List of Fusor examples

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The following is a list of Fusor examples.

Fusor examples[edit]


Fusors have been theoretically studied at multiple institutions, including: Kyoto University,[1] and Kyushu University.[2] Researchers meet annually at the US-Japan Workshop on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion. Listed here, are actual machines built.

  • Tokyo Institute of Technology[citation needed] has four IEC devices of different shapes: a spherical machine, a cylindrical device, a co-axial double cylinder and a magnetically assisted device.[3]
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison A group at Wisconsin-Madison has been running a very large, funded, fusor program since 1991.[4]
  • Turkish Atomic Energy Authority In 2013 this team built a 30 cm fusor at the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training center in Turkey. This fusor can reach 85 kV and do deuterium fusion, producing 2.4×104 neutrons per second.[5]
  • University of Illinois Dr. George Miley's team at the fusion studies laboratory has built a ~25 cm fusor which has produced 1×107 neutrons using deuterium gas.[6]
  • University of Sydney Dr. Joseph Khachan's group in the Department of Physics has built a variety of IEC devices in both positive and negative polarities and spherical and cylindrical geometries.[7]
  • Atomic Energy Organization of Iran Researchers at Shahid Beheshti University in Iran have built a 60 cm diameter fusor which can produce 1×107 neutrons per second at 140 kV using deuterium gas.[8]
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory In the late nineties, researchers purposed[9] and built a fusor-like system for oscillating plasma, inside a fusor. This device is known as the Periodically Oscillating Plasma Sphere or POPS.[10]
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology For his doctoral thesis in 2007, Carl Dietrich built a fusor and studied its potential use in spacecraft propulsion.[11] In addition, Tom McGuire did his thesis[12][13] on fusors with multiple cages and ion guns.
  • ITT Corporation Hirschs original machine was a 17.8 cm diameter machine with 150 kV voltage drop across it.[citation needed] This machine used ion beams.
  • Phoenix Nuclear Labs Has developed a commercial neutron source based on a fusor, achieving 3×1011 neutrons per second with the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction.[citation needed]


Taylor Wilson presenting fusor work to Barack Obama, February 7, 2012

A number of amateurs have built working fusors and detected neutrons. Many fusor enthusiasts connect on forums[14] and message boards online. Below are some examples of working fusors.

  • Richard Hull Since the late nineties, Richard Hull has built several fusors in his home in Richmond, Virginia.[15] In March 1999, he achieved a neutron rate of 10×105 neutrons per second.[16] Hull maintains a list of amateurs who have gotten neutrons from fusors.
  • Carl Greninger Founded the Northwest Nuclear Consortium,[17] an organization in Washington state which teaches a class of a dozen high school students nuclear engineering principles using a 60 kV fusor.[18]
  • Taylor Wilson built a Fusor at 14 years old.[19][20]
  • Matthew Honickman Was a high school student who built a working fusor in his basement in Rochester, New York.[21]
  • Michael Li In 2003, Michael Li became the youngest person to build a fusor and won second place[22] in the US's Intel Science Talent Search winning a $75,000 college scholarship.[23]
  • Mark Suppes A web designer for Gucci in Brooklyn New York, built a working fusor on a path to building the first amateur Polywell.[24][25]
  • Thiago David Olson Built a 40 kV fusor at age 17, in his home in Rochester, Michigan and placed second in the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair in 2007.[26][27][28]
  • Jamie Edwards who fused the atom at 13, at his middle school in England.[29] He received a letter from the Duke of York, was invited on The David Letterman Show and gave a TED talk.[30]
  • Conrad Farnsworth of Newcastle, Wyoming produced fusion in 2011 at 17[31][32] and used this to win a regional and state science fair.


  1. ^ "Beam optics in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion", Review of Scientific instruments, Masami Ohnishi, Chikara Hoshino, Kiyoshi Yoshikawa, Kai Masuda, and Yasushi Yamamoto, VOLUME 71, NUMBER 2 FEBRUARY 2000
  2. ^ "Ion distribution function and radial profile of neutron production rate in spherical inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas" H. Matsuura, T. Takaki, K. Funakoshi, Y. Nakao, K. Kudo, Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 40, No. 12, 2000
  3. ^ "Overview of IEC Research at Tokyo Tech." Archived 2013-12-21 at the Wayback Machine Eiki Hotta, 15th annual US-Japan IEC workshop, October 7, 2013
  4. ^ R.P. Ashley, G.L. Kulcinski, J.F. Santarius, S.K. Murali, G. Piefer, 18th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, IEEE #99CH37050, (1999)
  5. ^ "Preliminary Results of Experimental Studies from Low Pressure Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Device", A. S. B, Y. A, A. A, Journal of Fusion Energy, May 2013
  6. ^ "A portable neutron/tunable X-ray source based on inertial electrostatic confinement", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, A 422 (1999) 16-20
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2016-03-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Experimental Study of the Iranian Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device as a Continuous Neutron Generator" V. Damideh, Journal of Fusion Energy, June 11, 2011
  9. ^ "Stable, thermal equilibrium, large-amplitude, spherical plasma oscillations in electrostatic confinement devices", DC Barnes and Rick Nebel, PHYSICS OF PLASMAS VOLUME 5, NUMBER 7 JULY 1998
  10. ^ "Equilibrium and low-frequency stability of a uniform density, collisionless, spherical Vlasov system", D C Barnes, L Chacon and J M Finn, Physics Of Plasmas Volume 9, Number 11 November 2002
  11. ^ "Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and Propulsion" SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS, Carl Dietrich, February 2007
  12. ^ "Improved Lifetimes and Synchronization Behavior in Multi-grid Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Devices", Feb 2007, MIT, DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS
  13. ^ "Numerical Predictions of Enhanced Ion Confinement in a Multi-grid IEC Device", McGuire, Sedwick, 44th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit 21–23 July 2008, Hartford, Connecticut
  14. ^
  15. ^ "Living with a nuclear reactor" The Wall Street Journal, interview with Sam Schechner,
  16. ^ "The Neutron Club", Richard Hull, Accessed 6-9-2011,
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Dutton, Judy. "Teen Nuclear Scientist Fights Terror",, 1 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-03.
  20. ^ TED2012. "Taylor Wilson: Yup, I built a nuclear fusion reactor". Retrieved 2013-04-14.
  21. ^ "Building Electronics is teen's favorite leisure activity" Democrat and Chronicle, Ashwin Verghese, Jan 6th 2010
  22. ^ Intel STS, "Alumni to watch: Michael Li & The Data Incubator". Retrieved 2014-11-08.
  23. ^
  24. ^, Mark Suppes Presentation at Wired 2012, October 2012
  25. ^
  26. ^ Teen builds basement nuclear reactor, Popular Science
  27. ^ Stephen Ornes: Radioactive Boy Scout, Discover Magazine, March 2007
  28. ^ "Neutron Activation Analysis Using an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Reactor," Thiago David Olson of Stoney Creek High School, Rochester Hills, Michigan AVS Newsletter, Fall 2007, page 3, 2007 Intel 58th International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF)
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  32. ^