List of presidents of Germany

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of German presidents)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A number of presidential offices have existed in Germany since the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.

The Weimar Constitution of August 1919 created the office of President of Germany (German: Reichspräsident). Upon the death of Paul von Hindenburg in August 1934 the office was left vacant, with Adolf Hitler becoming head of state as Führer und Reichskanzler. In April–May 1945, Karl Dönitz briefly became President upon the suicide of Hitler (in accordance with last will and testament of Hitler).

The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of May 1949 created the office of President of the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundespräsident). From German reunification in 1990, the President has been the head of state for all of Germany.

The East German constitution of October 1949 created the office of President of the German Democratic Republic (German: Präsident der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, DDR). Upon the death of Wilhelm Pieck in 1960, the office of Präsident der DDR was abolished and replaced by a collective head of state, the Staatsrat ("State Council"). The Staatsrat was abolished by a constitutional amendment of the Volkskammer ("People's Chamber") on 5 April 1990. From then until the GDR joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, the president of the Volkskammer also served as the GDR head of state.

Weimar Republic (1919–1933)[edit]

† denotes people who died in office.

Reichspräsident Took office Left office Time in office Party Election
Friedrich Ebert
Ebert, FriedrichFriedrich Ebert
(1871–1925)
11 February 191928 February 1925 †6 years, 17 days SPD1919
Hans Luther
Luther, HansHans Luther
(1879–1962)
Acting
[a]
28 February 192512 March 192512 days Nonpartisan
Walter Simons
Simons, WalterWalter Simons
(1861–1937)
Acting
[b]
12 March 192512 May 192561 days Nonpartisan
Paul von Hindenburg
Hindenburg, PaulGeneralfeldmarschall
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847–1934)
12 May 19252 August 1934 †9 years, 82 days Nonpartisan1925
1932

Nazi Germany (1933–1945)[edit]

† denotes people who died in office.

Reichspräsident Took office Left office Time in office Party Election
Paul von Hindenburg
Hindenburg, PaulGeneralfeldmarschall
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847–1934)
Reichspräsident
12 May 19252 August 1934 †9 years, 82 days Nonpartisan1925
1932
Adolf Hitler
Hitler, AdolfAdolf Hitler
(1889–1945)
Führer und Reichskanzler
2 August 193430 April 1945 †10 years, 271 days NSDAP1934
(referendum)
Karl Dönitz
Dönitz, KarlGroßadmiral
Karl Dönitz
(1891–1980)
Reichspräsident
30 April 194523 May 194523 days NSDAP

German Democratic Republic (1949–1990)[edit]

† denotes people who died in office.

President of the Republic (Präsident der Republik)[edit]

Präsident der Republik Took office Left office Time in office Party Election
Johannes Dieckmann
Dieckmann, JohannesJohannes Dieckmann
(1893–1969)
Acting
[c]
7 October 194911 October 19494 days LDPD
Wilhelm Pieck
Pieck, WilhelmWilhelm Pieck
(1876–1960)
11 October 19497 September 1960 †10 years, 332 days SED1949
1953
1957
Johannes Dieckmann
Dieckmann, JohannesJohannes Dieckmann
(1893–1969)
Acting
[c]
7 September 196012 September 19605 days LDPD

Chairman of the State Council (Vorsitzender des Staatsrats)[edit]

Vorsitzender Took office Left office Time in office Party
Walter Ulbricht
Ulbricht, WalterWalter Ulbricht
(1893–1973)
12 September 19601 August 1973 †12 years, 323 days SED
Friedrich Ebert Jr.
Ebert, FriedrichFriedrich Ebert Jr.
(1894–1979)
Acting
[d]
1 August 19733 October 197363 days SED
Willi Stoph
Stoph, WilliWilli Stoph
(1914–1999)
3 October 197329 October 19763 years, 26 days SED
Erich Honecker
Honecker, ErichErich Honecker
(1912–1994)
29 October 197618 October 1989
(resigned)
12 years, 354 days SED
Egon Krenz
Krenz, EgonEgon Krenz
(born 1937)
18 October 19896 December 1989
(resigned)
49 days SED
Manfred Gerlach
Gerlach, ManfredManfred Gerlach
(1928–2011)
6 December 19895 April 1990
(office abolished)
120 days LDPD
Sabine Bergmann-Pohl
Bergmann-Pohl, SabineSabine Bergmann-Pohl
(born 1946)
Acting
[e]
5 April 19902 October 1990
(office abolished)
180 days CDU

Federal Republic of Germany (from 1949)[edit]

Bundespräsident Took office Left office Time in office Party Election
Karl Arnold
Arnold, KarlKarl Arnold
(1901–1958)
Acting
[f]
7 September 194912 September 19495 days CDU
Theodor Heuss
Heuss, TheodorTheodor Heuss
(1884–1963)
13 September 194912 September 19599 years, 364 days FDP1949
1954
Heinrich Lübke
Lübke, HeinrichHeinrich Lübke
(1894–1972)
13 September 195930 June 1969
(resigned)
9 years, 290 days CDU1959
1964
Gustav Heinemann
Heinemann, GustavGustav Heinemann
(1899–1976)
1 July 196930 June 19744 years, 364 days SPD1969
Walter Scheel
Scheel, WalterWalter Scheel
(1919–2016)
1 July 197430 June 19794 years, 364 days FDP1974
Karl Carstens
Carstens, KarlKarl Carstens
(1914–1992)
1 July 197930 June 19844 years, 365 days CDU1979
Richard von Weizsäcker
Weizsäcker, RichardRichard von Weizsäcker
(1920–2015)
1 July 198430 June 19949 years, 364 days CDU1984
1989
Roman Herzog
Herzog, RomanRoman Herzog
(1934–2017)
1 July 199430 June 19994 years, 364 days CDU1994
Johannes Rau
Rau, JohannesJohannes Rau
(1931–2006)
1 July 199930 June 20044 years, 365 days SPD1999
Horst Köhler
Köhler, HorstHorst Köhler
(born 1943)
1 July 200431 May 2010
(resigned)
5 years, 334 days CDU2004
2009
Jens Böhrnsen
Böhrnsen, JensJens Böhrnsen
(born 1949)
Acting
[f]
31 May 201030 June 201030 days SPD
Christian Wulff
Wulff, ChristianChristian Wulff
(born 1959)
30 June 201017 February 2012
(resigned)
1 year, 232 days CDU2010
Horst Seehofer
Seehofer, HorstHorst Seehofer
(born 1949)
Acting
[f]
17 February 201218 March 201230 days CSU
Joachim Gauck
Gauck, JoachimJoachim Gauck
(born 1940)
18 March 201218 March 20175 years, 0 days Independent2012
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Steinmeier, Frank-WalterFrank-Walter Steinmeier
(born 1956)
18 March 2017Incumbent2 years, 89 days SPD2017

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Acting President, as Chancellor of Germany.
  2. ^ Acting President, as President of the Reichsgericht.
  3. ^ a b Acting President, as President of the Volkskammer.
  4. ^ Acting Chairman of the State Council, as Deputy Chairman of the State Council.
  5. ^ Acting head of state, as President of the Volkskammer.
  6. ^ a b c Acting President, as President of the Bundesrat.

See also[edit]