List of First Ladies and Gentlemen of Texas

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The First Ladies and Gentlemen of Texas, both under the Republic of Texas and the State of Texas, have been a wide spectrum of personalities and abilities. The position of First Spouse has been defined by individual achievements and perspectives of official spouses for over 75 years. Some enjoyed their positions and seized the opportunity to help shape the state's history. Others were there reluctantly.

Margaret Lea Houston can arguably be called the original First Lady of Texas. Hannah Estey Burnet's husband David G. Burnet was ad interim Republic president before Sam Houston became the official first president. During Houston's first term, he was unmarried. Mirabeau B. Lamar followed Houston and was a widower. Margaret campaigned with her new husband when Houston ran for a second term as president, and rode in the presidential parade, in spite of her dislike of politics. There was no government housing for the family of the president of the Republic. The Houstons divided their time among properties they owned. No role model existed for Margaret. She saw herself not as a political wife, but as a homebody who was responsible for the health, welfare and religious education of her husband and her children. She became a virtual recluse when Sam Houston was elected Governor of Texas and refused any visitors inside the mansion except her own relatives.[1] Margaret Lea Houston's great-great granddaughter Jean Houston Baldwin Daniel also served as First Lady of Texas 1957–1963.

Frances Cox Henderson, wife of the state's first Governor James Pinckney Henderson, was an outgoing supporter of women's suffrage, and a multi-linguist who had been a book translator before she met Henderson.[2]

The only First Gentleman the state has had was James E. Ferguson, who first served as governor. He was impeached on charges of misapplication of public funds, and failing to respect and enforce the banking laws of the state and resigned from office in 1917.[3] When his wife Miriam A. Ferguson won two non-consecutive terms as governor, James Ferguson became the state's only First Gentleman.[4]

Mildred Paxton Moody had been a newspaper columnist and a professor at Hardin-Simmons University before she married Dan Moody. She used her influence as a former First Lady to get the Texas State Legislature to create the Board of Mansion Supervisors to oversee the finances of maintaining the official residence.[5] Rita Crocker Clements not only restored the Governor's Mansion, but had been a mover and shaker in politics decades before she married Bill Clements.[6] First Lady Anita Thigpen Perry has a background in nursing. and two nursing educational endowments bear her name.

Republic of Texas[edit]

First Ladies of the Republic of Texas
Name Image Birth–Death Term President Ref(s)
Burnet, HannahHannah Burnet (1800–1858) March 16 – October 22, 1836 Burnet, David G.David G. Burnet [7]
October 22, 1836 – December 10, 1838 Houston, SamSam Houston [8]
December 10, 1838 – December 13, 1841 Lamar, Mirabeau B.Mirabeau B. Lamar [FN 1]
Houston, Margaret LeaMargaret Lea Houston (1819–1867) December 13, 1841 – December 9, 1844 Houston, SamSam Houston [8]
Jones, Mary SmithMary Smith Jones (1819–1907) December 9, 1844 – February 19, 1846 Jones, AnsonAnson Jones [10]

State of Texas[edit]

First Ladies and Gentlemen of the State of Texas
Name Image Birth–Death Term Governor Ref(s)
Henderson, Frances CoxFrances Cox Henderson FrancesCoxHenderson.jpg (1820–1897) February 19, 1846 – December 21, 1847 Henderson, James PinckneyJames Pinckney Henderson [11]
Wood, Martha Evans GindrattMartha Evans Gindratt Wood (d. 1861) December 21, 1847 – December 21, 1849 Wood, George T.George T. Wood [12]
December 21, 1849 – November 23, 1853 Bell, Peter HansboroughPeter Hansborough Bell [13]
Henderson, Laura A. HookerLaura A. Hooker Henderson (d.1856) November 23, 1853 – December 21, 1853 Henderson, James W.James W. Henderson [14]
Pease, Lucadia Christiana NilesLucadia Christiana Niles Pease (1813–1905) December 21, 1853 – December 21, 1857 Pease, Elisha M.Elisha M. Pease [FN 2]
December 21, 1857 – December 21, 1859 Runnels, Hardin RichardHardin Richard Runnels [16]
Houston, Margaret LeaMargaret Lea Houston (1819–1867) December 21, 1859 – March 18, 1861 Houston, SamSam Houston [8]
Clark, Martha Melissa EvansMartha Melissa Evans Clark March 18, 1861 – November 7, 1861 Clark, EdwardEdward Clark [17]
Lubbock, Adele BaronAdele Baron Lubbock (1819–1882) November 7, 1861 – November 5, 1863 Lubbock, Francis R.Francis R. Lubbock [18]
Murrah, Sue Ellen TaylorSue Ellen Taylor Murrah (b. 1835) November 5, 1863 – June 17, 1865 Murrah, PendletonPendleton Murrah [19]
June 11, 1865 – June 16, 1865 Stockdale, Fletcher SummerfieldFletcher Summerfield Stockdale [20]
Hamilton, Mary Jane BowenMary Jane Bowen Hamilton (1828–1916) June 17, 1865 – August 9, 1866 Hamilton, Andrew J.Andrew J. Hamilton [21]
Throckmorton, Ann RattanAnn Rattan Throckmorton (1828–1895) August 9, 1866 – August 8, 1867 Throckmorton, James W.James W. Throckmorton [22]
Pease, Lucadia Christiana NilesLucadia Christiana Niles Pease (1813–1905) June 8, 1867 – September 30, 1869 Pease, Elisha M.Elisha M. Pease [15]
Davis, Anne Elizabeth BrittonAnne Elizabeth Britton Davis (b. 1838) January 8, 1870 – January 15, 1874 Edmund J. Davis [23]
Coke, Mary Evans HorneMary Evans Horne Coke (1837–1900) January 15, 1874 – December 21, 1876 Coke, RichardRichard Coke [24]
Hubbard, Janie RobertsJanie Roberts Hubbard (1848–1887) December 21, 1876 – January 21, 1879 Hubbard, Richard B.Richard B. Hubbard [25]
Roberts, Frances Wickliffe EdwardsFrances Wickliffe Edwards Roberts (1819–1883) January 21, 1879 – January 16, 1883 Roberts, Oran MiloOran Milo Roberts [26]
Ireland, Anna Maria PennAnna Maria Penn Ireland (1833–1911) January 16, 1883 – January 20, 1887 Ireland, JohnJohn Ireland [27]
Ross, Elizabeth Dorothy TinsleyElizabeth Dorothy Tinsley Ross (1846–1905) January 18, 1887 – January 20, 1891 Ross, Lawrence SullivanLawrence Sullivan Ross [28]
Hogg, Sarah Ann StinsonSarah Ann Stinson Hogg (1854–1895) January 20, 1891 – January 15, 1895 Hogg, James StephenJames Stephen Hogg [29]
Culberson, Sallie HarrisonSallie Harrison Culberson (1861–1926) January 15, 1895 – January 17, 1899 Culberson, Charles A.Charles A. Culberson [30]
Sayers, Orline WaltonOrline Walton Sayers (1851–1943) January 17, 1899 – January 20, 1903 Sayers, Joseph D.Joseph D. Sayers [31]
Lanham, Sarah Beona MengSarah Beona Meng Lanham (1845–1908) January 20, 1903 – January 15, 1907 Lanham, S. W. T.S. W. T. Lanham [32]
Campbell, Fannie BrunerFannie Bruner Campbell (1856–1934) January 15, 1907 – January 17, 1911 Campbell, Thomas MitchellThomas Mitchell Campbell [33]
Colquitt, Alice MurrellAlice Murrell Colquitt (1865–1949) January 17, 1911 – January 19, 1915 Colquitt, Oscar BranchOscar Branch Colquitt [34]
Ferguson, Miriam A.Miriam A. Ferguson Miriam A. Ferguson.jpg (1875–1961) January 19, 1915 – August 25, 1917 Ferguson, James E.James E. Ferguson [35]
Hobby, Willie CooperWillie Cooper Hobby (d. 1929) August 25, 1917 – January 18, 1921 Hobby, William P.William P. Hobby [36]
Neff, Myrtle MainerMyrtle Mainer Neff January 18, 1921 – January 20, 1925 Neff, Pat MorrisPat Morris Neff [37]
Ferguson, James E.James E. Ferguson James E. Ferguson.jpg (1871–1944) January 20, 1925 – January 17, 1927 Ferguson, Miriam A.Miriam A. Ferguson [35]
Moody, Mildred PaxtonMildred Paxton Moody Mildred Paxton Moody.jpg (1897–1983) January 17, 1927 – January 20, 1931 Moody, DanDan Moody [38]
Sterling, Maud GageMaud Gage Sterling (1874–1963) January 20, 1931 – January 17, 1933 Sterling, Ross S.Ross S. Sterling [39]
Ferguson, James E.James E. Ferguson (1871–1944) January 17, 1933 – January 15, 1935 Ferguson, Miriam A.Miriam A. Ferguson [35]
Allred, Joe Betsy MillerJoe Betsy Miller Allred (1905–1993) January 15, 1935 – January 17, 1939 Allred, James V.James V. Allred [40]
O'Daniel, Merle Estella ButcherMerle Estella Butcher O'Daniel Unknown January 17, 1939 – August 4, 1941 O'Daniel, W. LeeW. Lee O'Daniel [41]
Stevenson, Fay WrightFay Wright Stevenson (1896–1942) August 4, 1941 – January 2, 1942 Stevenson, CokeCoke Stevenson [FN 3]
Jester, Mable BuchananMable Buchanan Jester Unknown January 21, 1947 – July 11, 1949 Jester, Beauford H.Beauford H. Jester [43]
Shivers, Marialice SharyMarialice Shary Shivers (1910–1996) July 11, 1949 – January 15, 1957 Shivers, AllanAllan Shivers [44]
Daniel, JeanJean Daniel (1916–2002) January 15, 1957 – January 15, 1963 Daniel, PricePrice Daniel [45]
Connally, NellieNellie Connally Kennedyb.jpg (1919–2006) January 15, 1963 – January 21, 1969 Connally, JohnJohn Connally [46]
Smith, Ima MaeIma Mae Smith (1911–1998) January 21, 1969 – January 16, 1973 Preston Smith [47]
Briscoe, Betty Jane SlaughterBetty Jane Slaughter Briscoe (1923–2000) January 16, 1973 – January 16, 1979 Dolph Briscoe [48]
Clements, Rita CrockerRita Crocker Clements (b. 1931) January 16, 1979 – January 18, 1983 Clements, BillBill Clements [6]
White, Linda GaleLinda Gale White (b. 1942) January 18, 1983 – January 20, 1987 White, MarkMark White [49]
Clements, Rita CrockerRita Crocker Clements (b. 1931) January 20, 1987 – January 15, 1991 Clements, BillBill Clements [6]
January 15, 1991 – January 17, 1995 Richards, AnnAnn Richards [FN 4]
Bush, LauraLaura Bush Laurabush.jpeg (b. 1946) January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000 Bush, George W.George W. Bush [51]
Perry, Anita ThigpenAnita Thigpen Perry (b. 1952) December 21, 2000 – January 20, 2015 Perry, RickRick Perry [52]
Abbott, Cecilia PhalenCecilia Phalen Abbott (1960–) January 20, 2015 Abbott, GregGreg Abbott [53]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lamar was widowed in 1830 and did not remarry until 1851.[9]
  2. ^ Elisha and Lucadia Pease were the first occupants of the official Governor's Mansion.[15]
  3. ^ Fay died January 1942[42]
  4. ^ Richards was divorced in 1984.[50]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Seale, William (1992) [1970]. Sam Houston's Wife: A Biography of Margaret Lea Houston. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 64, 65 194, 195. ISBN 978-0806124360. 
  2. ^ Farrell, Mary D. "France Cox Henderson". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Pa Ferguson". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Miriam A. Ferguson". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  5. ^ McQueary, Carl (2003). Dining at the Governor's Mansion. Texas A & M University Press. pp. 131, 132, 134. ISBN 978-1-58544-254-6. 
  6. ^ a b c "Rita Crocker Clements Personal Papers". TAMU. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Hannah Este Burnet". Dress Collection. Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; Malone, Anne Righton (Winter 1995). "Reviewed Works: Star of Destiny: The Private Life of Sam and Margaret Houston by Madge Thornall Roberts; The Raven's Bride: A Novel of Eliza Alien and Sam Houston by Elizabeth Crook". Western American Literature. University of Nebraska Press. Vol. 29, No. 4: 370–371. JSTOR 43021400. (subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ Gambrell, Herbert. "Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  10. ^ "Mary (Mrs. Anson) Jones Letters". Texas Archival Resources Online. University of Houston. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  11. ^ Biles (2014), pp. 85–88
  12. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; Vincent, Louella Styles (January 1917). "Governor George Thomas Wood". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Texas State Historical Association. Vol. 20, No. 3: 269–276. JSTOR 30234713. (subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ Hooker, Anne W. "Peter Hansborough Bell". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  14. ^ Kemp, L. W. "James W. Henderson". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  15. ^ a b "Lucadia Christiana Niles Pease". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. Smyrl, Vivian Elizabeth. "Governor's Mansion". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 11 March 2012. ; Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481
  16. ^ Harper Jr., Chris. "Hardin Richard Runnels". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  17. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Martha Melissa Evans Clark". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  18. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Adele Baron Lubbock". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  19. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Sue Ellen Taylor Murrah". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  20. ^ "Fletcher Summerfield Stockdale". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  21. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Mary Jane Bowen Hamilton". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  22. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Ann Rattan Throckmorton". Dress Collection. TWU. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  23. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Ann Davis Gown". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  24. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Mary Evans Horne Coke". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  25. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Janie Roberts Hubbard". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  26. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Frances Wickliffe Edwards Roberts". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  27. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Anne Maria Penn Ireland". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  28. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Elizabeth Dorothy Tinsley Ross". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  29. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Sarah Ann Stinson Hogg". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  30. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Sallie Harrison Culberson". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  31. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Orline Walton Sayers". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  32. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Sarah Beona Meng Lanham". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  33. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Fannie Irene Bruner Campbell". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  34. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Alice Fuller Murrell Colquitt". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  35. ^ a b c Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Miriam Amanda Wallace Ferguson". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  36. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Willie Chapman Cooper Hobby". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  37. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Myrtle Mainer Neff". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  38. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Mildred Paxton Moody". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  39. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Maude Abbie Gage Sterling". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  40. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Joe Betsy Miller Allred". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  41. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Merle Estelle Butcher O'Daniel". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  42. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Texas Governor Coke Stevenson". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 11 March 2012. "Coke Stevenson". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 11 March 2012. Fay Wright Stevenson at Find a Grave
  43. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481
  44. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Marialice Shary Shivers". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  45. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Jean Houston Baldwin Daniel". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  46. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Idanell Brill Connally". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  47. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Ima Mae Smith Smith". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  48. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Betty Jane Slaughter Briscoe". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  49. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Linda Gale White". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  50. ^ "Ann Richards". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  51. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Laura Welch Bush, 1995–2000". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  52. ^ Alvarez, Plocheck (2011). p. 481; "Anita Perry, 2000 to 2015". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  53. ^ "Cecilia Abbot, 2015 to Present". Texas Woman's University. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]