List of governors of Georgia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The governor of Georgia is the head of government of Georgia and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The current officeholder is Republican Brian Kemp, who assumed office on January 14, 2019.

There have officially been 77 governors of the State of Georgia, including 11 who served more than one distinct term (John Houstoun, George Walton, Edward Telfair, George Mathews, Jared Irwin, David Brydie Mitchell, George Rockingham Gilmer, M. Hoke Smith, Joseph Mackey Brown, John M. Slaton and Eugene Talmadge, with Herman Talmadge serving two de facto distinct terms).

The longest-serving governors are George Busbee, Joe Frank Harris, Zell Miller, Sonny Perdue and Nathan Deal, each of whom served two full four-year terms; Joseph E. Brown, governor during the Civil War, was elected four times, serving seven and a half years. The shortest term of the post-revolutionary period is that of Matthew Talbot, who served 13 days after succeeding his predecessor who died in office. Eugene Talmadge died in December 1946 before taking office in his second distinct term, leading to a dispute in which three people claimed the office.

Governors[edit]

Georgia was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and was admitted as a state on January 2, 1788.[1] Before it declared its independence, Georgia was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The Rules and Regulations of the Colony, drafted in 1776, provided for a president to serve a term of 6 months.[2] A formal constitution was drafted in 1777, providing for a governor to serve a term of one year, but no more than one year out of every three.[3] The term was lengthened to two years in 1789, but with no term limit.[4] The 1865 constitution required governors to take four years off after serving two terms,[5] but that was quickly changed in the 1868 constitution, which allowed for four-year terms with no limits.[6] The term length was returned to the two-year term and limit of the 1865 constitution in 1877.[7]

The 1945 constitution changed the length of terms to four years, with governors required to take four years off before running again, and it created the office of lieutenant governor, who would exercise the powers of the governor should the office become vacant.[8] This was changed in 1983 so that the lieutenant governor fully becomes governor in that circumstance.[9] Before the creation of the office of lieutenant governor, the president of the senate (or, before 1789, the president of the executive council[10]) would exercise the powers of governor.[11] The 1983 constitution also allows governors to succeed themselves once, before having to wait four years to run again.[9]

Governors of the State of Georgia[a]
No.[b] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[c][d]
7 Archibald Bulloch 1.jpg   Archibald Bulloch
(1730–1777)
January 22, 1776

February 22, 1777
(died in office)
None [e] Office did not exist
8 Button Gwinnett.jpg Button Gwinnett
(1735–1777)
March 4, 1777

May 8, 1777
(lost election)
None [f]
9 John Adam Treutlen.jpg John A. Treutlen
(1734–1782)
May 8, 1777

January 10, 1778
(left office)[g]
None
10 Portrait of John Houstoun.png John Houstoun
(1744–1796)
(fled from capture)[h] None
Vacant
Chairman of the Executive Council (Governor)
John Houstoun January 10, 1778 – January 7, 1779
William Glascock January 7, 1779 – July 24, 1779
Seth John Cuthbert July 24, 1779 – August 6, 1779
December 29, 1778

August 6, 1779
Government in
chaos after fall
of Savannah
[i]
11 John Wereat.jpg John Wereat
(d. 1799)
August 6, 1779

November 1779[i]
(left office)[g]
None
12 George Walton (ca 1749-1804).jpg George Walton
(d. 1804)
November 1779[i]

January 4, 1780
(left office)[g]
None
13 Richard Howly
(1740–1784)
January 4, 1780

February 5, 1780
(resigned)[j]
None
George Wells
(d. 1780)
February 6, 1780

February 16, 1780
(died in office)[k]
None
14 Stephen Heard.jpg Stephen Heard
(1740–1815)
February 18, 1780[l]

August 18, 1781
(left office)[g]
None
Myrick Davies
(d. 1781)
August 1780

August 16, 1781
(died in office)
None [m]
15 Nathan Brownson
(1742–1796)
August 18, 1781

January 3, 1782
(term limited)
None 1781
16 John Martin
(d. 1786)
January 3, 1782

January 8, 1783
(term limited)
None 1782
17 Lyman Hall.jpg Lyman Hall
(1724–1790)
January 8, 1783

January 9, 1784
(term limited)
None 1783
10 Portrait of John Houstoun.png John Houstoun
(1744–1796)
January 9, 1784

January 6, 1785
(term limited)
None 1784
18 SamuelElbert01.jpg Samuel Elbert
(1740–1788)
January 6, 1785

January 9, 1786
(term limited)
None 1785
19 Edward-telfair-politicians-photo-u1.jpg Edward Telfair
(1735–1807)
January 9, 1786

January 9, 1787
(term limited)
None 1786
20 Gen. George Mathews profile.png George Mathews
(1739–1812)
January 9, 1787

January 26, 1788
(term limited)
None 1787
21 George Handley
(1752–1793)
January 26, 1788

January 7, 1789
(term limited)
None 1788[n]
12 George Walton.jpg George Walton
(d. 1804)
January 7, 1789

November 9, 1789
(term limited)
Democratic-
Republican
Jan. 1789
19 Edward-telfair-politicians-photo-u1.jpg Edward Telfair
(1735–1807)
November 9, 1789

November 7, 1793
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
Nov. 1789[o]
1791
20 Gen. George Mathews profile.png George Mathews
(1739–1812)
November 7, 1793

January 15, 1796
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1793
22 Jared Irwin.jpg Jared Irwin
(1750–1818)
January 15, 1796

January 12, 1798
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1795
23 JamesJackson.jpg James Jackson
(1757–1806)
January 12, 1798

March 3, 1801
(resigned)[p]
Democratic-
Republican
1797
1799
24 David Emanuel
(1744–1808)
March 3, 1801

November 7, 1801
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
president of
the Senate
25 Josiah Tattnall
(d. 1803)
November 7, 1801

November 4, 1802
(resigned)[q]
Democratic-
Republican
1801
26 Milledge.jpg John Milledge
(1757–1818)
November 4, 1802

September 23, 1806
(resigned)[r]
Democratic-
Republican
1802
(special)[s]
1803
1805
22 Jared Irwin.jpg Jared Irwin
(1750–1818)
September 23, 1806

November 10, 1809
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
president of
the Senate
1807
27 Davidbrydiemitchell.jpg David Brydie Mitchell
(1766–1837)
November 10, 1809

November 5, 1813
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1809
1811
28 GovernorPeterEarly.jpg Peter Early
(1773–1817)
November 5, 1813

November 20, 1815
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
1813
27 Davidbrydiemitchell.jpg David Brydie Mitchell
(1766–1837)
November 20, 1815

March 4, 1817
(resigned)[t]
Democratic-
Republican
1815
29 William Rabun
(1771–1819)
March 4, 1817

October 24, 1819
(died in office)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
president of
the Senate
1817
30 Matthew Talbot.jpg Matthew Talbot
(1767–1827)
October 24, 1819

November 5, 1819
(successor took office)
Democratic-
Republican
Succeeded from
president of
the Senate
31 John Clark.jpg John Clark
(1766–1832)
November 5, 1819

November 7, 1823
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1819
1821
32 George M. Troup.jpg George Troup
(1780–1856)
November 7, 1823

November 7, 1827
(not candidate for election)
Democratic-
Republican
1823
1825
33 John Forsyth US Secretary of State.jpg John Forsyth
(1780–1841)
November 7, 1827

November 4, 1829
(not candidate for election)[u]
Democratic-
Republican
1827
34 George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg George Rockingham Gilmer
(1790–1859)
November 4, 1829

November 9, 1831
(lost election)
Democratic-
Republican
1829
35 Wilson Lumpkin.jpg Wilson Lumpkin
(1783–1870)
November 9, 1831

November 4, 1835
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1831
1833
36 William Schley.jpg William Schley
(1786–1858)
November 4, 1835

November 8, 1837
(lost election)
Union (Democratic) 1835
34 George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg George Rockingham Gilmer
(1790–1859)
November 8, 1837

November 6, 1839
(not candidate for election)
State Rights (Whig) 1837
37 CharlesJamesMcDonald.jpg Charles James McDonald
(1793–1860)
November 6, 1839

November 8, 1843
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1839
1841
38 GeorgeWCrawford.jpg George W. Crawford
(1798–1872)
November 8, 1843

November 3, 1847
(not candidate for election)
Whig 1843
1845
39 GeorgeWashTowns.jpg George W. Towns
(1801–1854)
November 3, 1847

November 5, 1851
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1847
1849
40 Howell Cobb-crop.jpg Howell Cobb
(1815–1868)
November 5, 1851

November 9, 1853
(not candidate for election)
Constitutional Union 1851
41 Herschel V. Johnson cph.3a02862.jpg Herschel Vespasian Johnson
(1812–1880)
November 9, 1853

November 6, 1857
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1853
1855
42 Joseph Emerson Brown.jpg Joseph E. Brown
(1821–1894)
November 6, 1857

June 17, 1865[v]
(resigned)[w]
Democratic 1857
1859
1861
1863
43 JJohnson Governor.jpg James Johnson
(1811–1891)
June 17, 1865

December 14, 1865[x]
(provisional term ended)
Democratic Provisional
governor
appointed by
President
[y]
44 CharJenkins.jpg Charles J. Jenkins
(1805–1883)
December 14, 1865

January 13, 1868
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1865[z]
45 Thomas H. Ruger.jpg Thomas H. Ruger
(1833–1907)
January 13, 1868

July 4, 1868
(state readmitted)
Military
occupation[aa]
46 Rufus Bullock - Brady-Handy.jpg Rufus Bullock
(1834–1907)
July 4, 1868[ab]

October 30, 1871[ac]
(resigned)[ad]
Republican 1868[ae]
47 Benjamin Conley.jpg Benjamin F. Conley
(1815–1886)
October 30, 1871

January 12, 1872
(not candidate for election)
Republican President of
the Senate
acting as
governor
48 JamesMiltonSmith.jpg James Milton Smith
(1823–1890)
January 12, 1872

January 12, 1877
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1871
(special)[af]
1872
49 Alfred Holt Colquitt.jpg Alfred H. Colquitt
(1824–1894)
January 12, 1877

November 4, 1882
(not candidate for election)[ag]
Democratic 1876
1880[ah]
50 Alexander Stephens.jpg Alexander H. Stephens
(1812–1883)
November 4, 1882

March 4, 1883
(died in office)
Democratic 1882
51 James S. Boynton.jpg James S. Boynton
(1833–1902)
March 4, 1883

May 10, 1883
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
governor
52 HenryDickersonMcDaniel.jpg Henry Dickerson McDaniel
(1836–1926)
May 10, 1883

November 9, 1886
(not candidate for election)[ai]
Democratic 1883
(special)[aj]
1884
53 Jbgordon.jpg John B. Gordon
(1832–1904)
November 9, 1886

November 8, 1890
(term limited)
Democratic 1886
1888
54 William J. Northen.jpg William J. Northen
(1835–1913)
November 8, 1890

October 27, 1894
(term limited)
Democratic 1890
1892
55 William Yates Atkinson.jpg William Yates Atkinson
(1854–1899)
October 27, 1894

October 29, 1898
(term limited)
Democratic 1894
1896
56 Allen D. Candler.jpg Allen D. Candler
(1834–1910)
October 29, 1898

October 25, 1902
(term limited)
Democratic 1898
1900
57 JosephMTerrell.jpg Joseph M. Terrell
(1861–1912)
October 25, 1902

June 29, 1907
(term limited)
Democratic 1902
1904[ak]
58 M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg M. Hoke Smith
(1855–1931)
June 29, 1907

June 26, 1909
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1906
59 JosephMacBrown (cropped).jpg Joseph Mackey Brown
(1851–1932)
June 26, 1909

July 1, 1911
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1908
58 M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg M. Hoke Smith
(1855–1931)
July 1, 1911

November 15, 1911[al]
(resigned)[am]
Democratic 1910
60 John Marshall Slaton.jpg John M. Slaton
(1866–1955)
November 16, 1911

January 25, 1912
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
governor
59 JosephMacBrown (cropped).jpg Joseph Mackey Brown
(1851–1932)
January 25, 1912

June 28, 1913
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
(special)[an]
60 John Marshall Slaton.jpg John M. Slaton
(1866–1955)
June 28, 1913

June 26, 1915
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
61 Nathaniel Harris 1882.png Nathaniel Edwin Harris
(1846–1929)
June 26, 1915

June 30, 1917
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1914
62 Hugh Dorsey.jpg Hugh Dorsey
(1871–1948)
June 30, 1917

June 25, 1921
(term limited)
Democratic 1916
1918
63 Senator Thomas Hardwick.jpg Thomas W. Hardwick
(1872–1944)
June 25, 1921

June 30, 1923
(not candidate for election)[ao]
Democratic 1920
64 GovernorCliffWalker.jpg Clifford Walker
(1877–1954)
June 30, 1923

June 25, 1927
(term limited)
Democratic 1922
1924
65 Hardman222.jpg Lamartine Griffin Hardman
(1856–1937)
June 25, 1927

June 27, 1931
(term limited)
Democratic 1926
1928
66 Richard Russell Jr. (GA).png Richard Russell Jr.
(1897–1971)
June 27, 1931

January 10, 1933
(not candidate for election)[ap]
Democratic 1930[aq]
67 Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge
(1884–1946)
January 10, 1933

January 12, 1937
(term limited)
Democratic 1932
1934
68 E. D. Rivers Georgia Governor.jpg Eurith D. Rivers
(1895–1967)
January 12, 1937

January 14, 1941
(term limited)
Democratic 1936
1938
67 Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge
(1884–1946)
January 14, 1941

January 12, 1943
(not candidate for election)[ar]
Democratic 1940
69 Ellis Arnall
(1907–1992)
January 12, 1943

January 14, 1947
(term limited)
Democratic 1942[as]
Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg Eugene Talmadge
(1884–1946)
Died before
taking office
Democratic 1946[at]   Melvin E. Thompson
Herman Talmadge (GA).jpg Herman Talmadge
(1913–2002)
January 14, 1947

March 18, 1947
(removed from office)
Democratic
70 Melvin Thompson.jpg Melvin E. Thompson
(1903–1980)
March 18, 1947

November 17, 1948
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
71 Herman Talmadge (GA).jpg Herman Talmadge
(1913–2002)
November 17, 1948

January 11, 1955
(term limited)
Democratic 1948
(special)[au]
Marvin Griffin
1950
72 Marvingriffin (cropped).gif Marvin Griffin
(1907–1982)
January 11, 1955

January 13, 1959
(term limited)
Democratic 1954 Ernest Vandiver
73 Ernest Vandiver (1962).jpg Ernest Vandiver
(1918–2005)
January 13, 1959

January 15, 1963
(term limited)
Democratic 1958 Garland T. Byrd
74 Carl Sanders.jpg Carl Sanders
(1925–2014)
January 15, 1963

January 11, 1967
(term limited)
Democratic 1962 Peter Zack Geer
75 Lester Maddox.jpg Lester Maddox
(1915–2003)
January 11, 1967

January 12, 1971
(term limited)
Democratic 1966 George T. Smith
76 Jimmy Carter official portrait as Governor.jpg Jimmy Carter
(b. 1924)
January 12, 1971

January 14, 1975
(term limited)
Democratic 1970 Lester Maddox
77 George Busbee.jpg George Busbee
(1927–2004)
January 14, 1975

January 11, 1983
(term limited)
Democratic 1974 Zell Miller
1978
78 Joe Frank Harris.jpg Joe Frank Harris
(b. 1936)
January 11, 1983

January 14, 1991
(term limited)
Democratic 1982
1986
79 Zell B Miller (cropped).jpg Zell Miller
(1932–2018)
January 14, 1991

January 11, 1999
(term limited)
Democratic 1990 Pierre Howard
1994
80 Roy Barnes concession speech (cropped).jpg Roy Barnes
(b. 1948)
January 11, 1999

January 13, 2003
(lost election)
Democratic 1998 Mark Taylor[av]
81 Sonny Perdue at rally.jpg Sonny Perdue
(b. 1946)
January 13, 2003

January 10, 2011
(term limited)
Republican 2002
2006 Casey Cagle
82 Nathan Deal, April 25, 2017 (cropped).jpg Nathan Deal
(b. 1942)
January 10, 2011

January 14, 2019
(term limited)
Republican 2010
2014
83 David Perdue and Brian Kemp (cropped).jpg Brian Kemp
(b. 1963)
January 14, 2019

Incumbent[aw]
Republican 2018 Geoff Duncan
2022 Burt Jones

Succession[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Data is sourced from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia,[12] unless supplemental references are required.
  2. ^ The state says Brian Kemp is the 83rd governor; this number is derived from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia, last published by the Office of Secretary of State in 1978. It continues the numbering from the colonial governors and omits repeat governors, thus marking Archibald Bulloch as 7th and George Busbee as 77th.[12]
  3. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was created in 1945, first being filled in 1947.
  4. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  5. ^ The revolutionary government did not necessarily follow any schedule or term lengths, so the election year is omitted until 1781, when it becomes easier to determine.
  6. ^ As speaker of the provincial Congress, Gwinnett was elected by the Council of Safety to succeed Bulloch.[13]
  7. ^ a b c d No sources specify if the governor stood for election to the following term.
  8. ^ a b The date given is the capture of Savannah, where the New Georgia Encyclopedia says his last official act as governor was to flee.[14]
  9. ^ a b c The capture of Savannah threw the government into disarray and exile, and records are scarce as to dates and leadership. William Glascock (elected January 21, 1779)[15] and Seth John Cuthbert (elected July 24, 1779), while often included in lists of governors, are omitted from the official state register, likely because of this reason. A school pamphlet from 1977 notes, "This confusing situation resulted in a number of radical Whigs, mainly from Wilkes County, organizing a second government with George Walton as governor and Glascock as speaker of the assembly. ... As a result of this makeshift election, there were two Whig governments plus the restored loyalist government."[16]
  10. ^ Howly resigned to be a delegate to the Continental Congress.[17]
  11. ^ George Wells succeeded Howly, but was killed in a duel on February 16, 1780; he is omitted from nearly every list of governors, including the official register.[18]
  12. ^ Though this is two days after his predecessor died, the official register says Heard took office on February 18, 1870.[12] Other sources, including the New Georgia Encyclopedia, say he did not take office until May 24.[19]
  13. ^ Some sources say Myrick Davies was elected in August 1780 and served until his death;[19] however, he is omitted from the official state register.
  14. ^ James Jackson was elected in 1788, but declined the position, citing inexperience.[20]
  15. ^ First term under the 1789 constitution, which lengthened terms to two years.[21]
  16. ^ Jackson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[20]
  17. ^ Tattnall resigned due to declining health.[22]
  18. ^ Milledge resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[23]
  19. ^ Special election for the remainder of Josiah Tattnall's term[24]
  20. ^ Mitchell resigned to be agent to the Creek Indians.[25]
  21. ^ Forsyth instead took an elected seat in the United States Senate.[26]
  22. ^ One source states Brown left office on June 25, which could make sense as it would take several days for news of Johnson's appointment to reach Georgia. However, this source has not been corroborated.[27]
  23. ^ Brown resigned following the defeat of the Confederate States of America.[28]
  24. ^ At least one source states Johnson left office "five days after" Jenkins took office, which would be December 19.[29] However, more contemporary sources say he left office on December 14.[30]
  25. ^ Johnson was appointed provisional governor by the Union occupation.[29]
  26. ^ Jenkins was removed from office by the military because he refused to allow state funds to be used for a racially integrated state constitutional convention; the state was still under military occupation during Reconstruction.[31]
  27. ^ Provisional governor appointed by General George Meade[32]
  28. ^ Some sources state Bullock took office on July 21, but more contemporary sources say July 4.[30]
  29. ^ Some sources state Bullock resigned on October 23, but that is when he secretly submitted his resignation; it did not take effect until October 30.[33]
  30. ^ Bullock resigned and fled the state to avoid impeachment; he was arrested in 1876 and found not guilty of embezzlement.[33]
  31. ^ First term under the 1868 constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.[34]
  32. ^ Special election for the remainder of Rufus Bullock's term[35]
  33. ^ Colquitt instead successfully ran for United States Senate.[36]
  34. ^ First term under the 1877 constitution, which shortened terms to two years.[37]
  35. ^ McDaniel's first term was shortened, so it is not known if he can be considered term limited.
  36. ^ Special election for the remainder of Alexander Stephens' term[38]
  37. ^ The start of a gubernatorial term has always been set by the legislature, rather than the constitution; it appears the start of this term changed from the last Saturday in October to the last Saturday in June, lengthening it by eight months.
  38. ^ Sources are split on whether Smith resigned on November 15 or November 16, with contemporary sources leaning towards November 15.[39]
  39. ^ Smith resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[40]
  40. ^ Special election for the remainder of Hoke Smith's term[41]
  41. ^ Hardwick lost the Democratic nomination to Clifford Walker, and instead unsuccessfully ran for United States Senate.
  42. ^ Russell instead successfully ran for United States Senate.[42]
  43. ^ The start of the term changed from the last Saturday in June to the second Tuesday in January, shortening this term by five months.[42]
  44. ^ Talmadge lost the Democratic nomination to Ellis Arnall.
  45. ^ First term under the 1941 amendment to the constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.[43]
  46. ^ Eugene Talmadge was elected to a third term in 1946, but died before taking office. Ellis Arnall, governor at the time, claimed the office, as did Lieutenant Governor Melvin Thompson. The state legislature chose Eugene Talmadge's son, Herman Talmadge, to be governor, but during what came to be called the "Three governors controversy", the state supreme court declared this unconstitutional and declared Thompson rightful governor, and Talmadge stepped down after 67 days. Talmadge later defeated Thompson in a special election.[44]
  47. ^ Special election to fill Eugene Talmadge's term[44]
  48. ^ Represented the Democratic Party
  49. ^ Kemp's second term began on January 9, 2023, and will expire January 11, 2027; he will be term-limited

References[edit]

General[edit]

  • "Former Georgia Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  • "The New Georgia Encyclopedia". Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  • A History of Georgia, second ed. Kenneth Coleman, general editor. University of Georgia Press: 1991.
  • Candler, Allen Daniel (1908). The Revolutionary Records of the State of Georgia Volume 1. ISBN 9780404073008. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. I. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466015. Retrieved July 10, 2019.

Constitutions[edit]

Specific[edit]

  1. ^ "Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Georgia; January 2, 1788". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Archived from the original on December 20, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  2. ^ 1776 Const. art. I
  3. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIII
  4. ^ 1789 Const. art. II, § 1
  5. ^ 1865 Const. art III, § 1
  6. ^ 1868 Const. art. IV, § 1
  7. ^ 1877 Const. art V, § 1
  8. ^ 1945 Const. art. V, § 1
  9. ^ a b GA Const. art. V, § 1
  10. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIX
  11. ^ 1789 Const. art. II, § 4
  12. ^ a b c "Georgia Official and Statistical Register, 1977-1978 - page 1145". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  13. ^ "Button Gwinnett". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  14. ^ "John Houstoun". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  15. ^ Autobiography of a Colony: The First Half-Century of Augusta, Georgia. University of Georgia Press. 2009. p. 127. ISBN 9780820334424. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  16. ^ "Political Changes in Georgia 1775-1787" (PDF). Georgia Department of Education. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  17. ^ "Richard Howley". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  18. ^ Cashin, Edward J. (1974). "'The Famous Colonel Wells': Factionalism in Revolutionary Georgia". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 58 (Supplement): 137–156. JSTOR 40579633.
  19. ^ a b "Stephen Heard". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  20. ^ a b "James Jackson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  21. ^ 1789 Const. art. 2, § 1
  22. ^ "Josiah Tattnall". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  23. ^ "John Milledge". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  24. ^ "Georgia 1802 Governor, Special". Tufts University. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  25. ^ "David Brydie Mitchell". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  26. ^ "John Forsyth". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  27. ^ Otto, John Henry (2004). Memoirs of a Dutch Mudsill. Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873387996.
  28. ^ "Joseph Emerson Brown". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  29. ^ a b "James Johnson". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  30. ^ a b McPherson, John Hanson Thomas (1896). The Government of the People of the State of Georgia. pp. 184–186. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  31. ^ "Charles Jones Jenkins (1805-1883)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  32. ^ "Thomas Ruger (1833-1907)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "This Day in Georgia History - October 23, 1871: Rufus Bullock Resigned". Georgia Library Learning Online. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  34. ^ 1868 Const. art. IV, § 1
  35. ^ "James Milton Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  36. ^ "Alfred Holt Colquitt". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 16, 2023.
  37. ^ 1877 Const. art. 5, § 1 par. 2
  38. ^ "Henry Dickerson McDaniel". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  39. ^ Congress, United States (1919). Official Congressional Directory. p. 17. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  40. ^ "Hoke Smith". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  41. ^ "Joseph Mackey Brown". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  42. ^ a b "Richard Brevard Russell". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  43. ^ "Georgia's Official Register, 1939-1941-1943" (PDF). Georgia Department of Archives and History. p. 6. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  44. ^ a b "Three Governors Controversy". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 21, 2019.