List of Governors of Florida

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Governor of Florida
Seal of Florida.svg
Rick Scott.jpg
Incumbent
Rick Scott

since January 4, 2011
Residence Florida Governor's Mansion
Term length Four years, can succeed self once
Inaugural holder William Dunn Moseley
Formation 1845
Deputy Vacant
Salary $132,932 (2009)[1]
Website www.flgov.com

The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of government in the U.S. state of Florida, and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature,[3] to convene the legislature,[4] and to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.[5]

When Florida was first acquired by the United States, future president Andrew Jackson served as its military governor. Florida Territory was established in 1822, and five people served as governor over six distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any governor to date. Since statehood in 1845 there have been 43 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Three state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints; and Reubin Askew and Jeb Bush, who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor.

The current governor is Rick Scott, who took office on January 4, 2011, following the 2010 election.

Governors[edit]

Military governor[edit]

For the a list of governors before Florida became a United States territory, see the list of colonial governors of Florida.

Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10, 1821.[6] Parts of West Florida had already been assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi; the remainder and East Florida were governed by the commander of the military force that had helped secure American influence in the region.

Picture Governor Took office Left office Appointed by Notes
Andrew Jackson.jpg Andrew Jackson March 10, 1821 December 31, 1821 James Monroe [a][b]

Governors of the Territory of Florida[edit]

Florida Territory was organized on March 30, 1822, combining East and West Florida.[11]

Picture Governor Took office Left office Appointed by
2 Duval.jpg William Pope Duval April 17, 1822 April 24, 1834 James Monroe
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
John Eaton.jpg John Eaton April 24, 1834 March 16, 1836 Andrew Jackson
Richardkeithcall.jpg Richard K. Call March 16, 1836 December 2, 1839 Andrew Jackson
Robert Raymond Reid.jpg Robert R. Reid December 2, 1839 March 19, 1841 Martin Van Buren
Richardkeithcall.jpg Richard K. Call March 19, 1841 August 11, 1844 William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
JohnBranch2.jpg John Branch August 11, 1844 June 25, 1845 John Tyler

Governors of the State of Florida[edit]

The State of Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. It seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,[12] and joined the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861,[13] as a founding member; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Third Military District.[14] Florida was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.[15]

The first Florida Constitution, ratified in 1838, provided that a governor be elected every four years, who was not allowed to serve consecutive terms.[16] The secessionist constitution of 1861 would have reduced this to two years and removed the term limit,[17] but the state fell to the Union before the first election under that constitution. The rejected constitution of 1865 and the ratified constitution of 1868 maintained the four-year term,[18][19] though without the earlier term limit, which was reintroduced in the 1885 constitution.[20] The current constitution of 1968 states that should the governor serve, or would have served had he not resigned, more than six years in two consecutive terms, he cannot be elected to the succeeding term.[21] The start of a term was set in 1885 at the first Tuesday after the first Monday in the January following the election,[20] where it has remained.[22]

Originally, the president of the state senate acted as governor should that office be vacant.[23] The 1865 and 1868 constitutions created the office of lieutenant governor,[24][25] who would similarly act as governor. This office was abolished in 1885, with the president of the senate again taking on that duty.[26] The 1968 constitution recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who now becomes governor in the absence of the governor.[27] The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[21]

Florida was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic and Whig parties. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 89 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

      Democratic (34)       Independent (1)[c]       Prohibition (1)       Provisional (1)       Republican (8)[c]       Whig (1)

#[d] Governor Picture Term start Term end Party Lt. Governor[e][f] Terms[g]
1   William Dunn Moseley 8 Moseley.jpg June 25, 1845 October 1, 1849 Democratic None 1
2 Thomas Brown Thomas Brown Florida.jpg October 1, 1849 October 3, 1853 Whig 1
3 James E. Broome Florida Governor James E. Broome.jpg October 3, 1853 October 5, 1857 Democratic 1
4 Madison S. Perry Florida Governor Madison S. Perry.jpg October 5, 1857 October 7, 1861 Democratic 1
5 John Milton John Milton Florida.jpg October 7, 1861 April 1, 1865 Democratic 12[h]
6 Abraham K. Allison Florida Governor Abraham K. Allison.jpg April 1, 1865 May 19, 1865 Democratic 12[i][j]
7 William Marvin William Marvin gv000486.jpg July 13, 1865 December 20, 1865 Provisional [k][l]
8 David S. Walker Florida Governor David S. Walker.jpg December 20, 1865 July 4, 1868 Democratic   William W. J. Kelly[m] [k][n]
9 Harrison Reed Governor Harrison Reed of Florida.jpg July 4, 1868 January 7, 1873 Republican William Henry Gleason[o] 1[p]
Edmund C. Weeks[q]
Samuel T. Day
10 Ossian B. Hart Ossian B Hart gv000469.jpg January 7, 1873 March 18, 1874 Republican Marcellus Stearns 12[r]
11 Marcellus Stearns Florida Governor Marcellus Stearns.png March 18, 1874 January 2, 1877 Republican Vacant 12[s]
12 George Franklin Drew Florida Governor George Franklin Drew.jpg January 2, 1877 January 4, 1881 Democratic Noble A. Hull[t] 1
13 William D. Bloxham William Bloxham.jpg January 4, 1881 January 7, 1885 Democratic Livingston W. Bethel 1
14 Edward A. Perry Florida Governor Edward A. Perry.jpg January 7, 1885 January 8, 1889 Democratic Milton H. Mabry 1
15 Francis P. Fleming FPFleming.jpg January 8, 1889 January 3, 1893 Democratic None 1
16 Henry L. Mitchell Henry L Mitchell.jpg January 3, 1893 January 5, 1897 Democratic 1
17 William D. Bloxham William Bloxham.jpg January 5, 1897 January 8, 1901 Democratic 1
18 William Sherman Jennings William Sherman Jennings.jpg January 8, 1901 January 3, 1905 Democratic 1
19 Napoleon B. Broward Napoleon Bonaparte Broward.jpg January 3, 1905 January 5, 1909 Democratic 1
20 Albert W. Gilchrist Florida Governor Albert W. Gilchrist.jpg January 5, 1909 January 7, 1913 Democratic 1
21 Park Trammell Park Trammell.jpg January 7, 1913 January 2, 1917 Democratic 1
22 Sidney Johnston Catts Sidney Johnston Catts.jpg January 2, 1917 January 4, 1921 Prohibition 1
23 Cary A. Hardee Cary Hardee portrait.jpg January 4, 1921 January 6, 1925 Democratic 1
24 John W. Martin Florida Governor John Martin.jpg January 6, 1925 January 8, 1929 Democratic 1
25 Doyle E. Carlton Doyle E. Carlton.jpg January 8, 1929 January 3, 1933 Democratic 1
26 David Sholtz 33 Sholtz.jpg January 3, 1933 January 5, 1937 Democratic 1
27 Fred P. Cone Florida Governor Frederick Cone.jpg January 5, 1937 January 7, 1941 Democratic 1
28 Spessard Holland Sen Spessard Holland.jpg January 7, 1941 January 2, 1945 Democratic 1
29 Millard F. Caldwell Millard F. Caldwell.jpg January 2, 1945 January 4, 1949 Democratic 1
30 Fuller Warren 37 Warren.jpg January 4, 1949 January 6, 1953 Democratic 1
31 Daniel T. McCarty Daniel T. McCarty.jpg January 6, 1953 September 28, 1953 Democratic 13[r]
32 Charley Eugene Johns Charley Eugene Johns 1963.jpg September 28, 1953 January 4, 1955 Democratic 13[u]
33 LeRoy Collins LeRoy Collins.jpg January 4, 1955 January 3, 1961 Democratic 13+1[v]
34 C. Farris Bryant C. Farris Bryant.jpg January 3, 1961 January 5, 1965 Democratic 1
35 W. Haydon Burns W Haydon Burns.jpg January 5, 1965 January 3, 1967 Democratic 1[w]
36 Claude R. Kirk, Jr. Governor Claude R Kirk.jpg January 3, 1967 January 5, 1971 Republican None 1
Ray C. Osborne
37 Reubin Askew Florida Governor Reubin Askew.jpg January 5, 1971 January 2, 1979 Democratic Thomas Burton Adams, Jr. 2
Jim Williams
38 Bob Graham Bob Graham, official Senate photo portrait, color.jpg January 2, 1979 January 3, 1987 Democratic Wayne Mixson 112[x]
39 Wayne Mixson John Wayne Mixson.jpg January 3, 1987 January 6, 1987 Democratic Vacant 12[y]
40 Bob Martinez Bobmartinez.jpg January 6, 1987 January 8, 1991 Republican Bobby Brantley 1
41 Lawton Chiles Lawton Chiles Governor portrait.jpg January 8, 1991 December 12, 1998 Democratic Buddy MacKay 112[r]
42 Buddy MacKay 49 Mackay.jpg December 12, 1998 January 5, 1999 Democratic Vacant 12[y]
43 Jeb Bush Jeb Bush by Gage Skidmore.jpg January 5, 1999 January 2, 2007 Republican Frank Brogan[z] 2
Toni Jennings
44 Charlie Crist Gov charlie crist.jpg January 2, 2007 January 4, 2011 Republican Jeff Kottkamp[m] 1[aa]
Independent
45 Rick Scott Rick Scott.jpg January 4, 2011 Incumbent Republican Jennifer Carroll[ab] 1[ac]
Carlos López-Cantera

Other high offices held[edit]

Fourteen of Florida's governors have served higher federal offices, including one President of the United States, two Cabinet secretaries, and one ambassador. One served as Governor of North Carolina, and all fourteen were elected to the U.S. Congress, though only nine represented Florida, and only seven actually took their seats. One died before taking office, and the other was refused his seat by the U.S. Senate shortly after the American Civil War, because Florida had not yet been reconstructed. One governor (marked with *) resigned to take his seat in the Senate.

Governor Gubernatorial term Other offices held Source
Andrew Jackson 1821 Representative and Senator from Tennessee, President of the United States [40]
William Pope Duval 1822–1834 Representative from Kentucky [41]
John Eaton 1834–1836 Senator from Tennessee, Minister to Spain, Secretary of War [42]
Richard K. Call 1836–1839, 1841–1844 Territorial Delegate from Florida Territory [43]
Robert R. Reid 1839–1841 Representative from Florida, Representative from Georgia [44]
John Branch 1844–1845 Representative and Senator from North Carolina, Governor of North Carolina, Secretary of the Navy [45]
William Marvin 1865 Elected to the Senate from Florida but was refused seat [46]
Napoleon B. Broward 1905–1909 Elected to the Senate from Florida but died before taking office [47]
Park Trammell 1913–1917 Senator from Florida [48]
Spessard Holland 1941–1945 Senator from Florida [49]
Millard F. Caldwell 1945–1949 Representative from Florida [50]
Bob Graham 1979–1987 Senator from Florida* [51]
Lawton Chiles 1991–1998 Senator from Florida [52]
Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 Representative from Florida [53]

Living former governors[edit]

As of March 2014, Six former governors are alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Reubin Askew (1971–1979), on March 13, 2014.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Bob Graham 1979–1987 (1936-11-09) November 9, 1936 (age 77)
Wayne Mixson 1987 (1922-06-16) June 16, 1922 (age 91)
Bob Martinez 1987–1991 (1934-12-25) December 25, 1934 (age 79)
Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 (1933-03-22) March 22, 1933 (age 81)
Jeb Bush 1999–2007 (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 61)
Charlie Crist 2007–2011 (1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 57)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jackson's official titles were "Commissioner of the United States" and "Governor of East and West Florida".[7]
  2. ^ Jackson left Florida on October 8, 1821.[8] His resignation was submitted on November 13, 1821,[9] and the president accepted it on December 31, 1821.[10]
  3. ^ a b Includes one partial term served by a governor who represented another party during the same term.
  4. ^ The official numbering includes repeat terms, as well as the provisional governor.
  5. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1868, abolished in 1885, and recreated in 1968.
  6. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  7. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  8. ^ Died in office; Milton committed suicide due to the pending defeat of the Confederate States of America, stating in his final address to the legislature that "death would be preferable to reunion."[28]
  9. ^ As president of state senate, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  10. ^ Resigned to go into hiding from approaching Union troops, and was captured by them on June 19, 1865.[29] Following his resignation, Florida was without governance until a federal governor was appointed.
  11. ^ a b Appointed by President Andrew Johnson following the American Civil War.
  12. ^ The first governor elected under the 1861 constitution would have been elected in October 1865; however, due to the occupation of the state and drafting of a new constitution, no governor was elected under that constitution.
  13. ^ a b Represented the Republican Party.
  14. ^ Most sources state Walker was a Democrat; the state archives say he was "Conservative".[30]
  15. ^ During an attempted impeachment of Harrison Reed, Gleason proclaimed himself governor. The Supreme Court eventually sided with Reed, and Gleason was removed from office.[31]
  16. ^ Reed was popularly elected under the terms of the 1868 constitution, and took the oath of office on June 8, 1868; it was not until July 4, 1868, however, that the federal commander of Florida, still under Reconstruction, recognized the validity of the state constitution and the election.[32]
  17. ^ Appointed as temporary lieutenant governor to replace William Henry Gleason. However, the state comptroller did not believe the governor could appoint a replacement to an elected office and refused to pay Weeks, and the Senate refused to accept his presidency over them, even proposing a motion to arrest him. Governor Reed called for a special election to replace him, and though Weeks fought it, the Florida Supreme Court declared his term to have ended when the new election results were certified.[33]
  18. ^ a b c Died in office.
  19. ^ As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term.
  20. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States House of Representatives; however, his election was successfully contested by Horatio Bisbee, Jr.[34]
  21. ^ As president of the state senate, acted as governor until a special election.
  22. ^ Elected in a special election to fill the remainder of Daniel McCarty's term, and subsequently elected in his own right.[35]
  23. ^ Burns' term was only two years as gubernatorial elections were moved so that they would not coincide with presidential elections.[36]
  24. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  25. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  26. ^ Resigned to become president of Florida Atlantic University.[37]
  27. ^ Crist was elected as a member of the Republican Party, and switched to independent in April 2010.[38]
  28. ^ Resigned amid a racketeering probe.[39]
  29. ^ Governor Scott's first term expires on January 6, 2015; he is not yet term limited.

References[edit]

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ "State Government Compensation by Branch" (PDF). The Council of State Governments. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  2. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 1a
  3. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 8
  4. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 3c
  5. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 8
  6. ^ "Adams-Onís Treaty". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Andrew Jackson". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved July 6, 2010. [dead link][dead link]
  8. ^ Morris, Allen; Joan Perry Morris (1999). The Florida Handbook, 1999–2000. Peninsular Books. ISBN 978-0-9616000-7-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  9. ^ Harold D. Moser, David R. Hoth, George H. Hoemann, ed. (1996). The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824. University of Tennessee Press. p. 513. ISBN 0-87049-897-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  10. ^ Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed. (1902). The Writings of James Monroe. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 207. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  11. ^ Peters, Virginia Bergman (1979). The Florida Wars. Hamden: The Shoestring Press. pp. 63–74. ISBN 0-208-01719-4. 
  12. ^ "Florida and the Civil War" A Short History". Florida Memory. State Library & Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010. 
  13. ^ "February 1861–1865". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  14. ^ Cox, Merlin (January 1968). "Military Reconstruction in Florida". Florida Historical Quarterly 46 (3): 219. 
  15. ^ "June in Florida History". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  16. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 2
  17. ^ 1861 Const. art. III, § 2
  18. ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 2
  19. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 2
  20. ^ a b 1885 Const. art. IV, § 2
  21. ^ a b FL Const. art. IV, § 5
  22. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 2
  23. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 18
  24. ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 19
  25. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 15
  26. ^ 1885 Const. art. IV, § 19
  27. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 3
  28. ^ "Florida Governor John Milton". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Florida Governor Abraham Kurkindolle Allison". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  30. ^ "David Shelby Walker". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved July 6, 2010. [dead link][dead link]
  31. ^ Davis, William Watson (1913). The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida, Volume 53. Columbia University. pp. 550–555. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  32. ^ "Florida Governors' Portraits – Harrison Reed". Museum of Florida History. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  33. ^ Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of Florida XIII. State of Florida. 1871. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Hull, Noble Andrew". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved July 6, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Florida Governor Thomas Leroy Collins". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Florida Governor Haydon Burns". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Jeb's Boy". Broward-Palm Beach New Times (Ft. Lauderdale). Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Can Crist Win in Florida as an Independent?". Time. May 3, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  39. ^ Rachel Weiner (March 13, 2013). "Florida Lt. Gov. resigns amid racketeering probe". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 16, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Jackson, Andrew". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Duval, William Pope". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Eaton, John Henry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  43. ^ "Call, Richard Keith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Reid, Robert Raymond". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Branch, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Florida Governor William Marvin". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Florida Governor Napoleon Bonaparte Broward". National Governors Association. Archived from the original on April 2, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Trammell, Park". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Holland, Spessard Lindsey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Caldwell, Millard Fillmore". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Graham, Daniel Robert (Bob)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Chiles, Lawton Mainor, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010. 
  53. ^ "MacKay, Kenneth Hood, Jr. (Buddy)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 3, 2010.