List of French words of Gaulish origin

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The Gaulish language, and presumably its many dialects and closely allied sister languages, left a few hundred words in French and many more in nearby Romance languages, i.e. Franco-Provençal (Eastern France and Western Switzerland), Occitan (Southern France), Catalan, Romansch, Gallo-Italian (Northern Italy), and many of the extinct or nearly extinct languages of France and Belgium collectively known as langues d'oïl (e.g. Walloon, Norman, Gallo, Picard, Bourguignon, and Poitevin).

What follows is a list of inherited French words, past and present, along with words in neighboring or related languages, all borrowed from the Gaulish language (or more precisely from a substrate of Gaulish).

Modern French[edit]


French Cognates Etymology Possible Celtic Cognates Latin/Romance
aller 'to go' FrProv alâ, allar, Friul Gaul *allu Welsh êl 'that he may go', eled 'go!', Cornish ellev 'that I may go', Old Irish adall 'diverticulum' Lat ambulare (cf. Ital ambiare, Rom umbla), *adnare (cf. Sp/Pg andar, Occ/Cat anar, Italian andare)
alose 'shad' Occitan alausa, Prov alauso, La Rochelle alousa, Sp alosa, G Alse Gaul alausa 'allis shad' none -
alouette 'lark' Walloon alôye, Prov alauza, alauseta, Cat alosa, alova, OSp aloa, Sp alondra, It allodola, lodola Old French aloe, aloue, fr Latin alauda 'crest lark', fr Gaul, perhaps from *alaio 'swan' OIr elu 'swan', Irish/Scottish eala 'swan'; with suffix, Welsh alarch 'lark', Breton alarc'h 'swan' borrowed into Latin
ambassade 'embassy' Prov embeissado, Occ ambaissada. Sp embajada From Ital ambasciata 'charge, mission, embassy', fr Old Occ ambayassada 'embassy', from ambaissa 'service, duty' 'hostage', fr Gaul ambactus 'dependant, vassal' OIr amos, amsach 'mercenary, servant', Ir amhas 'wild man', W amaeth 'tenant farm', C ammeth 'farming', OBr ambaith -
amélanche 'shadberry, shadbush' Occ amalenco, amalanco Prov. amalenco, amalanco, from Gaul. aballo 'apple' and -enco, diminutive suffix from Germanic -ing OIr aball, Ir/Sc ubhall, W afal, C aval, Br aval unknown in Latin
andain 'swath, scythe slash' - OFr andain 'wide step', from Gallo-Latin andagnis 'big step', from Gaul. ande 'big, great' and agnis 'step', from agi 'to move' Ir an- 'very' + OIr áin 'activity, play' -
ardoise 'slate' - Gaul. artuas 'stelae, stone plates', plural of *artuā 'stone, pebble' OIr art 'stone', Ir airtín, Sc airtein 'pebble' -
arpent 'arpent acre' OSp arapende, Sp arpende, Prov arpen ML arependis, fr Latin arepennis, from Gaulish OIr airchenn 'short mete or bound (abuttal); end, extremity', W arbenn 'chief' system of measurement alien to Latin
auvent 'eaves, porch roof, penthouse roof' Prov. ambans 'parapet', Occitan embans, French dial. arvan MFr auvans (pl) 'sloping roof', fr OFr anvant (1180), fr Gaul. andebanno 'overhang, forward jutting part of a roof', fr ande (augmentative prefix) + banno 'horn, antler' for banno, see below under section Patois unknown to Mediterranean architecture
aven 'sinkhole, swallow hole' Occ avèn 'abyss, whirlpool', Asturian aboñón 'channel, drain', Galician abeneiro 'alder (tree)' OFr avenc, from Old Occ, from Gaul. abona 'river' W afon, C avon, Br avon, aven, Sc abhainn, Ir abha, abhainn -
bâche 'canvas sheet, tarpaulin' Gasc bascojo 'hanging basket', Asturian bascayu, Béarn bascoyes, Fr (dial) bâchot, bachou OFr baschoe 'type of hod', from Gaul. bascauda 'wicker chest, hamper', from *basca 'binding' W basg 'plaiting', MIr basc 'neckband' -
balai 'broom (sweep)' Sp baleo 'broom (plant)', Astur baléu OFr balain 'broom (plant)', from Gaul *balatno, metathesis of *banatlo MBr balazn (mod. balan), Sc bealaidh, Ir beallaidh vs. W banadl, C banadhel Lat. scobum (cf. Fr dial. écouvillon)
barge1 'godwit' Liguro berta 'magpie' Gaulish bardala, diminutive of bardos 'bard' MW bardd 'poet', OIr bard, MBr barzh 'minstrel', OC barth 'mime, jester' Lat. corydallus (from Greek korydallis)
barge2 'haybale, straw heap' (Western) Sp varga "thatch-roof hut, straw-roof hut", Cat/Pg/Occ/Liguro barga "wattle hut", Ital barca "haystack" Gaul bargā (Latin fundus bargae, in Tabula Veleiana, 2nd century) MIr barc 'fort; woodshed' (< *bargā) -
barnache, bernache 'barnacle goose' - OFr bernaque, fr Gaul. barenica 'limpet', fr barenos 'rock, boulder' (cf. OIr barenn 'boulder'); for semantic development, compare Greek lépas 'rock' > lepás 'limpet' Ir báirneach, Sc bàirneach, W brennig, C brennik, Br bernig, brennig -
bassin 'basin' Prov. bacha 'feeding trough', FrProv bachè, bacha 'large vat', Amognard bassie 'sink' OFr bacin, from ML baccinum, from LL bacca 'wine or water jug', from Gaulish 'burden, load to bear' Ir/Sc bac 'hindrance, heed', W baich 'load, burden', C begh 'load, burden', Br bec'h 'burden, toil' -
battre 'to beat' Sp. batir , Mantuan batü 'beaten, beat' Latin battuere, from Gaulish *battu 'I strike, hit' W bathu 'to coin, mint (money)', C bathi 'to coin, mint (money)' -
bauge 'wild boar den; cob, hut' FrProv (Swiss) bache 'swamp hay', Prov bauco, balco 'rough-leafed grass, tuft of hay, swamp grass used as bedding', OProv terra bauca 'good, solid turf' OFr balche, from Gaul balco 'strong' OIr balc, Ir bailc, Sc bailceach, W/C balch, Br balc’h -
baume 'grotto' Prov baumo, Lombardo balma, Piemontese barma Gaul *balma Ir baile 'home; town' -
bec 'beak' Cat bec, It becco, Pg bico, Sp pico Latin beccus 'beak', from Gaul *beccos 'beak', perhaps originally 'little' perhaps OIr becc 'little', Ir/Sc beag, W bach; diminutives C byghan, Br bihan Lat rostrum
belette 'weasel' Lorrain belâ, blâ, Liguro bélloa, Venetian belita, Piem/Lomb. bellola, Sp dial. belida, bilidilla From FrPov belete, from Gaul bela MW beleu, W bele, belaod (pl.) 'marten' Lat mustella (cf. OFr moistele)
benne 'handbarrow, dumpster, mine cart', banne 'awning; large wicker basket' It benna 'dung cart', G (Swabish) Bann 'cart, hod', G Behner 'basket', Du ben, benne 'basket', E bin Gaul benna W benn 'cart', OIr buinne, Br karr-banner 'truck bed', OBr benn 'caisson (chariot)' -
berle 'water parsnip' Sp berro 'watercress' Gaul. berula 'cress', diminutive of beru 'stake, spit' W berwr, C/Br beler, OIr biror, Ir biolar, Sc biolaire; further to Ir/Sc bior, W bêr, C/Br ber -
berceau 'cradle', bercer 'to rock', ber 'drydock' Prov bressà 'to rock', brès 'cradle', Sp dial. brezar 'to rock', brezo, berzo 'cradle' OFr bers, berz 'cradle', fr Gaul. *bertu 'I rock', fr *berta 'load' Ir beartaim 'I rock', beárt 'load, action'; further to OIr brith, breth f. 'carrying, judgment', MW bryd m. 'thought, mind, intent', C brys 'thought' -
bief 'mill reach, mill race' Genoese (Liguro) bëo 'ditch, channel', Asturian beyu' 'narrow gorge' OFr bied, from Gaul. *bedo 'ditch; grave' W bedd 'grave', Br bez, C bedh -
bille 'log' Prov. bilha 'stem, trunk' Gaul. *billia 'tall tree' W pill 'stump', Br pil, Mx billey 'tree', Ir billeóg 'leaf', bille oir 'tree trunk', Sc bileag, bile 'leaf, blade' -
boisseau 'bushel' Lyon emboto 'two handsful', Cat embosta, almosta, Sp ambuesta Diminutive of OFr boisse 'dry measure of grain', Gallo-Lat. *bostia 'hollow of the hand', fr Gaul. *bosta; cognates from *ambostā Br boz, OW bos, MIr boss, bass, Ir bass; OIr imbas 'clasped hands' -
bonde, bondelle 'bunghole' OProv bonda Gaul. bunda 'base, bottom' OIr bunud, MIr bond, Sc bonn 'foundation', W bonedd 'base, foundation' -
borne 'milestone, landmark' - OFr bonne, bosne, fr earlier bodne, Gallo-Lat. bodina ‘arbre frontière’, fr Gaul. bodînâ ‘troop’ OIr buiden 'squadron', Ir/Sc buidhean/n 'regiment', W byddin 'grove', Br bodenn, bod 'thicket' -
boue 'mud' - Gaul *bowā W baw 'filth, muck', budr 'dirty, messy', OIr búaidir 'dirty', Br (Ouessant) baouer 'gooey stubstance (from seaweed)', C beudhowr 'filthy water' -
bouge 'hovel, dive' Gaul. boutigo 'cow byre', compound of bou 'cow' and tego 'house' Br boutig, W beudy, Ir bothigh; further to Ir , MW bu 'oxen' and Ir teach, g. , Sc taigh, Br/OC ti, C chi, W -
bouillon-blanc 'mullein' - ML bugillō, fr Gaul., fr boccos 'soft' Br beuk, Ir bog Lat verbascum (cf. Sp varbasco)
bouleau 'birch' Ardennais boule, Prov bes(se), Cat beç, bedoll, Sp abedul Diminutive of OFr boule, from Lat. betula, dim. of Gaul. betua 'birch' Ir/Sc beith, W bedw, Br bezv, Manx beih -
bourbe 'muck, mire' Galician borba 'mud', Asturian borbolla 'bubble', Sp burbuja 'bubble' Gaul borvon 'spring, well' Ir bearbh 'boiling', W berw 'boiling, seething', Br berv 'broth, bubbling' -
bourdaine 'alder buckthorn' ONorm borzaine, French dial. bourg-épine, Walloon neûr-bôr, Basque burgi 'alder buckthorn', German Eberesche (Aberesche, Eberbaum) 'service-tree', Flemish haveres (influenced by haver 'oat') From Western dialect, from OFr bourgène, from Gaul *eburi-gena, from eburos W efwr 'cow parsnip', dial. (N) ewr, Br evor 'alder buckthorn', Sc iubhar 'yew', Ir iúr, OIr ibar -
brai 'pitch' Prov brac, It brago, braco 'mud', OFr bragnier 'to plow' Gaul *bracu W bracu 'filth', MIr broch 'garbage' Lat pix (cf. Fr poix)
braie(s) 'breeches, pants' Prov/Sp. braga, It braca, Mantuan braghi 'trousers' and braghìn 'short trousers'; Br bragoù Lat. braca - -
braire 'to bray', brailler 'to bawl, whine' - Late Latin bragire, from Gaulish *bragu MIr braigid 'it crashes, explodes', Ir/Sc braigh 'to shriek, crackle', Br breugiñ 'to bray' -
bran 'filth' Berry/Picard brin, Prov/OSp bren, It (dials) brenno OFr bren 'bran, filth', from Gaul. brennos 'rotten' OIr brén, Ir bréan 'smelly, rancid', Sc breun, W braen 'stench', braenu 'to rot', Br brein Lat. caecum 'filth' (cf. Sp cieno)
branche 'treelimb' Prov branca 'paw', It brance 'claw, paw', Romansch dial. franka, Rum brânca Late Latin branca 'paw', from Gaul. *vranca Br brank, branc'h 'bough, antlers', Sc bràc 'branch, antler; reindeer' -
brasser 'to brew' Fr dial. brai, bray 'malt' OFr bracer, fr brace 'malt', fr Gaul brace OIr mraich, Sc braich, W/C brag 'malt', Br bragez 'wheat germ' -
brave 'brave, daring' Occ/Cat. brau 'tough, wild' MFr brave, fr It bravo 'bold', fr Occ brau 'wild', fr Gaul. bragos 'show-off' MIr breagha 'fine', Ir breá, Sc brèagh, C bray, Br braga 'to strut around' -
bréhaigne 'barren (animal)' Pg/Galician/Astur/Salander braña 'swampland, bogland, humid meadow', Sp breña 'scrubland', NW Cat braina 'field of grain whose ears have not sprouted yet', N. Ital. barena 'flood plain of a lagoon' OFr baraign, brahain, fr Lat. brana ‘sterile mare’, fr Gaul. *branna 'land where nothing grows', fr *brenno 'rotten' Ir branar, W braenar 'fallow', Br breinar; see bran above -
breuil 'copse' Prov brogo, Mantuan bröl 'orchard, vegetable garden', Germ. Brühl 'prairie' OFr bruil (attested ML breialo (Vienna Glossary)), fr Gaul *brogilos 'thicket, hunting reserve', diminutive of brogos 'country' W/C/Br bro 'country', Ir bruig, Sc brugh 'tumulus, large house', Mx broogh 'brae, bank' -
bribe 'fragment, parcel' Pic brife 'bit of bread' Gaul. briba W briw 'fragments', C bryw, Br brev 'broken', Sc breaban 'leather patch', Ir preaban 'parcel, piece, patch' -
briser 'to break' Mantuan brisa 'bit of bread' OFr brisier, fr Gaul. brissu 'I break' OIr brissim, Ir/Sc bris, Mx brishey Lat frangere (cf. OFr fraindre)
broche 'spit, skewer' Asturian bruecu 'pointed, sharp' Gaul. brocca, fr broccos 'pointed' Sc brog 'awl; to prod', W procio 'to poke, thrust', Ir prioc; OIr brocc 'badger', Ir broc, W broch, Br broc'h -
bruire 'to roar; rustle, murmur' - Gaul. bruge 'to troat' W broch 'din, tumult', Br bruchell 'roar, bellow', Sc broiglich 'noise', broighleadh 'turmoil'; Ir brúcht 'belch' -
bruyère 'heath, moor' Prov bruguiera 'moorland', Cat bruguera; Milan brüg, Ital brugo, Prov bruga, Germ (dial. Mainz) Brikane, Cat bruc; Sp brezo, (Navarre) beruezo, Gal breixo (< *broccius) Gallo-Lat. brucaria, fr brūcus, fr late Gaul *vroikos, fr earlier vroici, vroica W grug, dial. (Pembroke) gwrig, C grig, MBr groegan, Ir/Sc fraoch, Manx freoagh -
bugle 'bugle (plant), bugleweed' Mantuan bög 'soft fruit, overripe fruit' OFr bucle, fr LL bugula, fr Lat bugīlla, fr Gaul., diminutive of buccos 'soft' MIr bocc 'soft', Ir/Sc bog 'soft', Br bouk 'soft, mild' -


French Cognates Etymology Possible Celtic Cognates Latin/Romance
cabane 'cabin, cob' OFr chavane 'small farmstead', Mantuan capanùn 'barn' fr Prov. cabana 'cob, cottage', fr Gaul. capanna 'hut', fr cappos 'cob, tent' W caban 'booth, hut', Br koban 'booth, awning', Ir/Sc cabán 'hut, booth, tent'; further to W cab 'cot, tent', MIr cap(p) 'cart, bier' -
caillou 'pebble' MFr chaillou, chail, Pic caillau, Poit. chail, SwFr/Fr-Comt chaille, Prov. calado, Astur. cayuela 'pebble, chestnut' Normand or Picard, fr Gaul. caliavo 'pebbly', fr cali 'pebble' W caill, C kell, Br kell, kall, Ir caull 'testicle' -
cervoise 'barley beer' Gaul. cervesia C corev 'beer,' W cwru 'beer, ale' -
chainse 'linen canvas, undershirt' - OFr chainse 'tunic', fr L camisia 'shirt', fr Gaul. OIr caimmse 'shirt', W obs. cams(e) 'surplice, alb', C kams 'surplice, alb', Br kamps 'hem' *Note: chemise 'shirt' is an early learned borrowing and not inherited
changer 'to change, exchange' Sp. cambiar, Ast. cambéu 'exchange' OFr changier, from L cambiāre 'to barter', earlier cambīre, from Gaul cambion 'exchange' Br kemm 'exchange', OIr cimb 'ransom' -
char 'wagon', charrue 'plough' Basq ekarri 'to bring', OProv carruga 'cart' Astur. carru Mantuan car 'chariot,wagon' and carét 'cart' L carrus 'chariot', fr Gaul. carros; L carracutium, fr Gaul. carruca 'ceremonial plough' Ir carr 'dray, wagon', W carr 'chariot', C/Br karr 'cart' -
charançon 'weevil' - MFr charenson, dim. of OFr *charenz, from LL *caranteus, fr Gaul. *carvantos, fr carvos 'stag' W carw, C karow, Br karv, OIr carbh, Ir cáirrfhiadh -
charpente 'framework, building frame' Lorr charpagne 'hamper', Welche charpin ‘large osier basket’, Friul čharpint ‘cart axle’ L carpentum, fr Gaul. carbanto 'carriage', fr carbos 'basket' Ir carbat, Sc carbad, W cerbyd, OBr cerpit -
chat-huant 'tawny, brown, or wood owl' OPic coan, Judeo-French javan, FrProv (Swiss) tsavouan MFr chouan, fr L cavannus, fr Gaul. Ir ulchabhán, W tyllhuan, cuan, C kowann, Br kaouenn -
chemin 'way, path, route' Sp. camino, FrProv tch’mïn, Prov. camin, Astur. camín LL camminus 'step, footpath, tollspot', fr Gaul. camani, plural of camanom 'step' Ir céim 'stride', pl. céimmenn, Sc ceum, W/C cam 'step', OW pl. cemmein 'steps', Br kam 'step' -
chêne 'oak' Prov cassanh, Gasc casse, FrProv (Swiss) tsâno, Astur caxigu, Aragon caixico OFr chasne, chesne, fr LL casnus, fr Gaul. cassanos literally, 'twisted, gnarled' Ir cas 'to twist, turn, spin', W cosgordd 'to twist' L quercus
chétif 'wretched, meek, weakling' Prov caitiu,Mantuan catif 'bad' OFr chaitif, blend of Gaul. caxtos 'prisoner' and Lat captivus 'prisoner' W caeth 'slave, confined', C keth 'slave', Br kaezh 'miserable, unfortunate', Ir cacht 'distress, prisoner' -
cheval 'horse' It cavallo, Sp. caballo, Rum cal; Germ (Swabish) Kōb 'nag' (< cabō), Mantuan kaval Latin caballus 'nag', from Gaul. caballos, variant of cabillos 'work horse, nag', dim. of cabō (> L) W ceffyl, Br kefel, Ir capall, Manx cabbyl Lat equus
claie 'rack, fence post, hurdle' Gasc cleda 'small gate', Cat. cleda 'cattle pen, sheepfold', Aragonese cleta 'wooden gate', Portuguese cheda 'wagon bed', Basq gereta VL cleta, fr Gaul. W clwyd 'gate, hurdle', Br kloued 'fence, harrow', C kloes 'hurdle, lattice', Ir/Sc clíath 'hurdle' -
cloche 'bell' Germ Glock, Galician choco 'cowbell' Gaul. clocca Ir/Sc clog, W cloch, C klogh, Br kloc’h Lat tintabulum
coche 'brood sow', cochon ‘pig’ Wal cosset, cosson, Morvan coisson ‘piglet’ Gaulish *coccā ‘hip’, akin to coxo ‘foot’ (for sense development, compare obs. German †Hackshe ‘brood sow’ from Hachse ‘hock’) Old Irish coch ‘hip’; further to OIr coss ‘foot’, W coes, C koes, Br koaz ‘leg’ -
combe 'hollow' Occ comba 'valley', Cat coma, Astur. comba LL cumba 'dishes', fr Gaul. comba 'concave, cavity, depression' W cwm 'hollow', C komm 'small valley, dingle', Br komm 'trough, valley, deep water', Ir com 'chest cavity', OIr comm 'vessel' -
corme 'service berry' - LL corma, fr Gaul. curmi 'ale, beer' OIr cuirm, coirm, gen. corma 'beer', W cwrw, cwrwf, cwrf 'ale', C/Br korev -
coudrier 'hazel' Amognes coudrette, queudre, FrProv cudra, Romansch coller; Occ còila 'hazel switches, hazel osiers' OFr coldre, from Gallo-Latin colurus, blend of Gaul collos and Lat corulus OIr coll (mod. coill), W coll, C koll, Br (lit.) kollenn) Lat corulus
coule 'religious cowl' - OFr coule, goule 'cowl', fr Lat. cucullus, fr Gaul., reduplication of cullo 'covering, shelter' OIr cuilche ‘mantel’, cuile ‘cellar’, MIr cul ‘defense, shelter’ -
craindre 'to fear' Saintangois crénre, Prov crénher Old French creindre, from VL *cremere, from Gaul. *crenu ‘I shake’ + L tremere ‘to shake’ W crynu, Br/C krena; W cryn 'shaking', Br kren, C crên Lat timere (cf. OFr temir, It temere, Rmsch temair, Cat temer)
cravan 'brant goose' - Western dialect cravant 'wild goose', fr *cragu- + -ant, fr Gaul. *crago 'hoarse' W cregu 'to be hoarse', cryg 'hoarse', C kreg 'hoarse' -
crème 'cream' FrProv (Lyon) cramiot 'spittle' OFr cresme (influenced by LL chrisma 'ointment'), fr Gaul crāmum ‘skim, skin’ W cramen 'scab', C kramm, Br kramm, kremm, MIr screm 'surface, skin' -
créner 'to indent, notch, carve', cran 'notch, catch' - Gaul. crinos 'collapsed, fallen in' OIr ar-a-chrinim 'I collapse, crumble, shatter', crinner 'fall', crín 'withered, decayed' -
creux 'hollow, pit, dip' Fr-Prov cros 'hollow, cave', Prov. cros 'tomb', Occ. cro, Ligurian creusa, creuso OFr crues, fr Gallo-Lat. crosus, fr Gaul. *crossos - -
daim 'roedeer' - Lat. damma, dammus, from Gaul dammos 'ox, stag' OIr dam 'ox, stag', damán 'fawn', Ir damh 'ox'; W dafad, C davas, Br dañvad 'sheep' -
dartre 'rash, blemish, breakout; dartars' Poit endarde, Milan dérbeda, Valais. diervet, Prov derbi, derti, It (dial) derbi, derbga Old French dertre, from Lat. derbita, from Gaul *derveta Br darvoued, derbod, W tarwyden, darwyden 'scurf, dandruff', OIr deir 'herpes' -
décombres 'debris, rubble', encombrer 'to encumber' Germ Kummer 'rubble', Sp. escombro 'rubble' OFr combre 'river barrage, dam', from ML combrus 'barricade of felled trees', from Gaul. combero 'river fork, dam' Br kember, W cymmer, Ir comar, cumar, OIr commor, cummar -
douve 'liver fluke' Norm duve, FrCmt dôrve, Bas-Alpes endervo, Corrèze olvo Gaul. *dolba 'grub, caterpillar', from *dolbu 'I chisel, carve' OIr dolbaid 'he forms, shapes' -
draine, drenne 'mistle thrush' Tecino dren 'raspberry', Comasc dren 'blackberry', Milan drine 'hawthorn'; partially Pic fourdraine 'sloe' Gaul. drageno 'thorn, briar'; semantic development 'thorn bush' > 'aggressive bird' OIr draigen, Ir/Sc droigheann, W/Br draen, C drain/drein -
drap 'cloth' It. drappo, Sp/Pg trapo, Mantuan drap Late Latin drappus 'piece of fabric', from Gaul. *drappo 'shred, torn-off piece' W drab 'piece, shred', drabio 'to tear into pieces' -
drèche 'brewing dregs' Prov draco 'wine lees', Dauph drachi 'stamped raisin bunch', Wall drâhé OFr drasche 'barley dregs; raisin skin', from Gaul. drasca MIr tresc 'refuse, offal', Ir treascach 'draffy', Sc treasg 'dregs' -
drille 'rag, tatter' Lyon drouille 'tatter', Dauph. drouille 'wood chip' OFr drille 'fabric scrap', fr Gaul. *drullo 'piece, shred' W dryll 'fragment, small piece', MBr druill, C dral 'scrap, fragment', Sc dreall/dreoll 'door bar'; -
dru 'thriving, hardy, fit, thick' Bourb drusine 'vigor', Amognard dru 'lively', druger 'to grow, get livelier', Prov. endrudi 'to enrich', OProv drut 'lover', NItal drü 'fat, thick', Milan druto 'exuberant' OFr dru 'lively; fat', from Gaul. drūtos W drud 'brave, valliant, furious', OIr drúth, édruith 'lewd, extravagnt', Sc drùth 'lecherous', Br druz 'fat, fit, fertile' -
érable 'maple' FrProv iserâblo OFr airable, from LL acerabulus, blend of abolo 'apple' and Lat. acer ‘maple’ (akin in formation to W criafolen 'rowan', afol tindoll 'medlar', OIr fic-abull 'fig tree') - Lat acer
étain 'tin, pewter' Sp. estaño,Mantuan stajgn'hard' Lat stagnum, var. stannum, fr Gaul. stannon (according to Pliny) Ir stán, OSc stàn, W ystaen, C sten, Br stean -
flannelle 'flannel' Jersiais flianné 'flannel', Mantuan flanèla 'flannel' Old Normand flanelle, fr OFr flaine 'coarse wool', fr Gaul. vlana 'wool' W gwlân 'wool', gwlanen 'flannel', C gwlan, Br gloan, Ir olann, Manx ollan -
fragon 'butcher's broom' Walloon frigon OFr fregon, fr Gaul. *sprigo W ffreu 'fruit' -
gaillard 'festive, hardy, merry' - Gaul. galia 'might', Mantuan gaiard'hardy, strong' W obsolete †gâl 'strength', gall 'energy', OBr gal, Br galloud 'power', C gallos 'ability', OIr gal, gallacht 'valor' -
galet 'flat rock, skipping stone' Fr dial. jalet 'stone projectile of cross bow' Normand or Picard, fr Gaul. gallos 'large rock' OIr gall 'stone pillar', gallán 'large upright stone' -
galon 'galon', jalon 'marker' Cat galleda ‘bucket’ OFr jalon ‘liquid measure’, diminutive of jale 'porringer', fr LL galla ‘vessel, container’, fr late Gaul. *glāvo 'rain', fr earlier *glōvo W glaw 'rain', Br glao, C glaw -
garenne 'rabbit warren' Fr dial. varaigne, Astur. varagaña 'enclosure' Gaul. varena 'enclosed area' (cf. varonadas (nom. pl.)) Ir/Sc fearann 'land, enclosure', OIr feronn 'field', ferenn 'girdle, garter' -
gerzeau 'corncockle' OFr jargerie, jarzerie 'cockle, weed', Val d’Aosta dardillon 'pignut' Gaul. gargos 'wild; bitter' Ir/Sc garg 'wild; bitter' -
glaise 'loam' Normand glise OFr gleise, gloise, fr Gallo-Lat glisomarga 'clay marl', fr Gaul. gliso 'white' W glwys 'bright, pretty', OBr gloes 'pretty', OIr glése 'brightness', Ir/Sc gleus 'order, trim, tune' -
glaive 'broad sword' - From *gladibu, blend of Lat gladius + Gaul. cladebos W cleddyf, Br kleze, C cledhe, OIr claideb, Ir claíomh, Sc claidheamh Lat ensis
glaner 'to glean' OProv glenar OFr glener, fr LL glenare, fr Gaul. glennu 'I gather, sort', fr glanos 'clear, pure' OIr glenn- 'to choose, amass', do-glinn 'he collects, gathers', MIr digliunn 'I glean', W (SW) dichlyn 'to select, sort out' -
gober 'to gobble, guzzle, devour', gobe 'morsel, gob' - OFr gobe, fr Gaul. gobbo Ir gob 'mouth', Sc/Manx gob 'beak', W gwp 'bird’s head/neck' -
gord 'kiddle, stake net' Prov. gòrsa 'hedge, bush', Limousin gorso 'bush', Lombard gorz 'bush' OFr gort 'boundary hedge', from Gaulish gorto 'yard; hedge' (because of its shape) Ir gort 'wheatfield', W garth 'hill, enclosure', Corn gorth, OBr orth 'yard, enclosure' -
gosier 'gizzard' Wal. djwèhe, Lorr. gosse, Ardenn. gosi 'gizzard', gosillon 'Adam's apple', Friul gose, It gozzo, Rum guşă ‘maw, goiter’, Mantuan gòs OFr geuse, josier, from VL geusiae 'gizzard edges', from Gaulish, from *geusi 'to pour' W gewai 'glutton' -
gouge 'gouge, chisel' OProv goja, It gubba, Sp gubia, Pg goiva Gaul. gulbia 'piercer', fr *gulbu 'beak' OIr gulba 'sting', W gylyf 'sickle' -
graisset 'green tree frog' Occ grasan, graissan 'toad', Cat grexá 'toad', gresandu 'tadpole' MFr gresset, from Gaul. *craxantos (attested craxaulus), from craxa 'scab, rough patch' W crach 'crust, scab', C kragh 'scurf', Br krak 'gruff' -
grève 'sandy shore, sandy beach', gravier 'gravel' Fr (Western dials.) groue, Prov/Cat/Astur. grava, Venit grava, Friul grave Gallo-Lat. grava, fr Gaul. gravis Br gro 'silt', C grow 'gravel', W gro 'gravel' -
guenille 'rag, tatter' - Western dialect, from guener, gueniller 'to wet, dampen', fr guène, gâne 'pond, pool', fr OFr gasne 'muddy pool', fr Gaul. vāgna ‘slope; moor’ C/Br geun 'swamp', W gwaun 'lowland, meadow', Ir fann 'slanting, sloping', fána 'downward slope, hollow' -


French Cognates Etymology Possible Celtic Cognates Latin/Romance
if 'yew' Prov (Maritime) liéu[1] Gaul. ivos[2] W yw, C ywin, Br iwin, OIr Lat. taxus (cf. Occ teis, FrProv dêx, Romansh taisch)
jachère 'fallow field' Sp gancho 'large hook' (< gansciu) LL gascaria 'scratch-plough', fr Gaul. gansko 'branch' OIr gesca 'stem, branch' LLat. vervactum (cf. Fr guéret 'tilled but unsown field', Sp barbecho)
jaillir 'to gush, spurt' Norm galir 'to throw' Gaul. gali 'to boil' Ir gailim 'to boil over', Manx gaal 'steam', Sc goil 'to boil', gèil 'to bubble, well up' -
jante 'wheel rim' Pic gante, Occ cant, Sp canto, It canto 'corner' L canthus, cantus, fr Gaul. cantos Br kant 'ring', W cant 'felloe, rim', MIr céte 'gathering (in a circle)', Ir cétal, s. canó, OW canten, cantem -
jarret 'hamstring, bend of the knee' OProv/Sp garra 'claw', Prov garro, Fr dial. gare, jarre 'thigh' OFr garet, diminutive of gare 'leg, thigh',Mantuan garét, diminutive of 'leg' and galùn 'thighs' from Gaul. garra 'leg' W gar, C/Br garr, OIr gairri 'calves of the leg', Ir cara -
javelle 'sheaf, fagot, bundle' OOcc gabella, Occ gavèl, Sp gavilla LL gabella, fr Gaul. gabali 'armfull', fr gabu 'to take' W gafeal 'to grasp, hold', C gavel 'grasp, hold', MIr gabáil -
javelot 'javelin' - Gaul. gabalaccos, fr gabalos 'fork', Mantuan giavlòt 'javelin' Ir gabhla, gen. gablach 'spear', W gaflach 'dart' -
lance - L lancea, fr Gaul lankia, Mantuan lansa 'lance' and lansér 'lancer' MIr do-léicim 'I toss, fling, launch' -
lande 'heath, moor' Gaul landa Breton lann 'heath', W llan 'village, yard', C lan 'open space, plain', lann 'enclosure', Ir/Sc lann 'enclosure' -
landier 'andiron, firedog' Basq andere 'woman', Astur. andera 'heifer' OFr andier, fr Gaul. andero 'heifer; young woman' W anner 'heifer', Br (Leon/Corn) ounner, (Trég) annouar, (Vann) annoér 'heifer', Ir ainnir 'young woman' -
lieue 'league (measure)' Prov. lègo, Cat llegua, Sp legua, Pg légua, It lega LL leucas, fr Gaul. 'league marker' OIr líe, gen. líac 'stone', Ir liag 'stone' -
lie 'lees, wine dregs' Sp légamo, dial. lidia, liria, OIt led(g)a, Romansch glitta, Basq lekeda ML liæ, fr Gaul. lĭga 'sediment' OBr leh 'silt, deposit', Br lec'hi 'dregs', W llai 'silt, deposit' -
loche 'loach' Sp loja, Ast. lloca VL laucca, fr Gaul. loukā 'light' W llug 'shimmer, glint', OIr lúach 'bright' -
lotte 'monkfish' - Gaul. lotta, literally 'flat(fish)' or 'wide(fish)' OIr lethaid 'he extends, expands', W lledu 'to extend, expand'; OIr lethan 'wide', W llydan; W lled 'flounders', C leyth 'flounder, flat-fish' -
luge 'sled, toboggan' Béarn. leo, Prov lièio, Piém. leza, Rouerg leudo, leuzo; Romansch schliuza, schlieza VL leudia, leudico (5th century), fr Gaul. sludio 'sled' Ir slaod 'raft, float', Sc slaod 'drag, trail', OBr stloit 'dragging, sliding', Br stlej 'drag', W llithr 'glide' -
maint 'many, much' It mantissa, mantisa 'a little something extra', Astur manta 'quantity' Gaul. manti Br meñt, meñd 'multitude, greatness', W maint 'size, capacity, quantity', C myns, Ir méid, méad 'size', Sc meud, miad -
manteau 'coat' Basq mantar 'shirt, barque tarpaulin', Mantuan mantèl 'coat' Diminutive of OFr mante, fr LL manta, fr L mantum, mantellum, fr Gaul. mantlon 'covering' Br malan, manal, C manal 'sheaf' -
marne 'marl' Sp/OIt/Ast marga, Lyon margagni 'deep mud, muck', Germ Mergel OFr marle, fr LL margila (influenced by argilla 'white clay'), fr Gaul. marga Br marg -
mélèze 'larch' OProv melseca, Prov mèlze, ODauph melese, Piedmontese malëzzo OFr-Prov melese (1313), fr LL melix, -icem, merger of Gaul melissos 'honey-sweet' + Latin larix 'larch' Sc meilise 'hedge mustard'; further to W melys 'sweet', C melys, Br milis 'honey-flavored', Ir/Sc milis 'sweet' Latin larix (cf. FrProv (Swiss) larze, It larice)
mine 'mine' OProv mena, Astur mena 'vein' LL mina, fr Gaul. *mēna 'ore, mine' W mwyn 'ore', C moen, Ir míanach 'ore' -
molène 'mullein' Romansch mélen, Sardinian mélinu 'yellow' OFr moleine, influenced by mol 'soft', fr. LL melinus 'yellow', from Gaul. melinos Br melen, W/C melyn 'yellow, mullein' -
mouton 'sheep' Sp mocho 'he-goat', It montone 'ram' Gaul. *molton 'wedder' W mollt 'ram', Br maout 'wedder', C mols 'ewe', Ir/Sc mult 'ram' -
noue 'dry river bed, river flood plain' OFr noe 'river bed', fr LL nauda 'marshland', fr Gaul., fr Proto-Celtic snauda, fr sna- 'to swim' MIr snúad 'river' -
obier 'water elder' It (l)oppio 'maple', Vegliot vaple 'maple', Astur. obleru 'thorn' Lat. (Milan) opulus (Varro), from Gaul. opolos 'maple' Ogam Irish Oqoli, Irish MacOchaill (personal names) -
palefroi 'palfrey, saddle horse' Germ Pferd "horse", Du paard 'horse'; Sp vereda 'pathway', Galician verea 'main road' LL paraverēdus 'pack horse, spare horse', fr Greek para + Lat. verēdus 'post horse', fr Gaul., fr ver- 'over' + redu 'running, swift' W gorwydd 'horse, charger' -
petit 'small' Prov/Cat petit, Occ pichòn, pichòt, Rum pitì 'to shrink' ML pittitus (775), akin to LL pitinnus, pitulus 'tiny', from Gaul *pitt- 'tiny' ~ pit- 'tip, point' Br pizh ‘meticulous; frugal, stingy’, C pyth ‘tight with money, penny-pincher’; W pid 'tapering end, tip', obsolete †piden 'penis', Br pidenn 'penis' Latin putillus
pièce 'piece, part' It pezza, Prov pessa, pesa, Port peça, Astur. petisa 'hopscotch' ML petia, petium, from Gaul petsi 'thing, part', from pet 'what' W peth 'thing', Br pez 'thing', C peyth, Ir/Sc cuid 'part' Latin pars
pinson 'finch' Tuscan pincióne, Cat pinsà, Sp pinzón, pinchón Gaul. *pincio W pinc, Br pint Latin fingilla (borrowed from Germanic)
quai 'wharf, embankment', chai 'cellar' - Normand quai and Poitevin chai, fr LL caium 'surrounding wall or hedges', fr Gaul. caio 'hedge' W cae 'fence, hedge', Br kae, C ke -
raie 'lynchet' Cat. rega 'furrow', rec 'channel', Prov rega 'to furrow', Occ regon 'furrow' OFr roie, fr Gallo-Lat. rica, fr Gaul. 'furrow' W rhych, Br reg, Ir eitre, Sc riach L porca (cf. Cat pórca 'land, flower bed')
rebours 'against the grain' Prov. rebous OFr rebors, fr LL reburrus 'swollen', from Gaul., from ro- 'very' + -borros 'stout, inflated' W bwr 'stout, sturdy, big', C borr 'fat; protuberance, paunch', OIr borr 'swollen, inflated', Ir borr 'pride, greatness' -
rêche 'rough, harsh' - OFr resque, fr Gaul. rescos 'rough' - -
renfrogner 'to sulk, frown, grimace' It infrigno 'frowning', Lomb frignare 'to whimper, make a wry face' OFr enfrogne 'wry face, wrinkled nose' and froignier 'to stick one's nose up at', both from frogne, froigne 'wry face, wrinkled nose', fr late Gaul. frogna 'nostril', from earlier srogna W ffroen 'nose', Br froen, Ir sróine, Sc sròn -
ruche 'hive' Fr-Prov (Jurassien) reûtche 'bark', Prov. rusco 'bark' OFr rusche, Gallo-Lat rūsca 'bark', fr. Gaul. rūsco Br/C rusk, W rhisgl, Ir rusg, Sc rùsg -
saie, sayon 'say, sagum cloak' Sp sayo LL sagum, saga, sagus, fr Greek ságos, fr Gaul. sagos 'coat', fr *seg- 'to hold on or together' no direct cognates; *segno > MIr sén 'snare', W hoenyn 'snare'; *segsmen > W hemin, Ir seaman 'rivet' -
sapin 'fir' Norm/OFr sap, Romand sap, sab, sabs, Foréz sa, Occ (dial.) sap, Astur. sapera 'small oak' Savoy sapin, fr Lat. sappinus, compound of Lat. pinus 'pine' and Gaul. sappus W sybwydd 'fir', OC sibnit 'silver fir' -
séran 'heckle, hatchel', sérancer 'to ripple flax or hemp' Fr-Prov ceran ‘hemp comb’ OFr serans 'hemp comb', from Gaul. kērā, gen. kērans 'comb' OIr cír 'comb', Ir cìor, Sc cìr, Manx kere, gen. kereen -
sillon 'furrow' Occ. selhan, Romansch saglia 'strip in a swath over which grass is strewn', NItal (Parma) sia 'space between furrows' OFr seillon, fr silier 'to plough, till', fr Gaul *selia 'dirt mound', fr *selu 'I take away' OIr coisle ‘to leave’, fo-coisle ‘he takes away’, do-fochsla ‘to seize, carry off’ -
soc 'ploughshare' Gaul. soccos 'pig; ploughshare' Ir soc 'ploughshare, snout', suig 'pig', W swch, Br souc’h', C soch' ploughshare' / W hwch Br houc’h C hogh 'pig' Lat vomer
souche 'tree stump, tree base' Occ soca, It zoca, Montferrat soc, socca, Aragon zoque; Romansch tschücha, Norm chuque, Berry suche, Piemontese süka, Sp chueca 'stump' OFr çoche, seuche, fr late Gaul. śokka, from earlier stokka 'part, piece' Br soc'h, C sogh obtuse, MIr tócht 'part, piece' -
soue 'pigsty' FrProv (Foréz) soue, souda 'pigpen' OFr seu, soit, fr LL (Salic Law) sotem, sutem, fr late Gaul. *sucotegos, compound of succos 'pig' + tegos 'house' no cognates, but similar formation to Ir bothigh 'cow byre', W dafaty 'sheepcot' Lat suile 'pigpen' (cf. OFr soil 'pigsty; wild boar's wallow')
suie 'soot' Lorr seuche, Savoy suçha, Prov suja, suga, Gasc soja LL sugia, fr Gaul. sudia OIr súide, Ir súiche, Sc súithe, B huzel, C hudhygel, W huddugl Lat fulliginem (cf. Sp hollín, Pg fuligem, It fuligine, Romansch fulin, Rum funingine)
talus 'embankment, slope' Dauph. talapan 'gable', Prov. tauvero 'field border' OFr talu, fr LL talutium, fr Gaul. talos 'brow, steep' W tâl, taloedd, C/Br tal 'forehead, brow', OIr tal, taul 'shield boss, protrusion, hump' -
tan 'tanbark, tan (color)' - Gaul. tanno 'holm oak, live oak' Br tann 'red oak', glastann 'holm oak', OC tannen, C glastan 'holm oak', OIr caerthann 'service tree', tinne 'holly' (mod. teine 'furze, gorse') -
tanière 'animal den, lair' It tasso, Sp tejon badger OFr taisniere, tesniere, fr taisse, taisson 'badger', fr VL taxo, fr Gaul. tasgō 'badger' Sc taghan 'marten', OIr (name) Tadhg 'badger' -
taranche 'screw bar, ratchet on a basket wine press' Prov. tarenco, Sp tranca ‘cudgel, club’ Gaul. tarǐnca 'screw, nail' OIr tairinge 'iron nail, tine', Ir tairne 'metal nail, tarrag', Sc tairnge 'nail' -
tarière 'auger, gimlet' OProv taraire, Romansch tareder, Sp taladro, Pg trado OFr tarere, fr Lat. taratrum, fr Gaul. taratron W taradr, Br tarar, C tarder, Ir tarachair -
tonne 'ton', tonneau 'barrel' Sp/Cat tona OFr tonne 'cask', fr LL tunna 'wine-skin', from Gaul. tonna 'skin, hide' Ir tonn 'skin, hide', W ton 'skin', C ton 'surface; lawn', Br tonnen 'rind, surface, head hair' -
triage 'forest canton' Bourg. traige 'small pass between houses' OFr triège 'track, trail', fr Gaul. tragos, gen. trageto 'foot' W troed, Br troad, C troes, OIr traig, gen. traiged 'foot', Ir/Sc troigh -
trogne 'bloated or funny face' Piem. trugnu, Cat tronya 'brat' Gaul. trugna 'nose, snout' W trwyn 'nose, snout', C troen 'nose', Br stroen 'snot' -
truand 'vagrant, beggar' Prov truans, Sp truhan 'baffoon, jester', Pg truhão, Galician trogo "sadness, pity" Gaul trugant, from trugos 'wretch' W truan 'wretched', Sc truaghan 'wretch, miserable creature'; further to OIr tróg, Ir trogha, W/C/Br tru 'wretched' -
truie 'sow' Gasc/Cat troja, Occ truèja, Ligurian trœa LL troia, fr Gaul. *trogia, from trogu 'to give birth' W troglwyth, trollwyth 'pig litter', C godra, Br godro to milk, OIr trog 'birth (delivery), litter', Sc trog 'to raise, rear' -
vandoise 'dace' Wall vindwesse, Pic ventoise LL vindēsia, fr Gaul. *vǐndǐsia, fr vindos 'white' no cognates exist, but like formations do: Br gwyniad 'dace, pollan', Sc fionnag 'whiting' -
vanneau 'lapwing' It vannello Gaul. vanello, venello 'swallow' W gwennol, C/Br gwennel, Ir fáinle, Sc fáinleog -
vassal 'vassal, serf', valet 'attendant' - LL vassalus, diminutive of Gaul. vassos 'youth, servant', Mantuan vasal 'vassal' and valét 'vallet' W/C gwas 'youth, page, servant', Br gwaz 'youth, vassal', MIr foss 'servant', Sc fasdadh 'rabble army' -
vautre ‘boarhound, bearhound’ Cat guilter 'mastiff' OFr veltre, vaultre, fr Gaul vertraha, fr vertragos, compound of ver- 'over' + tragos 'foot', ‘high-footed’, i.e. ‘fleet-footed’ OIr traig 'foot', Ir troigh, W troed, Br troad + Ir for, Br war 'over, super', W gwor- -
vélar, vellar 'hedge mustard' - Gaul. vela 'ring, tendril', fr. velu 'to bend' Ir fáil 'ring', Br gwalenn 'twig, rod; ring', OIr fillid 'he bends' -
verne, vergne 'alder, white alder' OProv vernha, Fr-Prov verna, Cat vern, NItal dial. sberna, Rouchi verne ‘draft-pole; purlin’, Liégois/Namurois vièrna ‘helm’ Gaul. vernos 'alder' Br/W gwern, C gwernen, Ir fearn, Sc feàrna -
virer to turn, swerve' Sp virar LL vīrāre, from Gaul *viru 'to deviate, veer off', from viros (see next) W gwyro 'to shift, deviate', Br goara 'to curve' -
virole 'ferrule (virl, verrel)' Friul viruele OFr virelle, fr Lat. viriola 'bracelet', diminutive of vira, viriæ, fr Gaul. viros 'round, crooked' Ir fiar 'bent, crooked', W gwyr, C gwarr 'nape, curve', Br goar, gwar -
vouge 'French glaive, Lochaber ax' Occ vezoig, Bearnese bedulh, Spanish bodollo OFr vooge, fr LL vidubium 'wood-knife', fr Gaul., compound of vidu- 'wood' and -bi(d)on 'trimmer' Ir fiodhbha 'sickle', W gwyddif, C gwydhyv 'billhook Br gouzifiad 'pike, boar-spear'

Old French[edit]

Old French Cognates Etymology Celtic Cognates Latin/Romance
bièvre 'beaver' It bevero,Mantuan 'béor' LL beber (gen. bebrum), fr Gaul. bebros Sc beabhar, W/C befer, Br (dial) bieuzr, OBr beuer Lat. fiber, later replaced by castor (from Greek)
bresche 'honeycomb' Occ. brusc, brus 'hive', Prov bresco ‘waffle, honey cake’, FrPrv (Swiss) brètsi 'to curdle' (< *briscare) Gaul. *brisca, fr *briscos 'brittle' Br bresk 'brittle, fragile', MIr brisc, Ir briosg, Sc brisg Lat faba
bresil 'haring' Poit brèche 'multi-colored cow', Sp breca 'pandora (mollusk)' Gaul. *brictilo, fr briccos 'spotted' W brithyll 'trout', C brythel 'mackerel', Br brezhell 'mackerel'; further to OIr brecc, Ir breac 'trout; multicolored', W brych 'spotted' -
brif 'finesse, talent, style' Old Provençal briu 'wild' Gaul *brigos OIr bríg 'pith, power, strength' (mod. brí 'strength, valor'), W bri 'repute, dignity, rank', Br bri 'respect', C bry 'worth' -
bruesche 'witch' Cat bruixa, Aragon broixa, Pg bruxa, Sp bruja VL *bruxtia, fr Gaul brixtia, fr brixtu 'charms, spells' MW brithron 'magic wand', Br bre 'witch, magic', breoù 'spells, charms', OIr brichtu 'spells', brigim 'to light up, illuminate', Brigit 'shining' VL strix (It striga)
Bugibus, Beugibus 'demon' - Gaul. bugi 'ghost, hobgoblin W bwcibo 'devil', C buccabo; further to W bwg, bwgan 'ghost, hobgoblin', bwci 'hobgoblin', bwgwl 'threat, fear', C boekka 'hobgoblin, imp' -
cuter 'to hide' Gallo cutter Gaul. cudo 'hidden' W cudd, C cudh, Br kuzh -
dour 'handful' Galician dorna, Sp duerna 'kneading trough' Gaul durnos 'fist' B dourn 'hand', W dwrn, Ir/OIr/OBr/C dorn, Sc dòrn -
dun 'fortress, high place' - Gaul dunon OIr (g. don) 'place, countryside', Ir dún, Sc dùn, W din -
grenon 'mustache' Pic guernon, Prov gren, Sp greña ‘tangle, (greasy) lock of hair’ Gaul grenna 'beard, mustache' Sc greann 'beard', Ir grann 'eyelash', OIr grend 'beard, mustache', W grann 'eyelid', Br gourenn, gourren 'eyebrow' -
guermenter 'to shout, shriek' - Gaul *garmon Ir gairm 'call', W/Br garm 'shout' -
mègue 'whey', (pl.) 'clabber, posset' Fr dial. mégauder 'to suckle' (> mégot 'cigarette butt') Gaul mes(i)gus OIr medg, Ir meadhg, Sc mèag, M meaig, W maidd, C meidh, OBr meid -
muchier 'to hide' Norman muchi, Walloon muchî, Poitevin muçaè, Gallo muczae, Picard mucher Gaul *mucciu 'I hide' OIr formúchtha, for-múigthe 'smothered, concealed' Lat celare
nâche - Gaul *nascā 'ring, link, band' MIr nasc, Sc nasg 'band, tieband, collar', OIr -naisc, nascim 'I tie', Br nask ‘hindrance (physical)’, naska 'to bind' -
nee 'girl' Prov nada, Cat naita, OSp nado ‘son’ Gallo-Lat nata, fr Gaul gnātos, -a MW gnawt 'relative' -
oche, osche 'tally mark, line drawn in the dirt (to not cross)' - Gaul osca W osg 'notch, scoring', Br aska 'to notch up, score' -
osche, ouche 'enclosed land' Prov olca, Astur huelga (> Sp), Basq elge 'field' Gaul olca 'plowable field' - -
rin 'spring' - Gaul rino, reno W rhewyn 'stream', Ir rían 'tide, ocean waves' -
sesche 'rush, bulrush' Prov sesco 'rush' Gaul sesca 'sedge' Ir seisg 'sedge', W hesg, C/Br hesk -
seüs, seüz 'bloodhound' OProv sahus, It segugio, Sp sabueso, Pg sabujo VL segusiu, fr Gaul segusios, egusia, fr segu 'to follow' OIr sechem 'I follow', Ir seach 'to follow', MW -hei 'seeker', OBr cnouheiat 'nutgatherer'
seuwe 'rope' It soga 'rope, leather band', Sp soga 'linear measure', Pg soga 'rush rope', Picard soue 'well rope or chain', Basq soka Gaul sōca 'rope, chord' W syg 'chain', Br sug 'harness trace', Ir suag 'rope', Sc sùgan 'straw rope' Lat corda (cf. French chorde)
tache 'clasp, fastener (on clothing); large nail' Prov tascoun 'peg', Galician tasca, tascón 'swingle', Sp tascar 'to nail' Gaul tascon - -
tolon 'hill, highland' - Gaul tullo OIr telach, tulach 'hill', W twlch 'hump, bump' -
torce 'straw plug' Cat torca 'distaff' Gaul torcos 'neckring, necklace' OIr torc, W torch, Br torchenn 'rye straw necklace' -

Regional Languages (patois) and Neighboring Languages[edit]

Regional Language/Dialect Cognates Etymology Celtic Cognates Latin/Romance
Franco-Provençal abron 'sow teat' - a + Gaul. brondā 'breast' W bron, C/Br bronn, OIr/Sc bruinne -
Walloon ãcrawe 'hook salmon' OPic ancreu 'female salmon, hook salmon', Swiss Germ Anke 'Lake Constance trout', Rhine Franconian (Rhein)anke 'Rhine salmon' OWall ancrauwe, from LL ancoravus (4th century), from Gaul ancorago 'Rhine salmon, hook salmon', from anco 'curved, hooked' + rago 'before, in front' akin to W anghad 'clutch, grip', craf-anc 'claw', OIr éc 'hook', écath 'fish hook'; W rhag 'before', C/Br rag -
Prov agreno 'sloe' Occ aranhon, Cat aranyó, Arag arañon, Esp. arándano < *agrani-dano VL *agrīnio ~ agranio, fr. Gaul. agrīna Ir áirne, OIr arni, Sc àirne, W eirinen, Br irin 'plum' Latin spīnus
aib 'good manners' - Gaul. *aiba OIr óiph 'beauty, appearance', MIr áeb, Ir aoibh 'pleasant, humor', Sc aoibh 'civil look, cheerful face' -
Ladin aidin 'silver fir' - Gaul. adlinos MIr aidlen 'silver fir', C edhlen 'poplar', MBr ezlen -
Poitevin amblé 'leather thill-strap' Acadian/Saintongeais amblet, Romansh (Engadine) umblaz OFr amblais, fr. ML amblatium (9th century), fr. Gaul. ambilation, fr. lation 'switch, rod' W llath 'wand, stalk', Br laz 'switch, draft-pole', OIr slatt 'twig, rod', Ir/Sc slat -
Lorrain ancenage 'sharecropping' - Gaul. *ande-cinga, fr ande 'intensive prefix' + cinga 'walk' OIr cingid 'to walk', W rhygyngu 'to amble' -
FrProv avano 'osier, with' Galician abanqueiro 'waterfall' (orig. 'beaver damn' < abanco + -arium) Gaul. abanco 'dwarf; beaver' Irish abacc 'dwarf', Welsh afanc 'beaver; dwarf', Breton avank 'dwarf; sea monster' -
Prov bano 'horn' - Gaul. bannos 'top, horn, peak' Ir beann, OIr benn, W ban 'beacon, peak', MBr ban, Br binioù 'horn pipes' -
Romansh baràz 'bramble' FrProv (Chablais) bara 'heap of straw or stones', North Italian bar 'bunch, tuft, bar', Galician barra 'garret, loft, upper platform' Gaul. *barro 'tip, top' Ir barr 'tip, summet, top', Br barr 'treelimb', barren 'bar, rod', W bar 'nail', baren 'branch' -
Acadian bâsir 'to vanish, die' Saintongeais basir 'to die', La Rochelle basir 'to vanish, evaporate', Provençal basi 'to faint; die' Gaul. *bāsi OIr bás 'death', bebais 'he died' -
Limousin bec 'bee; bumblebee' Emiliano bega Gaul. *becos OIr bech, Sc beach, OW beg (W begegyr 'drone') Latin apis (Occ abelha)
Comtois beloce 'sloe' Gallo belocz, Mesquerais beurlosse, Champ balosse "plum", Wal biloke, Norm bloche, Occ (Vivarois) pelorsia, Sp bugallo, Portuguese bugalha 'oak gall' OFr belloche, beloce, from *bullucea, from Gaul. bolluca Br bolos, polos, polotrez 'blackthorn, sloe', Ir bulos 'prune', Sc bulaistear 'wild plum' Latin spīnus
Prov bescle 'spleen' - Gaul. *bistlo 'bile' W bustl, OC bistel, Br bestl VL *splēnica (cf. Friul splenge, Ladin splënja, Romansh spletga)
FrProv dial. bijon 'pitch' - Gaul. bitu OIr , gen. bíde 'pitch', Ir bigh, Sc bìth 'resin, gum, birdlime' Latin pix (FrProv pege, Occ pega, Fr poix)
FrProv blécher, blocher 'to milk', reblochon 'soft cheese' Hautes-Alpes bletchar, Val d'Aosta blètsì Gaul. blegu 'I milk' Ir blighim 'to milk', Sc bleagh; further to Ir bleacht, Sc bliochd, W blith 'cow's milk' Lat mulgere (OFr moudre)
Valtellino briánz 'wormwood, absinth' - Gaul. *brigantios, from briginus 'wormwood', from brigo 'strength' - Lat. absinthes, MLat. aloxina
Limousin/Auvergnat cairon 'chipped stone, brick' Lyon chirat 'pile of rocks', Gasc carroc, Germ (Swiss) Karren 'boulder', Fr (Loire) jard 'sandbank full of pebbles' Gaul. karna 'heap of rocks or stones' MIr/Ir carn 'heap of stones', Sc càrn, W carn, Br karn -
Romansh carmün 'stoat' - Gaul *carmion - -
Occ clot 'pit, grave' - Gaul *clādo Ir cladh 'ditch, trench', W clawdd 'ditch, dyke', C kledh 'ditch, bank', Br kleuz -
Poitevin cous 'holly' Astur coleñu 'holly' Gaul collis, -inos 'holly' Ir cuilenn, W celyn, Br kelenn, C kelynn, Sc cuilionn Lat. aquifolium (cf. FrProv agrebo, Occ agrifol)
crétir 'to fear' - Gaul *critu 'I quiver' Welsh cryd 'fever', ysgryd 'shiver', egryd 'quiver', Breton krid 'spasm', skrij 'quiver', C krys 'shaking, jostling', scryth 'shiver', Irish/Scottish crith 'to tremble, quiver' Lat. timēre
Picard (Tournais) crincher 'to winnow' Lorrain (Gaumais) crincî 'to winnow', Lyon crincer, crinser 'to burn slowly and flamelessly' Gaul *crienta 'chaff', fr *crei- 'to riddle, separate out' Ir cruithneacht 'wheat'; further to OIr criathar, MBr croezr ‘riddle’, W gogrynu ‘to riddle, sift’ Vulgar Latin excutere
Prov croi 'cruel' NItal crojo, Gal. croio 'rolling stone; hard, cruel' OProv crois, fr Gaul. croudis 'hard' OIr crúaid (mod. crua) 'hard', Sc cruaidh, W cru 'cruel, crude', Br kriz 'hard, rough, raw' Lat. crūdēlis (Occ crusèl)
Dauphinois curla 'squash' - Gaul. *curalo ~ *cularo 'pignut' W cylor 'truffle, pignut', Br/C keler 'pignut', Ir/Sc cùlaràn 'cucumber', OIr curar 'pignut' Lat. cucurbita (cf. Fr courge)
FrProv daille 'billhook, scythe; spruce' Prov daio 'reaper' Gaul dalgo 'pin, skewer' Ir/Sc dealg, MW dala 'sting, fang', W dal 'to fasten; fastener', C delc 'necklace', Br delioù 'pine needle' Lat. falx
FrProv darve 'mole' Occ darbon VLat darpus, fr Gaul darbo - Lat. talpa (Fr taupe)
derve 'oak' Ouest drille, Angevin drouillard, Savoy darbo 'small fir', Romansh derbèlè 'fir forest' OFr dervée 'oak forest', fr Gaul derva Ir dair, Sc/Ir doire 'grove', W derw, Br derv, C derow Lat. quercus
double 'silver fir' Val d'Aosta dubluna 'dark wood', Germ (Swiss) Tobwald, Toppwald 'old-growth oak forest' Gaul. dubus 'dark'; so named because the silver fir's wood blackens with age W/C/Br du, Ir/Sc dubus -
Comtois douraise 'openwork gate (to a fence)' FrProv dreuze, draize, dorez, dareizi Gaul. *doressu OIr/Sc dorus 'doorway, gateway', Ir doras; W drws -
Lorèze dreglio 'checkerberry (fruit of the wild service tree)' - Diminutive of Gaul dercos 'berry' OIr derc 'berry', Ir/Sc dearc -
droue, druive 'nettle', dragée 'fodder, rye grass' Wall. drawe, Gallo dréu, Lomb droga OFr droe, drave, from Gaul. dravoca 'darnel' Br draweg, C drewk, W drewg Lat. lolium
Lyon drouille 'tatter' Dauphinois drouille 'wood shaving' Gaul *drullia (plural) W dryll 'fragment, small piece', Br drailhenn 'scrap, shred, strip', Sc dreall/dreoll 'door bar' -
Walloon dûhin, dûhon 'goblin' Ardennais dusion Lorrain dusien 'incubus', Centre duhot 'monster', Piemontese dosseul 'devil', Romansch dischöl, döschel (> Germ (Swiss) Dusl 'misfortune'), Basque tusuri 'devil', Low German (Westphalia) Düs 'devil' Gaul dusios Cornish dus 'devil', Breton Diz 'devil', Irish dásachd 'madness, rage' Late Lat. daemōn
Picard fourdraine 'sloe; blackthorn' NItal dresin, drèsen, dresla, dres 'briar' Gaul *vordressi 'briar', fr dresso, -i 'briar' OIr ferdris 'briar', driss 'bramble', Ir/Sc dris 'briar', W drysi 'briars', Br drez 'briars' Lat. spīnus
Prov gabre 'male partridge' Fr dial. garron Gaul. gabro 'he-goat' W gafr, C gaver, Br gavr, Ir/Sc gabhar no distinction made in Latin
Lyon gêne 'pressed pomace' - Gaul. *jesmen W iâs 'to seethe', MW iesin 'shining', Br go 'fermented' (< *vo-jes) -
Pic halau 'willow' - Late Gaul. *halico, fr Gaul. salicos Br haleg, W helyg, C helig, Ir saileach, Sc seileach Latin salix (cf. OFr sauz)
FrPrv márvel, marfi 'frozen stiff, deathly pale' Romansh marv 'stiff, numb from the cold' Gaul. marvos 'dead' W/Br marw, C marow, Ir/Sc marbh -
Prov olègue 'dwarf elder' Lomb (Bresc) òles, úles, Occ. (Garde) augué, êgou, Lyon ugo, Astur yeldu, Sp yezgo, Galic. engo, Germ Attich (dial. Adach, Ottich, Otsch), Du hadik LL odecus, odicus, from Gaul odocos - Lat. ebulus (cf. Fr hièble, Occ èule, Cat évol, It ebbio)
Champenois orve 'flour' JudFr orve 'dust', Poit louvre spark, ember', Lyon orva 'spark', Dauph orra, Occ auvo, ouvo 'ashes of plants used for fertilizer' Gaul. *ulvos W ulw 'dust, ashes', Sc ulbach 'ashes', Br ulv 'powder' -
Gascon pairòu, pairòlo 'cauldron' Old Prov par, pairol 'boiler', Lyonnais per, Catalan perol, dial. pér, Ital paiolo 'cauldron' Gaul pario 'cauldron' W pair, C/Br per, Ir/Sc coire VLat caldāria (cf. Fr chaudière "heater", Sp caldera)
Picard (Tournais) roye 'cart' - Gaul. rēda 'four-wheeled carriage' OIr dériad Lat carrus
Marseilles siaisso 'high-quality, bearded wheat' Catalan xeixa 'high-quality, bearded wheat' OOcc saisa, fr Gaul. sassia ‘barley’ W haidd, C heydh, Br heiz -
Lyon suiffe 'bleak (fish)' Occ sòfia 'bleak', NItal Gaul sofia (Polemius) - Latin albulus (OFr able, Fr ablette, OIt avola), alburnus (Saintonge aubourne, Cat alburn, Sp alburno)
Romansh tegia 'Alpine herdsman's hut' Basque tegi 'house', Limousin tèi 'shepherd's hut', Varois atoi, toi, Provençal (Alpes) atei *tegia, fr. Gaul. tegos 'house' Ir teach, gen. , Sc taigh, Br/OC ti, C chi, W -
Fr dial. tuie 'gorse, furze' Galician toxo, Sp/Gasc toja VL *togia, fr togion 'straw, thatch', fr togos 'roof, covering' Ir tuighe 'thatch'; further to W/C/B to 'roof', Ir tué, Sc tugha -

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Jean-Claude Autran, Vocabulaire de la Provence maritime, 2009
  2. ^ or Germ. *īwa