List of governors general of Canada

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The following is a list of the governors and governors general of Canada. Though the present-day office of the Governor General of Canada is legislatively covered under the Constitution Act, 1867 and legally constituted by the Letters Patent, 1947, the institution is, along with the institution of the Crown it represents, the oldest continuous and uniquely Canadian institution in Canada, having existed in an unbroken line since the appointment of Samuel de Champlain in 1627.[1]

Viceroys of Canada, 1541–1627[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Viceroys representing the monarchs of France
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under Francis I of France (1541–1547)
1 Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval.jpg Jean-François Roberval[2][3]
(c. 1495–1560)
1541 1543 1–2 years
Under Henry III (1574–1589)
2 Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Troilus de Mesqouez[2][4]
(1536–1606)
1578 ? ?
Under Henry IV (1589–1610)
Troillus des Mesgoüets
(continued)
1598 ? ?
3 Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Aymar Chaste[citation needed]
(1514–1603)
1602 1603 0–1 years
Under Louis XIII (1610–1627)
4 Henri Prince of Conde Moncornet.jpg Henri, Prince of Condé[5]
(1588–1646)
1614 1619 4–5 years
5 Henri II de Montmorency.jpg Henri II de Montmorency[6] 1619 1625 5–6 years
6 Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Henri de Lévis de Ventadour[7] 1625 1627 1–2 years

Governors of New France, 1627–1663[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Governors representing the monarchs of France
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under Louis XIII of France (1627–1643)
1 GG-Champlain.jpg Samuel de Champlain
(1574–1635)
1627 1635 7–8 years
2 CharlesHuaultMontmagny.jpg Charles de Montmagny
(c. 1599–1654)
1635 14 May 1643 7–8 years
Under Louis XIV (1643–1663)
Charles de Montmagny
(continued)
14 May 1643 1648 4–5 years
3 Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge.jpg Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge
(c. 1612–1660)
1648 1651 2–3 years
4 Lausonjean.JPG Jean de Lauson
(1584–1666)
1651 1657 5–6 years
5 Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson, Vicomte de Mouzay
(c. 1599–1654)
1658 1661 2–3 years
6 Pierre du Bois d'Avaugour.jpg Pierre Dubois Davaugour
(1625–1709)
1661 1663 1–2 years

Governors General of New France, 1663–1760[edit]

Arms of France (France Moderne).svg Governors general representing the monarchs of France
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under Louis XIV of France (1663–1715)
7 Augustin de Saffray de Mezy.jpg Augustin de Saffray de Mésy
(1598–1665)
1663 1665 1–2 years
8 Daniel Remy de Courcelles.JPG Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle
(1626–1698)
1665 1672 6–7 years
9 Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698).jpg Louis de Buade de Frontenac
(1622–1698) (first time)
1672 1682 9–10 years
10 Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre.jpg Joseph-Antoine de La Barre
(1622–1688)
1682 1685 2–3 years
11 Jacques-Rene de Brisay, Marquis de Denonville.jpg Jacques-René de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville
(1637–1710)
1685 1689 3–4 years
9 Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698).jpg Louis de Buade de Frontenac
(1622–1698; second appointment)
1689 1698 8–9 years
12 Hector-Calliere.jpg Louis-Hector de Callière
(1648–1703)
1698 1703 4–5 years
13 GG-Vaudreuil.jpg Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil
(c. 1643–1725)
1703 1 September 1715 11–12 years
Under Louis XV (1715–1760)
Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil
(continued)
1 September 1715 1725 9–10 years
14 Marquis de Beauharnois.jpg Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois
(1671–1749)
1725 1747 21–22 years
15 GG-La Galissoniere.jpg Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière
(1693–1756)
1747 1749 1–2 years
16 GG-Jonquiere.jpg Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière, Marquis de la Jonquière
(1685–1752)
1749 1752 2–3 years
17 GG-Quesne.jpg Michel-Ange Duquesne de Menneville
(c. 1700–1778)
1752 1755 2–3 years
18 GG-Vaudreuil2.jpg Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal
(1698–1778)
1755 1760 4–5 years

Governors of the Province of Quebec, 1760–1786[edit]

Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Governors representing the monarchs of Great Britain
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under George III of the United Kingdom (1760–1786)
19 GG-Jeffrey Amherst.jpg Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst
(1717–1797)
1760 1763 2–3 years
20 GG-James Murray.jpg James Murray
(1721–1794)
1764 1768 3–4 years
21 General-Sir-Guy-Carleton 2.jpg Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
KB
(1724–1808)
1768 1778 9–10 years
22 Sir Frederick Haldimand by Sir Joshua Reynolds.jpg Sir Frederick Haldimand
KB
(1718–1791)
1778 1786 7–8 years

Governors-in-Chief/Governors General of the Canadas, 1786–1841[edit]

Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg Governors representing the monarchs of Great Britain
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under George III of the United Kingdom (1786–1820)
23 General-Sir-Guy-Carleton 2.jpg Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester
KB
(1724–1808)
1786 1796 9–10 years
24 GG-Robert Prescott.jpg Robert Prescott
(c. 1726–1815)
1796 1799 2–3 years
25 GG-Milnes.jpg Sir Robert Milnes, 1st Baronet
(1754–1837)
1799 1 January 1801 1–2 years
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg Governors representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
Sir Robert Milnes
(continued)
1 January 1801 1805 3–4 years
26 Can GG NoPic.svg Thomas Dunn
(1729–1818)
1805 1807 1–2 years
27 GG-James Henry Craig.jpg Sir James Henry Craig
KB
(1748–1812)
1807 1811 3–4 years
28 GG-George Prevost.jpg Sir George Prévost, 1st Baronet
(1767–1816)
1811 1815 3–4 years
29 GG-Drummond.jpg Sir Gordon Drummond
(1772–1854)
1815 1816 0–1 years
30 GG-John Coape Sherbrooke.jpg Sir John Coape Sherbrooke
(1764–1830)
1816 1818 1–2 years
31 GG-Charles Lennox.jpg Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond
KG, PC
(1764–1819)
1818 1819 0–1 years
Under George IV of the United Kingdom (1820–1830)
32 GG-George Ramsay.jpg George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie
GCB
(1770–1838)
1820 1828 7–8 years
33 Sir James Kempt by William Salter cropped 5 6 ratio.jpg Sir James Kempt
GCB
(c. 1765–1854)
1828 1830 1–2 years
Under William IV (1830–1837)
34 GG-Matthew Whitworth-Aylmer.jpg Matthew Whitworth-Aylmer, 5th Baron Aylmer
(1775–1850)
1830 1835 4–5 years
35 GG-Archibald Acheson.jpg Archibald Acheson, 2nd Earl of Gosford
GCB
(1776–1849)
1835 1837 1–2 years
Under Victoria (1837–1841)
36 GG-John Colborne.jpg John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton
(1778–1863)
1837 1838 0–1 years
37 GG-John George Lambton.jpg John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham
(1792–1840)
1838 1839 0–1 years
38 GG-Charles Poulett Thomson.jpg Charles Poulett Thomson, 1st Baron Sydenham
PC
(1799–1841)
1839 5 February 1841 1–2 years

Governors General of the Province of Canada, 1841–1867[edit]

Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
No. Portrait Name Term of office
Took office Left office Time in office
Under Queen Victoria (1841–1867)
The Lord Sydenham
(continued)
5 February 1841 19 September 1841 † 226 days
39 GG-Charles Bagot.jpg Sir Charles Bagot
(1781–1843)
12 January 1842 19 May 1843 1 year, 127 days
40 GG-Charles T. Metcalfe.jpg Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe
Bt, PC
(1785–1846)
30 May 1843 26 November 1845 2 years, 180 days
41 GG-Charles Murray Cathcart.jpg Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart
GCB
(1783–1859)
26 November 1845 30 January 1847 1 year, 65 days
42 GG-James Bruce Elgin.jpg James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin
PC, GCB
(1811–1863)
30 January 1847 19 December 1854 7 years, 323 days
43 GG-Edmund Walker Head.jpg Sir Edmund Walker Head, 8th Baronet
KCB
(1805–1868)
19 December 1854 25 October 1861 6 years, 310 days
44 GG-Charles Monck.jpg Charles Monck, 4th Viscount Monck
PC, GCMG
(1819–1894)
25 October 1861 1 July 1867 5 years, 249 days

Governors General of Canada, 1867–present[edit]

Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of the United Kingdom
No. No. Portrait Name Profession Term of office Prime Minister(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
Under Queen Victoria (1867–1901)
1 The Viscount Monck
(continued)
Politician[8] 1 July 1867 14 November 1868 1 year, 136 days Macdonald
45 2 GG-John Young.jpg John Young, 1st Baron Lisgar
GCMG, GCB, PC
(1807–1876)
Politician[9] 2 February 1869 25 June 1872 3 years, 144 days Macdonald
46 3 GG-Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood.jpg Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, the Earl of Dufferin
KP, GCB, GCMG, PC
(1826–1902)
Diplomat[10] 25 June 1872 25 November 1878 6 years, 153 days Macdonald
Mackenzie
Macdonald
47 4 GG-John Campbell.jpg John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne
KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC
(1845–1914)
Author, politician[11] 25 November 1878 23 October 1883 4 years, 332 days Macdonald
48 5 GG-Henry Petty-FitzMaurice.jpg Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne
KG, GCMG, PC
(1845–1927)
Politician[12] 23 October 1883 11 June 1888 4 years, 232 days Macdonald
49 6 GG-Frederick Stanley.jpg Frederick Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Preston
KG, GCB, GCVO, PC
(1841–1908)
Politician[13] 11 June 1888 18 September 1893 5 years, 99 days Macdonald
Abbott
Thompson
50 7 John Hamilton Gordon Earl of Aberdeen 1884.jpg John Hamilton-Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen
KT, GCMG, GCVO, PC
(1847–1934)
Politician[14] 18 September 1893 12 November 1898 5 years, 55 days Thompson
Bowell
Tupper
Laurier
51 8 GG-Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound.jpg Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto
KG, GCMG, PC
(1845–1914)
Military officer[15] 12 November 1898 22 January 1901 2 years, 71 days Laurier
Under Edward VII (1901–1910)
The Earl of Minto
(continued)
22 January 1901 10 December 1904 3 years, 323 days Laurier
52 9 GG-Albert Grey.jpg Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey
GCMG, GCVO, PC
(1851–1917)
Politician[16] 10 December 1904 6 May 1910 5 years, 147 days Laurier
Under George V (1910–1931)
The Earl Grey
(continued)
6 May 1910 13 October 1911 1 year, 160 days Laurier
Borden
53 10 GG-Prince Arthur.jpg Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, GBE, TD, PC, ADC
(1850–1942)
Military officer[17] 13 October 1911 11 November 1916 5 years, 29 days Borden
54 11 GG-Victor Cavendish.jpg Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire
KG, GCMG, GCVO, PC, JP
(1868–1938)
Politician[18] 11 November 1916 11 August 1921 4 years, 273 days Borden
Meighen
55 12 GG-Julian Byng.jpg Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy
GCB, GCMG, MVO
(1862–1935)
Military officer[19] 11 August 1921 2 October 1926 5 years, 52 days Meighen
King
Meighen
King
56 13 GG-Freeman Freeman-Thomas.jpg Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon
GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GBE, PC
(1866–1941)
Politician[20] 2 October 1926 4 April 1931 4 years, 184 days King
Bennett
57 14 GG-Vere Ponsonby.jpg Vere Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough
GCMG, PC
(1880–1956)
Businessman[21] 4 April 1931 11 December 1931 251 days Bennett
King
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield.svg Governors general representing the monarchs of Canada
Earl of Bessborough
(continued)
11 December 1931 2 November 1935 3 years, 326 days Bennett
58 15 GG-John Buchan.jpg John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir
GCMG, GCVO, CH, PC
(1875–1940)
Author[22] 2 November 1935 20 January 1936 79 days King
Under Edward VIII (1936)
The Lord Tweedsmuir
(continued)
20 January 1936 11 December 1936 326 days King
Under George VI (1936–1952)
The Lord Tweedsmuir
(continued)
11 December 1936 11 February 1940 † 3 years, 62 days King
59 16 GG-Alexander Cambridge.jpg Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, PC, ADC, FRS
(1874–1957)
Military officer[23] 21 June 1940 12 April 1946 5 years, 295 days King
60 17 GG-Harold Alexander.jpg Harold Alexander, the Viscount Alexander of Tunis
KG, GCB, OM, GCMG, CSI, DSO, MC, CD, PC, PC
(1891–1969)
Military officer[24] 12 April 1946 6 February 1952 5 years, 300 days King
St. Laurent
Under Elizabeth II (1952–present)
The Viscount Alexander of Tunis
(continued)
6 February 1952 28 February 1952 22 days St. Laurent
61 18 Vincent Massey 1927.jpg Vincent Massey
PC, CH, CD, FRSC(hon)
(1887–1967)
Diplomat[25] 28 February 1952 15 September 1959 7 years, 199 days St. Laurent
Diefenbaker
62 19 GG-Vanier.jpg Georges Vanier
PC, DSO, MC, CD
(1888–1967)
Military officer, diplomat[26] 15 September 1959 5 March 1967 † 7 years, 171 days Diefenbaker
Pearson
63 20 Governor General Roland Michener at Alma College graduation ceremonies 1972 (crop).jpg Roland Michener
PC, CC, CMM, CD, QC, FRHSC
(1900–1991)
Politician[27] 17 April 1967 14 January 1974 6 years, 272 days Pearson
P. E. Trudeau
64 21 Jules Léger
CC, CMM, CD
(1913–1980)
Diplomat[28] 14 January 1974 22 January 1979 5 years, 8 days P. E. Trudeau
65 22 Ed Schreyer (3).jpg Edward Schreyer
CC, CMM, CD
(born 1935)
Politician[29] 22 January 1979 14 May 1984 5 years, 113 days P. E. Trudeau
Clark
P. E. Trudeau
66 23 Jeanne Sauve 1987.jpg Jeanne Sauvé
PC, CC, CMM, CD
(1922–1993)
Journalist, politician[30] 14 May 1984 29 January 1990 5 years, 260 days P. E. Trudeau
Turner
Mulroney
67 24 Ray Hnatyshyn
PC, CC, CMM, CD, QC, FRHSC(hon)
(1934–2002)
Politician[31] 29 January 1990 8 February 1995 5 years, 10 days Mulroney
Campbell
Chrétien
68 25 Roméo LeBlanc
PC, CC, CMM, CD
(1928–2009)
Journalist, politician[32] 8 February 1995 7 October 1999 4 years, 241 days Chrétien
69 26 GG-Adrienne Clarkson2.jpg Adrienne Clarkson
PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, FRSC(hon), FRAIC(hon), FRCPSC(hon)
(born 1939)
Journalist[33] 7 October 1999 27 September 2005 5 years, 355 days Chrétien
Martin
70 27 GG-Michaëlle Jean.jpg Michaëlle Jean
PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, FRCPSC(hon)
(born 1957)
Journalist[34] 27 September 2005 1 October 2010 5 years, 4 days Martin
Harper
71 28 GG-Johnston.jpg David Johnston
PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, FRSC(hon), FRCPSC(hon)
(born 1941)
University administrator[35] 1 October 2010 2 October 2017[36] 7 years, 1 day Harper
J. Trudeau
72 29 Julie Payette 2017.jpg Julie Payette
CC, CMM, COM, OQ, CD
(born 1963)
Astronaut, engineer[37] 2 October 2017[36] 22 January 2021[38] 3 years, 112 days J. Trudeau
73 30 MarySimon.jpg Mary Simon
CC, CMM, COM, OQ, CD
(born 1947)
Broadcaster, diplomat 26 July 2021 incumbent 3 days J. Trudeau

Living former governors general of Canada[edit]

As of July 2021, there are five living former governors general of Canada. The most recently deceased governor general, Roméo LeBlanc (1995–1999), died on 24 June 2009.

Administrators[edit]

Chief Justice Lyman Duff was administrator of Canada in 1940.

The following is a list of Administrators of the Government, Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada who were acting governors appointed as the result of the death, resignation or prolonged absence of the sitting viceroy, or for any other reason:

  1. Chief Justice Lyman Duff between the death of Lord Tweedsmuir and the arrival of Lord Athlone (February 11 to June 21, 1940);[39]
  2. Senior Puisne Justice Patrick Kerwin during the absence of Governor General Lord Alexander and Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret (June 11 to August 2, 1951).[40]
  3. Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret between the departure of the Lord Alexander and the installation of Vincent Massey (January 28 to February 28, 1952);
  4. Chief Justice Robert Taschereau following the death of Georges Vanier to the installation of Roland Michener (March 5 to April 17, 1967);[41]
  5. Chief Justice Bora Laskin while Governor General Jules Léger was recovering from a stroke (July 2 to December 9, 1974);[42]
  6. Chief Justice Richard Wagner, from the resignation of Julie Payette to the installation of Mary Simon (January 23, 2021 to July 26, 2021).[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage (2015). A Crown of Maples: Constitutional Monarchy in Canada (PDF). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-100-20079-8.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ a b Senate of Canada. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  3. ^ La Roque de Roquebrune, R. (1979) [1966]. "La Rocque de Roberval, Jean-François de". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  4. ^ Government of Canada. "The Kings and Queens of Canada: The Crown in Canadian History > Henri III (1551–1589)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  5. ^ Wrong, George M. (2009), Langton, H. H. (ed.), The Chronicles of Canada, II: The Rise of New France, Fireship Press, pp. 33–35, ISBN 9781934757451, retrieved 18 September 2015
  6. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 35
  7. ^ Wrong 2009, p. 51
  8. ^ "The Viscount Monck". The Governor General of Canada. Office of the Secretary to the Governor General. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  9. ^ "Sir John Young, Baron Lisgar". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  10. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Dufferin". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  11. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquess of Lorne". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  12. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "The Marquess of Landsdowne, Governor General of Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  13. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Lord Stanley". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  14. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  15. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Gibert John Murray Kynynmound Elliot, 4th Earl of Minto". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  17. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  18. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  19. ^ Harris, Carolyn. "Viscount Byng of Vimy". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  20. ^ "The Marquess of Willingdon". Governor General of Canada. Office of the Governor General. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  21. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Vere Barbazon Ponsonby, 9th Earl of Bessborough". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  22. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  23. ^ {{cite web |last1=Harris |first1=Carolyn |title=Alexander Cambridge, Earl of Athlone |url=https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/alexander-cambridge-earl-of-athlone |website=The Canadian Encyclopedia
  24. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada.
  25. ^ Granatstein, J.L. "Vincent Massey". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  26. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Georges Vanier". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  27. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Roland Michener". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  28. ^ Monet, Jacques. "Jules Leger". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  29. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ed Schreyer". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  30. ^ Tremblay, Jean-Noel. "Jeanne Sauvé". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  31. ^ Hillmer, Norman. "Ray Hnatyshyn". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  32. ^ "Roméo LeBlanc". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  33. ^ "Adrienne Clarkson". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  34. ^ "Michaëlle Jean". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  35. ^ Azzi, Stephen. "David Lloyd Johnston". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Incoming Governor General Julie Payette drops attempt to seal U.S. court records". ctvnews.ca. 21 August 2017.
  37. ^ Raymond, Katrine. "Julie Payette". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  38. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor (September 22, 2017). "Former Governors General". The Governor General of Canada. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  39. ^ Gosse, Richard (1 September 1975). "The Four Courts of Sir Lyman Duff". The Canadian Bar Review. 53 (3): 511–512.
  40. ^ McKenna, Stephen (2020). Grace and Wisdom: Patrick G. Kerwin, Chief Justice of Canada. Petra Books. p. 101. ISBN 978-1927032688.
  41. ^ Gallant, Jacques. "Gov. Gen. Julie Payette has resigned. What happens now?". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  42. ^ Girard, Philip (2015). Bora Laskin: Bringing Law to Life. University of Toronto Press. p. 423. ISBN 978-1442616882.
  43. ^ Slaughter, Graham. "Canada's top judge is now acting Governor General, but expert urges speedy replacement". CTV News. Retrieved 18 February 2021.

External links[edit]