. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Micrastur buckleyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  28. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Spiziapteryx circumcincta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  29. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Polihierax semitorquatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  30. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Polihierax insignis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  31. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Microhierax caerulescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  32. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Microhierax fringillarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  33. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Microhierax latifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  34. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Microhierax erythrogenys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  35. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Microhierax melanoleucos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  36. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco naumanni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  37. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco tinnunculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  38. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco newtoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  39. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco punctatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  40. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco duboisi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  41. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco araea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  42. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco moluccensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  43. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco cenchroides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  44. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco sparverius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  45. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco rupicoloides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  46. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco alopex". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  47. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco ardosiaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  48. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco dickinsoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  49. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco zoniventris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  50. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco chicquera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  51. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco vespertinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  52. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco amurensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  53. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco eleonorae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  54. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco concolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  55. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco femoralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  56. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco columbarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  57. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco rufigularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  58. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco deiroleucus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  59. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco subbuteo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  60. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco cuvierii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  61. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco severus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  62. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco longipennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  63. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco novaeseelandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  64. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco berigora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  65. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco hypoleucos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  66. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco subniger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  67. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco biarmicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  68. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco jugger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  69. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco cherrug". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  70. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco rusticolus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  71. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco mexicanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  72. ^ BirdLife International (2009). "Falco peregrinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
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