List of First Ladies of the United States

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First Lady of the
United States
Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg
Incumbent
Michelle Obama

since January 20, 2009
Style Mrs. Obama
Residence White House
Inaugural holder Martha Washington
Formation April 30, 1789
Website First Ladies

The First Lady of the United States is the hostess of the White House. The position is traditionally filled by the wife of the President of the United States, but, on occasion, the title has been applied to women who were not presidents’ wives, such as when the president was a bachelor or widower, or when the wife of the president was unable to fulfill the duties of the First Lady herself. The First Lady is not an elected position; it carries no official duties and receives no salary. Nonetheless, she attends many official ceremonies and functions of state either along with or in place of the president. Traditionally, the First Lady does not hold outside employment while occupying the office.[1] She has her own staff, including the White House Social Secretary, the Chief of Staff, the Press Secretary, the Chief Floral Designer, and the Executive Chef. The Office of the First Lady is also in charge of all social and ceremonial events of the White House, and is a branch of the Executive Office of the President.

According to the White House and the National First Ladies' Library, there have been 45 First Ladies and 46 First Ladyships. This discrepancy exists because Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the 22nd and the 24th president; his wife Frances Folsom Cleveland is also counted twice. Following Barack Obama's first inauguration on January 20, 2009, his wife, Michelle Obama, became the 46th official First Lady, succeeding Laura Bush, wife of former President George W. Bush.

There are four living former First Ladies: Rosalynn Carter, wife of Jimmy Carter; Barbara Bush, wife of George H. W. Bush; Hillary Clinton, wife of Bill Clinton; and Laura Bush, wife of George W. Bush. The first First Lady was Martha Washington, married to George Washington. Presidents John Tyler and Woodrow Wilson had two official First Ladies; both remarried during their presidential tenures. The wives of four Presidents died before their husbands were sworn into office but are still considered First Ladies by the White House and National First Ladies' Library: Martha Jefferson, wife of Thomas Jefferson;[2][3] Rachel Jackson, wife of Andrew Jackson;[4][5] Hannah Van Buren, wife of Martin Van Buren;[6][7] and Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur, wife of Chester A. Arthur.[8][9] One woman who was not married to a President but who is still considered an official First Lady: Harriet Lane, niece of bachelor James Buchanan. The other non-spousal relatives who served as White House hostesses are not recognized by the First Ladies' Library.

In 2007, the United States Mint began releasing a set of half-ounce $10 gold coins under the First Spouse Program with engravings of portraits of the First Ladies on the obverse.[10] When a President served without a spouse, a gold coin is issued that bears an obverse image emblematic of Liberty as depicted on a circulating coin of that era and a reverse image emblematic of themes of that President's life. This is true for the coins for Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan's First Ladies, but not the coin for Chester A. Arthur's First Lady, which will instead depict suffragette Alice Paul.[11]

List of First Ladies[edit]

This list included all persons who served as First Ladies, regardless of whether they were married to the incumbent President or not, as well as persons who are considered to have acted as first lady by the official White House website and the White House Historical Association.

POTUS
No.

Portrait First Lady
(Maiden name)
Tenure Age at tenure start President
(Husband, unless noted)
1 Portrait of Martha Washington Martha Dandridge
June 13, 1731 – May 22, 1802
(aged 70)

[12][13]
April 30, 1789

March 4, 1797
157 years, 332 days Washington
m. January 6, 1759
2 Portrait painting of Abigail Adams Abigail Smith
November 22, 1744 – October 28, 1818
(aged 73)
[14][15]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
52 years, 113 days Adams
m. October 25, 1764
3 Silhouette of Martha Jefferson Martha Wayles Skelton
October 30, 1748 – September 6, 1782
(aged 33)

[2][3]
Died nearly nineteen years prior to his presidency Jefferson
m. 1 January 1772
Portrait painting of Martha Jefferson Martha Jefferson Randolph
September 27, 1772 – October 10, 1836
(aged 64)

[2][3]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809
28 years, 158 days Jefferson
Daughter
[16]
4 Portrait painting of Dolley Madison Dolley Payne
May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849
(aged 81)

[17][18]
March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817
40 years, 288 days Madison
m. 14 September 1794
5 Portrait painting of Elizabeth Monroe Elizabeth Kortright
June 30, 1768 – September 23, 1830
(aged 62)

[19][20]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
48 years, 247 days Monroe
m. 16 February 1786
6 Portrait engraving of Louisa Adams Louisa Catherine Johnson
February 12, 1775 – May 15, 1852
(aged 77)
Born in London England

[21][22]
March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829
50 years, 20 days J.Q. Adams
m. 26 July 1797
7 Rachel Jackson Rachel Donelson
June 15, 1767 – December 22, 1828
(aged 61)

[5][23]
Died after election,
prior to husband's inauguration
Jackson
m. 7 January 1794
8 Portrait painting of Hannah Van Buren Hannah Hoes
March 8, 1783 – February 5, 1819
(aged 35)

[6][7]
Died eighteen years prior to his presidency Van Buren
m. 21 February 1807
Portrait painting of Angelica Singleton Van Buren Angelica Van Buren
February 13, 1818 – December 29, 1877
(aged 59)

[6][7]
January 1, 1839

March 4, 1841
20 years, 322 days Van Buren
Daughter
9 Portrait painting of Anna Harrison Anna Symmes
July 25, 1775 - February 25, 1864
(aged 88)

[24][25]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
65 years, 222 days W.H. Harrison
m. 22 November 1795
10 Portrait painting of Letitia Tyler Letitia Christian
November 12, 1790 – September 10, 1842
(aged 51)

[26][27]
April 4, 1841

September 10, 1842
50 years, 143 days Tyler
m. (1790-11-12)November 12, 1790
Portrait painting of Julia Tyler Julia Tyler
May 4, 1820 – July 10, 1889
(aged 69)

[28][29]
June 26, 1844

March 4, 1845
24 years, 53 days Tyler
Daughter
11 Portrait painting of Sarah Polk Sarah Childress
September 4, 1803 – August 14, 1891
(aged 87)

[30][31]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
41 years, 181 days Polk
m. 1 January 1824
12 Portrait painting of Margaret Taylor Margaret Taylor
September 21, 1788 – August 14, 1852
(aged 63)

[32][33]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
60 years, 164 days Taylor
m. 21 June 1810
13 Portrait painting of Abigail Fillmore Abigail Powers
March 13, 1798 – March 30, 1853
(aged 55)

[34][35]
July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853
52 years, 118 days Fillmore
m. 5 February 1826
14 Engraving of Jane Pierce Jane Means Appleton
March 12, 1806 – December 2, 1863
(aged 57)

[36][37]
March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857
46 years, 357 days Pierce
m. 19 November 1834
15 Portrait photograph of Harriet Lane Harriet Lane
May 9, 1830 – July 3, 1903
(aged 73)

[38][39]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
26 years, 299 days Buchanan
Niece
16 Portrait photograph of Mary Lincoln Mary Ann Todd
December 13, 1818 – July 16, 1882
(aged 63)

[40][41]
March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
42 years, 81 days Lincoln
m. 4 November 1842
17 Portrait engraving of Eliza Johnson Eliza McCardle
October 4, 1810 – January 15, 1876
(Aged 65)[42][43]
April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869
54 years, 193 days A. Johnson
m. 17 May 1827
18 Portrait photograph of Julia Grant Julia Boggs Dent
January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902
(aged 76)

[44][45]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877
43 years, 37 days Grant
m. 22 August 1848
19 Portrait photograph of Lucy Hayes Lucy Ware Webb
August 28, 1831 – June 25, 1889
(aged 57)

[46][47]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
45 years, 188 days Hayes
m. 30 December 1852
20 Portrait photograph of Lucretia Garfield Lucretia Rudolph
April 19, 1832 – March 14, 1918
(aged 85)

[48][49]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
48 years, 319 days Garfield
m. 11 November 1858
21 Portrait of Ellen Arthur Ellen Lewis Herndon
August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880
(aged 42)

[8][9]
Died nineteen months prior to his presidency Arthur
m. 25 October 1859
22 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Frances Clara Preston
July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947
(aged 83)

[50][51]
June 2, 1886

March 4, 1889
21 years, 316 days Cleveland
m. 2 June 1886
Married in the White House
23 Portrait of Caroline Harrison Caroline Scott
October 1, 1832 – October 25, 1892
(aged 60)

[52][53]
March 4, 1889

October 25, 1892
56 years, 154 days Harrison
m. 20 October 1853
24 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Frances Clara Preston
July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947
(aged 83)

[50][51]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
21 years, 316 days Cleveland
m. 2 June 1886
25 Portrait of Ida McKinley Ida Saxton
June 8, 1847 – May 26, 1907
(aged 59)

[54][55]
March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
49 years, 269 days McKinley
m. 25 January 1871
26 Portrait of Edith Roosevelt Edith Kermit Carow
August 6, 1861 – September 30, 1948
(aged 87)

[56][57]
September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909
40 years, 39 days T. Roosevelt
m. 2 December 1886
27 Portrait of Helen Taft Helen Louise Herron
June 2, 1861 – May 22, 1943
(aged 81)

[58][59]
March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913
47 years, 275 days Taft
m. 19 June 1886
28 Portrait of Ellen Wilson Ellen Louise Axson
May 15, 1860 – August 6, 1914
(aged 54)

[60][61]
March 4, 1913

August 6, 1914
52 years, 293 days Wilson
m. 24 June 1885
Portrait of Edith Wilson Edith Bolling Galt
October 15, 1872 – December 28, 1961
(aged 89) 
[62][63]
December 18, 1915

March 4, 1921
43 years, 64 days Wilson
m. 18 December 1915
President Wilson remarried
during first term
29 Portrait of Florence Harding Florence Mabel Kling
August 15, 1860 – November 21, 1924
(aged 64)

[64][65]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
60 years, 201 days Harding
m. 8 July 1891
30 Grace Coolidge Grace Anna Goodhue
January 3, 1879 – July 8, 1957
(aged 78)

[66][67]
August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929
44 years, 211 days Coolidge
m. 4 October 1905
31 Portrait of Lou Hoover Lou Henry
March 29, 1874 – January 7, 1944
(aged 69)

[68][69]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
54 years, 340 days Hoover
m. 10 February 1899
32 Portrait of Eleanor Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt
October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962
(aged 78)

[70][71]
March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
48 years, 144 days F.D. Roosevelt
m. 17 March 1905
33 Portrait of Bess Truman Elizabeth Virginia "Bess" Wallace
February 13, 1885 – October 18, 1982
(aged 97)

[72][73]
April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953
60 years, 58 days Truman
m. 28 June 1919
34 Portrait of Mamie Eisenhower Mamie Geneva Doud
November 14, 1896 – November 1, 1979
(aged 82)

[74][75]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
56 years, 67 days Eisenhower
m. 1 July 1916
35 Portrait Of Jaqueline Kennedy Jacqueline "Jackie" Bouvier
July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994
(aged 64)

[76][77]
January 20, 1953

November 22, 1963
31 years, 176 days Kennedy
m. 12 September 1953
36 Portrait of Lady Bird Johnson Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Taylor
December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007
(aged 94)

[78][79]
November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969
50 years, 335 days L. Johnson
m. 17 November 1934
37 Portrait of Pat Nixon Thelma "Pat" Ryan
March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993
(aged 81)

[80][81]
January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
56 years, 310 days Nixon
m. 21 June 1940
38 Portrait of Betty Ford Elizabeth "Betty" Bloomer
April 8, 1918 – July 8, 2011
(aged 93)

[82][83]
August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977
56 years, 123 days Ford
m. 15 October 1948
39 Portrait of Rosalynn Carter Eleanor Rosalynn Smith
(1927-08-18) August 18, 1927 (age 89)
[84][85]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
49 years, 155 days Carter
m. 7 July 1946
40 Portrait of Nancy Reagan Nancy Davis
July 6, 1921 – March 6, 2016
(aged 94)

[86][87]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
59 years, 203 days Reagan
m. 4 March 1952
41 Portrait of Barbara Bush Barbara Pierce
(1925-06-08) June 8, 1925 (age 91)
[88][89]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
63 years, 226 days Bush
m. 6 January 1945
42 Portrait of Hillary Rodham Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham
(1947-10-26) October 26, 1947 (age 68)
[90][91]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
45 years, 86 days Clinton
m. 11 October 1975
43 Portrait of Laura Bush Laura Lane
(1946-11-04) November 4, 1946 (age 69)
[92][93]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
54 years, 77 days G.W. Bush
m. 5 November 1977
44 Portrait of Michelle Obama Michelle LaVaughn Robinson
(1964-01-17) January 17, 1964 (age 52)
[94][95]
January 20, 2009

Incumbent
45 years, 3 days Obama
3 October 1992

Living former First Ladies[edit]

There are four living former American First Ladies:

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Caroli, Betty Boyd (2003). First Ladies from Martha Washington to Laura Bush. Oxford University Press. p. 200. 
  2. ^ a b c "Biography of Martha Jefferson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c "First Lady Biography: Martha Jefferson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Biography of Rachel Jackson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Rachel Jackson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c "Biography of Hannah Van Buren". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c "First Lady Biography: Hannah Van Buren". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NFLL-Hannahvan" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  8. ^ a b "Biography of Ellen Arthur". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Ellen Arthur". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  10. ^ "The First Spouse Gold Coins". United States Mint. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  11. ^ 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II) Denominations, specifications, and design of coins. The First Spouse Gold Coins. Cornell University. Retrieved on January 10, 2009.
  12. ^ "Biography of Martha Washington". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  13. ^ "First Lady Biography: Martha Washington". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Biography of Abigail Adams". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  15. ^ "First Lady Biography: Abigail Adams". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  16. ^ Jefferson's wife, Martha Jefferson, died before he became President. Their daughter, Martha, is considered de facto First Lady by the White House Historical Association.
  17. ^ "Biography of Dolley Madison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  18. ^ "First Lady Biography: Dolley Madison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Biography of Elizabeth Monroe". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  20. ^ "First Lady Biography: Elizabeth Monroe". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Biography of Louisa Adams". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  22. ^ "First Lady Biography: Louisa Adams". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Biography of Rachel Jackson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Biography of Anna Harrison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  25. ^ "First Lady Biography: Anna Harrison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Biography of Letitia Tyler". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  27. ^ "First Lady Biography: Letitia Tyler". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Biography of Julia Tyler". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  29. ^ "First Lady Biography: Julia Tyler". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Biography of Sarah Polk". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  31. ^ "First Lady Biography: Sarah Polk". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Biography of Margaret Taylor". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  33. ^ "First Lady Biography: Margaret Taylor". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Biography of Abigail Fillmore". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  35. ^ "First Lady Biography: Abigail Fillmore". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Biography of Jane Pierce". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  37. ^ "First Lady Biography: Jane Pierce". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Biography of Harriet Lane". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  39. ^ "First Lady Biography: Harriet Lane". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Biography of Mary Lincoln". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  41. ^ "First Lady Biography: Mary Lincoln". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Biography of Eliza McCardle Johnson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  43. ^ "First Lady Biography: Eliza Johnson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Biography of Julia Grant". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  45. ^ "First Lady Biography: Julia Grant". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Biography of Lucy Hayes". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  47. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lucy Hayes". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Biography of Lucretia Garfield". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  49. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lucretia Garfield". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  50. ^ a b "Biography of Frances Cleveland". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  51. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Frances Cleveland". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Biography of Caroline Harrison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  53. ^ "First Lady Biography: Caroline Harrison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  54. ^ "Biography of Ida McKinley". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  55. ^ "First Lady Biography: Ida McKinley". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Biography of Edith Roosevelt". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  57. ^ "First Lady Biography: Edith Roosevelt". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  58. ^ "Biography of Helen Taft". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  59. ^ "First Lady Biography: Helen Taft". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  60. ^ "Biography of Ellen Wilson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  61. ^ "First Lady Biography: Ellen Wilson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Biography of Edith Wilson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  63. ^ "First Lady Biography: Edith Wilson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  64. ^ "Biography of Florence Harding". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  65. ^ "First Lady Biography: Florence Harding". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  66. ^ "Biography of Grace Coolidge". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  67. ^ "First Lady Biography: Grace Coolidge". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  68. ^ "Biography of Lou Hoover". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  69. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lou Hoover". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  70. ^ "Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  71. ^ "First Lady Biography: Eleanor Roosevelt". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  72. ^ "Biography of Bess Truman". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  73. ^ "First Lady Biography: Bess Truman". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  74. ^ "Biography of Mamie Eisenhower". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  75. ^ "First Lady Biography: Mamie Eisenhower". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  76. ^ "Biography of Jacqueline Kennedy". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  77. ^ "First Lady Biography: Jackie Kennedy". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  78. ^ "Biography of Lady Bird Johnson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  79. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lady Bird Johnson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  80. ^ "Biography of Pat Nixon". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  81. ^ "First Lady Biography: Pat Nixon". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  82. ^ "Biography of Betty Ford". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  83. ^ "First Lady Biography: Betty Ford". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  84. ^ "Biography of Rosalynn Carter". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  85. ^ "First Lady Biography: Rosalynn Carter". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  86. ^ "Biography of Nancy Reagan". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  87. ^ "First Lady Biography: Nancy Reagan". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  88. ^ "Biography of Barbara Bush". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  89. ^ "First Lady Biography: Barbara Bush". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  90. ^ "Biography of Hillary Clinton". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  91. ^ "First Lady Biography: Hillary Clinton". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  92. ^ "Biography of Laura Bush". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  93. ^ "First Lady Biography: Laura Bush". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  94. ^ "Biography of Michelle Obama". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 
  95. ^ "First Lady Biography: Michelle Obama". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 

External links[edit]